1 Enhr Cnference July, Tuluse Integrated Territrial Planning in Chile - Extraplated experiences apprach frm specific Public Services in the O Higgins Regin faced with the plitical administrative divisin Carls Muñz Parra and Matías Dzieknski Rüchardt Academics frm the Schl f Architecture, University f Santiag, Chile Universidad de Las Américas Abstract The Chilean administratin has incrprated the territrial planning prcess nly fr prgram implementatin develpment and nt as a rule. The idea t verify the effectiveness f the apprach f bttm-up planning, values the participatin f stakehlders in the territries, bth private and public, and we make a lk t Clchagua valley with whse cmmitment achieve a sustainable system still lacks a plicy framewrk and nly frm sectred interventins territrial perspective. Infrmatin frm the years 2001 and 2006 f the O'Higgins Regin lets us see fr the cnsistency and/r incnsistency f plitical-administrative divisin f the territry. This becmes mre cmplex with the incrpratin f electral districts under the law f 1980 and a vital influence in the prcesses f management and financing f investments in the territries invlved. With this experience we lk fr a scre f relevant issues t be cnsidered fr a pssible instrument f Sustainable Land Management. Keywrds: public administratin, planning, integrated land management, O Higgins regin, sustainable land management. Intrductin In late 1996, a grup f 6 wine makers frm Clchagua Valley - with the supprt f the Ecnmic Develpment Crpratin (CORFO) and by an Assciative Develpment Prject (PROFO) - create a stck trading cmpany named f "Clchagua Wine Rute. Thus, the valley becmes a turist destinatin, in additin t being a prducer f quality wines. With this develpment, CORFO, frm a strategic perspective define pririties and insert prjects and interrelated activities, decided t take a step further in supprting the wine makers in the valley, seeking t strengthen the varius supprt prgrams - which had already been applied t small and medium enterprises thrugh its integratin int reginal prgrams. This integrated system f the Territry f Clchagua - which has invlved develping the wine industry and assciated turism in harmny with the ecnmic, scial, cultural and envirnmental cncerns in the Clchagua Valley - has been based n the active participatin f lcal cmmunity and active public-private partnership in many areas. It made the Wine Enthusiast
2 Mixité : an urban and husing issue? 2 magazine in the United States - which is seen by the finest wine prducers f the wrld and that each year recgnizes a particular valley as the best in the wrld fr all its integrated features in the enhancement f wine prduced - the May 9, 2005 nminate the Clchagua Valley as Wine Star Regin f the Year, which deserves that the wrk already dne, shuld be systematized and ensure the valley t have it as a relevant reference rdered as prductive landscape cnsistently (Muñz, 2009: 29). We have then that urbanizatin and suburbanizatin f land cnstitutes a frm f human interventin in the territrial cntext where adequate space directly, gradually and based n visins f plitical, ecnmic and cultural develpment in the human desire t meet their basic daily requirements f life (t be, t have) and their relatinships with their peers, which has been regarded wrldwide as a majr cause f habitat fragmentatin and lss f bilgical diversity (McKinney, 2006). The artificial sil surface - which crrespnds t ne cnslidated city-planning r infrastructure and therefre, usually tends t irreversibility in terms f eclgical restratin has increased enrmusly and has resulted in the ccupatin f large areas f farmland, frest and natural lands. On the ther hand cunter-urbanizatin prcesses in rural areas near urban centres and the grwing demand fr secnd hmes, especially in suburban r rural areas, have increased. Thus, urban sprawl, helped by strng ecnmic interests, fr the transfrmatin f the urban mdel f vertical t hrizntal ccupatin, tday is a reality inherent in ur cities and rural areas (Gurrutxaga, Lzan 2010). In the prcess f generating a tidy habitat in a given territry, cnsider what yu want t keep and what is needed t innvate, accrding t the needs and aspiratins f a particular applicant; we can abstract it like the "cmmn gd. Therefre, the zne will be and is the result f a set f scial, cultural, envirnmental, plitical and ecnmic impact f sciety n the basis f the envirnment it inhabits, prduced and cnsumed. This dynamic is influenced by scial ratinality, it means an idea f the wrld t the interests f sciety, what we might call "Target State" (Aránguiz, 2002: 441) based n their sci-cultural, feelings f identificatin, sense f belnging, scial bnds, redemptin f their cultural values and behaviurs that legitimize the develpment prcess and the relatinship between humans and the diversity f the cmpnents f their habitat. Prblems arise when there is a cnductive line f land management, which preserves mst f all, the cmmn, the cmmn gd f its residents. Withut legislatin based n a sustainable state gal fr all functins f the territry, the results f use are unpredictable. We knw that restrictins n residential habitat in the territry can be analyzed, assuming they are the result f a variety f variables, cmplex and dynamic character, marked by the interactin f three fundamental transverse dimensins are: the territrial dimensin - the envirnment, the scial and cultural dimensin and the ecnmic plicy. And withut a balance t ensure sustainability, the predminance f ne ver anther, particularly ecnmic plicy, has been leaving in an bvius state f imbalance in the quality f life f the inhabitants f thse territries. We have cnventinal zning has been an bstacle t the bjectives f many cmmunities, as neither the high-value areas such as frests r agricultural land, which are lw density residential areas, are fught t expand ecnmic purpses nly. Traditinal planning techniques t deal with these situatins, such as the acquisitin f land in agricultural areas, are plitically sensitive, expensive and ften impractical because they reduce the develpment ptential f private investment sensitized t the cherent develpment. Given the circumstances described, what wuld happen if, fr example, given the situatin yu want t install a cal-fired pwer generatr with high undesirable effects n the cntext f sustainable land?
3 3 Wrkshp 21: Legal Aspects f Husing, Land and Planning Then, the State Shuld therefre takes steps that wuld allw make sustainability ver time. We have that s much effrt and crdinatin has develped, simply by the will f the actrs f a valley. Then have t see that we have t deal with hypthetical situatins as indicated. Territrial Plicy in Chile? The cncept f "habitat" tday cvers the space that sciety has arranged t live and carry ut the activities necessary fr all its spiritual and material requirements. It is hardly pssible tday t think that the cncept f "habitat" refers t thse areas f land where husing is lcated r human activity given the interdependence f different systems, especially if we lk at the area frm an eclgical perspective. When we speak f "habitat tday we are - indeed - the whle territry. Hwever, we need reginal planning - an instrument t harmnize the different uses f it - at least in Chile that nt exists. In practice we find that the Ministry f Husing and Urban Develpment (MINVU) - which carried ut the preparatin f their Territrial Planning Tls (IPT), which recgnizes nly human settlements be planned as segments f a reginal system -aims t slve current planning requirements f the territry, nly frm a ministerial segment, withut crdinatin with ther pairs, and nly frm the urban (Gastó, 2002, 40). On the ther hand, exists and prevails tday cnslidated and the idea that spatial planning is an integral staging - if we want sustainable - that bring tgether and articulate the envirnmental, the ecnmic and cultural prductin. This view, widely accepted in the business wrld in develped cuntries, tday in Chile des nt yet exist. An example f this is that recently faced several cases f cnflicts between ur electrical generatin needs that ur develpment demand, and demand in the future, envirnmental situatins where it intends t develp these peratins. Cases Barrancnes pwer plants and hydrelectric Castilla and HidrAysen are visible. While their apprvals have had different results, clearly the main issue is the ecnmic visin n envirnmental and sci-cultural. Nt having a system f Integrated Territrial Planning nrmative 1 it is cnfirmed when the President f the Republic - abut his decisin t change the lcatin f Barrancnes pwer plants in Punta de Chrs says: shws that ur legislatin requires envirnmental imprvement and that's why I instructed the Minister Natinal Prperty t make a territrial planning prcess, in rder t establish areas suitable fr pwer plants and areas t be prtected t be a nature sanctuary 2. But the issue is mre cmplex than simply stated, is that the cnflict between any "pwer" and "wildlife sanctuaries", is the absence in ur elite scial, ecnmic and plitical visin f sustainable develpment. It is als develping a visin f reductive type, where nly the ecnmic stresses. This cntrasts, hwever, with the experience that lives in the glbal market, which suggests that, the territries - nt just businesses - thse that cmpete in markets, this in the cntext f the s-called structural cmpetitiveness r als called systemic cmpetitiveness. This has generated a new interest 1 Integrated Habitat, august 24 th, 2010, 2 A statement t the press issued by the President f the Republic n 26 August 2010 n the ccasin f its decisin with respect t the relcatin f the thermelectric central Barrancnes. (http://www.cperativa.cl/prntus_nts/site/artic/ /pags/ html?cmentpage=18&ts_ar tic= #inici_lista)
4 Mixité : an urban and husing issue? 4 in incrprating the aspects relating t the territries in search f the grunds fr the develpment and creatin f cmpetitiveness f cuntries, highlighting the leading rle f lcal and reginal administrative structures while perating an given gegraphic area. Given this perspective, it is difficult t imagine that a mdern natin has the capacity t achieve their full develpment withut incrprating the idea f spatial planning in its natinal visin. As an example f this, we cite the case f the U.S. cuntry that has lived in the antipdes f any central planning and since June 1960 where there is the Sustainable Multiple Use Act (Gastó, 2002: 28), as a mechanism intended t make the best cmbinatin f land use and fully meet the needs f the ppulatin. Hwever, despite the grwth and develpment stage in which the cuntry finds itself, we have the cncept f multiple use sustained in the territry beynd the city limits, have been absent frm the debate. Currently prevails, where it is pssible agricultural develpment, agricultural ecnmics fcused n the exprt market. Multifunctinal is absent, and the municipalities are nt invlved in the rganizatin f space that is beynd the city limits. Hwever, despite the abve - in the cntext f simple functinality r sectr - we can see that there are sme standards in the cuntry that might be relevant sectr nrms and available fr use in a cmprehensive effrt that smene culd r wuld undertake. We detected a ttal f sixteen laws and decree-laws cvering the same number f different aspects ranging frm the regulatin f frest t the determinatin f areas f turist imprtance, t cite, by way f example nly (Muñz- Dzieknski, 2010: 127). But this, thugh it may eventually be used t "clean up" a given gegraphic area, bviusly nt enugh, we can nt pretend t develp withut a minimum f land, at least, t avid cnflicts f interest as they have been, between prducers pigs and wine cmpanies as thse develped in the Casablanca Valley sme years ag, by the use f the same territry. This questin invlves the establishment f a state-gal t be achieved in time, which implies articulating the different actrs f a territry, in this view, at least in the medium term. Fur Perspectives n the Land. Hwever, the first prblems that may arise fr a zning cnsistent with certain gals - which may arise frm the integratin f envirnmental cnsideratins prductive, scial, envirnmental, and additinally, mrphlgical and phenmenlgical - are in the recurrent discrepancy between the different views existing n the territries. We recgnize at least fur: the gegraphy f prductin, the plitical-administrative and plitical representatin. Observatins, we can recgnize that, first, nne f the fur is quite stable, and suffer all have changes ver time. But n the ther hand, we nte that there are sme that are mre stable than thers and there are als sme definitely unstable. The mre stable are mre virtual, are thse that emerge frm the plitical cnsensus that smetimes lasts beynd what is necessary and in ding s becme a hindrance. It is the related t plitical-administrative divisins f the territry and, thse relating t the cnstituencies with rdering ur representative demcratic institutins. The mst dynamic, relatively speaking, are gegraphy and ecnmic and prductive practices that are applied t it. By gegraphy understand fr purpses f this article, the mere existence f "natural territry, i.e., tpgraphy, watersheds and their different qualities f sil. We can recgnize a relative stability ver time incrprated in the rutine passage f the seasns, rainfall patterns current and the girl child included - and we knw that suffering slw but real changes ver time, whether by human actin n it is abut the effects f mere changes due t the impact f the seasns and climate. We can distinguish in it at least three areas that are natural, agricultural and urban. In Chile, the land surface f
5 5 Wrkshp 21: Legal Aspects f Husing, Land and Planning each is respectively 91%, 8% r 1% in heavy numbers. Prprtins between these changes and can be slw and prgressive changes ver time, smetimes advancing r retreating as the regin in questin. Fr prductin we think that the actin f man n the territry, mining shares and / r agricultural. These imprtant changes mdifying, and regulates, deterirating, hmgenizing, the existing natural bidiversity and landscape. Suffers permanent changes depending n which market will serve the nging business. If the dmestic market is satisfying, as was s dminant in the first half f the twentieth century thrugh the plicy f imprt substitutin, the prducts t be develped will be abut, if the external market is as prevalent nw given the plicy cmparative advantages, the prducts culd be retained but that the cnsumer certainly vary utside that are t be met. There are whle areas changing crp areas recver nce cnsidered useless, finally, we have seen ver the past 30 years, the changes brught by this dynamic. Plitical-administrative divisin understand the divisin f territry - in ur case, if yu lk high t lw - in regins, prvinces and cmmunes, all f them gverned by a reginal mayr, a gvernr and a mayr respectively, each ne f them, with different legitimacy. The first tw appinted by the central pwer and last demcratically elected. They cmplement a set f institutins, read reginal gvernments, cuncilrs, etc., with greater r lesser degrees f demcratic legitimacy and representative. The histry f the administrative system ver time, illustrates the relative imprtance f different regins in the territry, which are changing their impact and decisinmaking in the whle system. Perids where the ecnmy was hegemnies by agriculture r mining r this r that regin mre accessible and prductive, are reshaping the administrative maps and mechanisms f demcratic cnstructin f lcal representatin and its impact n the natinal level. Finally the plitical representatin f lcal cmmunities in the central structures f the natinal state thrugh peridic electins fr representatives t the legislature creates a different perspective n the territry. In ur case we have the cnstituencies and districts, which elect the senatrs and deputies respectively. Their number, the regin they represent, depends largely n the ppulatin distributin ver it. This aspect is relevant since in the cncert f the natinal plitical grups and regins will inevitably be better represented majr advantages when it cmes t the distributin f natinal resurces and als be able t assert their individual interests ver thse f anther regin r grup. The O'Higgins Regin Facts. Relatinship between the gegraphical and plitical-administrative divisin. Analyzing the case f O'Higgins Regin tday (fig 1), we see that the structure f watersheds in the regin and its administrative bundaries are slightly displaced t the suth. Indeed, estuaries Alhué and Caren, brn in the metrplitan area, are released at the Rapel reservir. On the ther hand, the reservir empties int the Rapel River, which in turn receives water frm bth the Metrplitan Regin and the Regin f Valparais.
6 Mixité : an urban and husing issue? 6 Figure 1. This issue, prbably minr in the past, begins t be any ccurrence f the cncern arising frm climate change that - at least in this area - predicted that rainfall will decrease and driest regin. The idea f saving water - the water cnsumptin r water ftprint 3 - as a new variable measuring the envirnmental impact f ur ways f prductin and life, shuld mve t a higher sensitivity and a review f ur practices and ways f managing ur territries. If we want t be cnsistent with that we shuld mve twards a clear visin f what ur behavir in the watershed and shuld nt be such as can be seen administratively targeted, because a river is the central axis f the basin, its spine and nt a limit territrial, an accident f cntinuity f displacement n the surface, as has been treated t date. In shrt, it requires a three-dimensinal visin rather than the traditinal tw-dimensinal visin. We then see a cntradictin here between tw f ur eyes land defined abve: the lk gegraphical and plitical-administrative lk at the reginal definitin. 3 Increasing demand n an increasingly scarce resurce was brn in 2002, the "water ftprint. " Arjen Hekstra, creatr f the cncept, defines it as "the vlume f water required t prduce a prduct, added during the varius stages f the prductin chain. Like carbn, here we evaluate the direct and indirect use f water. Despite having nearly five years since the idea was cnceptualized, is still in its infancy. "The use f water still remains cmpetitive and is a highly regarded standard in the wrld, "said Tny Allan, c-creatr f this measure, wh came t Chile the Water Ftprint Seminar, cnducted by the British Embassy. Ref:
7 7 Wrkshp 21: Legal Aspects f Husing, Land and Planning 3.2. Relatinship between prductin and the plitical-administrative divisin. Figure 2. Nw, if we lk at the relatinship (fig 2) between the prductin characteristics f the regin and its plitical-administrative divisin, we are ging t find again sme incnsistency in the superpsitin f bth. We can see hw the Clchagua Premium Land 4 zne is presented cvering a minrity f Cardenal Car Prvince, a majrity f the prvince f Clchagua and extends nrthward int the Cachapal prvince. On the ther hand, the Hrticultural Zne 5 cmes sliding dwn frm the metrplitan area, mving thrugh the regin als crss t the suth and acrss the tw prvinces. Finally bth have net areas and an area where they verlap, making it clear that in this case, the agricultural exprt sectr and its gegraphical rigin, d nt have a land administratin system that will be fully cnsistent. We can cnclude again that there is n verlap between the plitical and administrative structure designed fr land fr the public system (Muñz, 2010, 3) and what bjectively has develped prductively. That is, taking ur mdel f the fur sights, the lk prductive and administrative plicy are incnsistent with each ther tday. In practice, mst relevant are the cherences prductive - frm Tinguiririca River basin - which have spread thrughut the cuntry als prduces an identity with the inhabitant and the empwerment f an ecnmic, envirnmental and scial which runs habitat. It is an empirical prcess f invlvement f 4 Ecnmic develpment prject develped with lcal wine prducers by the Crpratin fr the Prmtin f Prductin f Chile CORFO in the Clchagua Valley between 2002 and Territrial area where is prduced mainly fruit and vegetables.
8 Mixité : an urban and husing issue? 8 stakehlders in the physical envirnment that welcmes and frm everyday actin, are generating mre than limits, areas f interactin. These situatins and identifies Zanzzi, wh ntes that when a natin can n lnger perate in a manner cnsistent with its territry frm the plitical-administrative divisin that hlds, it is cnvenient t make a thrugh analysis t prpse slutins 6 t Pssible causes f stagnatin in develpment, linked t invlutin and decentralizatin 7. Plitical Administrative Divisin is nt due t cntemprary patterns that will surely drag understandable given territrial administrative divisins inherited frm earlier times and nw bslete given all the changes brught abut in recent decades. In practical terms, achieving ecnmies f scale and synergies between the areas that make up the territry recgnized by the actrs and the legally established, as fr a specific prject that requires funding, fr example, the Natinal Reginal Develpment Fund, this shuld submitted simultaneusly t tw r three prvinces, segmenting prprtin t cverage area each, and thus btain financing s integral t the prject requirements. All this is exhausting, and als f great cumbersme, and the classic prcesses f negtiatin amng members f reginal cuncils - which are ultimately thse wh apprve f these actins against the presentatin f prjects - almst becme incnclusive. This is sized t hierarchies in the divisin impsed where inequities might ccur in the redistributin f wealth and natinal incme, since it is secreted by the ability t access these resurces. The sensitivity f financing with undesirable externalities arising frm the adptin f the same mechanisms, which is clsely related t grup decisins by authrities f technical rigin indirect representatin 8, as is the case f Reginal Cuncils -makers decisins f its validity r nt, as the applicability f regulatry resurces t a specific prtin f the territry. What if the territry des nt fllw traditinal patterns f administratin? And then we can imagine the prblems this generates. This inequity in the prcess f prject financing fr certain territries, may result in that in many cases, it is financing in excess f thse territries which include, fr example, less ppulated than thers, t the detriment f the peple wh are trapped in the administrative maze f the territry, generating in fact nn-integrated management f public resurces. The alleged redistributin f resurces made in the current plitical and administrative framewrks are nt linked t gegraphical and envirnmental realities- frm the tp t the cmmunity, yu can nt keep it in the lng term in a sustainable lcal develpment prcess. It is prven that these resurces management plicies are ultimately less effective than thse wh stp t determine the true needs f the actrs in a given territry, and thus the generatin f initiatives frm the bttm up territrially t higher levels f structure f public rganizatin. The cuntry's ecnmic develpment is the lgical cnsequence f sustained lcal ecnmic develpment (Ferreira, 1971: 23) Relatinship between the cnstituencies and the plitical-administrative divisin. T elect their representatives t Cngress, the territry f Chile is divided int 19 senatrial districts and 60 cnstituencies f elected members. Each senatrial district is t chse tw senatrs, and each district, tw deputies. Cnsequently, the Senate is cmpsed f 38 elected senatrs and Huse f Representatives, 120 members. Wh make up each f the branches f Cngress, bth the 120 deputies and the 38 senatrs, as well as fr the frmatin f laws with the President and versee the actins f 6 The Civil Engineers Assciatin has made a prpsal abut this tpic, t be tested in future research. 7 The public services are part f decentralized public administrative centralizatin whse pwers r jurisdictin is exercised n the regins, ff-site which is based n the executive. 8 Law , article 25.
9 9 Wrkshp 21: Legal Aspects f Husing, Land and Planning gvernment represent the peple wh elected them and reflect their varius psitins, ideas and sensibilities. It is in this institutin where demcracy exists and makes mre sense 9. The deputies districts are cmpsed f a variable number f cmmunes, but the law des nt specify the criteria fr gruping tgether in ne cnstituency. There are a ttal f 60 districts. In the case f Senatrs, each regin f Chile (Chile is cmpsed f 15 regins) becmes a district, with the exceptin f 6 regins are split int tw cnstituencies. The ttal number f districts t elect senatrs is Hwever, a much debated issue plitically is the gegraphical distributin f electral districts. The divisin f electral cnstituencies territry can be dne frm different viewpints. Cnsideratins f histrical and gegraphical criteria are certainly imprtant. The histry f electins, hwever, abunds in examples t shw hw well the divisin int cnstituencies, is the result f purely plitical reasns. Generally, the mst imprtant in understanding the factrs causing the bias in plitical representatin, is whether behind a "key perfrmance in the divisin f electral cnstituencies territry (Navia, Rjas, 2005, 8). The questin is therefre whether, in all districts the same relatinship exists between the number f electrs r inhabitants and the seats. If the effects f manipulatin f key representatin is added t the effects f different magnitudes f such divisins may ccur, then significant distrtins in plitical representatin. Hw manipulated electral gemetry is knwn by the name f gerrymandering. The cncept dates back t Mr. Gerry, wh managed t cut its cnstituency as the city f Bstn, like a salamander. The arrangement invlves intentinal gerrymandering, nt accidental, the bundaries f the cnstituencies accrding t the gegraphic dispersin f the electrate f a candidate r party, withut necessarily having t manipulate key representatin 11. We have that in the perid f military dictatrship in Chile; there were great changes in plitical and administrative divisins. Under the circumstances, the ld pre-1973 electral map was n lnger viable fr them in 1988 fr plitical interests and their influence n the time f that gvernment. Pint Navia and Rjas (2005) understandably under the circumstances, the military gvernment decided t incrprate a new map befre the parliamentary electin f In this prpsal what was sught was t amend the Cnstitutinal Act n Vting and Electins (Law 18,700, f April 19th, 1988). At the time f the creatin this law did nt include infrmatin n the number f districts, their bundaries and the size f each district
10 Mixité : an urban and husing issue? 10 Figure 3. If we prceed t review the cmpsitin f the districts resulting cmmunity, we will nt cnfrm at all t the Prvincial Divisin f the Regin, neither t the gegraphical features f it, and likewise, nt fit fr anything ecnmic cnditins and prductin in the regin. Thus we have the O'Higgins Regin, was a Senate-seat district tw senatrs and fur districts fr eight deputies (fig 3). If we see that the cuntry's budget is apprved by cngress, we will run int cnflicts f interest f parliamentarians in the prvinces that they have t perfrm, given the different settings bth in terms f cmmunity cmpsitin f their territries Returning t the relatinship between gegraphy and the plitical-administrative divisin. On the ther hand we have the cncept f gegraphical space invlved in the prductin, is ne f the mst salient features f the late twentieth century, gaining in value develpment variables that are directly linked t the territries in which they perate and that have been incrprated by the sciecnmic gegraphy, such as, scial, cultural and plitical (MIDEPLAN, 2005), and beynd the purely ecnmic field. With this, there is the very definitin f the watershed, which cmprises the territry defined by the limits f the zne f surface water runff, which cnverge twards the same runway. Similarly, a watershed, its resurces and its peple, have certain physical, bilgical, ecnmic, scial and cultural rights, make them quite cmmn (fig 4).
11 11 Wrkshp 21: Legal Aspects f Husing, Land and Planning Figure 4. Therefre, the basin, either independently r intercnnected with thers, is recgnized as the apprpriate territrial unit fr integrated management f water resurces (Ministeri de Obras Públicas, 2003). Despite this, the plitical-administrative divisins f the cuntry (regins, prvinces, municipalities and thers) d nt cincide with the gegraphical bundaries f the territries it ccupies a basin. The hydrlgic cycle, water use and the inhabitants f a watershed, affect the develpment f the latter, withut neglecting the interrelatinships that take place in the cntext f this integrated system, as well as the cnsequences water drainage basin in the castal areas and sea (Mel, Vial 2005). On this basis, we created a nnprfit crpratin t be called "Clean Water fr Clchagua" which allwed acting with greater autnmy frm the public and private sectrs t generate prjects that ensure the best time t water dispsal prductive irrigated valley basin and give a prjectin as t the care f the envirnment f the area. Devted himself t wrk amng ther issues relevant t the land f the Ri Ester Zamran Tinguiririca and frm a sustainable visin f itself and in crdinatin with ther sectrs (CONAMA O'Higgins, 2004: 1) Experience f management f land management frm the public. Cmpetitiveness in tday's wrld has been altered by three majr prcesses: The technlgical revlutin, Ecnmic glbalizatin and Supranatinal integratin.
12 Mixité : an urban and husing issue? 12 All f them have been driven by a new apprach t the prmtin f prductin and business develpment, assigning a new rle fr public administratin, and establishing the need fr a cncerted public-private partnership t guide the training f human resurces and supply f services technical assistance and knwledge t the needs f different reginal prductin systems. Territrial decentralizatin is very imprtant in the design and implementatin f plicy t prmte prductin and business t harness the best knwledge f the sci-ecnmic and business in each territry. It makes its way under an apprach with a strng element f pragmatism, a cncept "bttm up "apprach, a mre cmprehensive view f the different facets r aspects f develpment (Alburquerque, 2004: 159), greater ability t call fr actrs t facilitate reaching agreements and t identify and mbilize indigenus resurces (human and material). "The reginal apprach allws each specific situatin t give apprpriate treatment accrding t their resurces, circumstances and ptentials fr develpment". (Alburquerque, 2007: 11, 13). Chile, the Public Administratin has recently incrprated in the prcess f territrial planning, integrating crss-cutting as part relevant variables in a gegraphic, this innvatin has cllected frm sme frm f spatial planning as a prcess that has t be spread ver units ever wider frm the territry at least until glbal cntexts. Generally, hwever, has insisted n treating the prblem frm the perspective f sme specific disciplines such as ecnmics, gegraphy r ther, and in sectred planning withut cnsidering the ttality f the space (Durán, 2002: 816). Ministry f Planning and Cperatin (MIDEPLAN) Chile, has redefined the traditinal cncepts f ecnmic develpment and pints ut that the decisive variables n reginal develpment can be gruped mainly in tw aspects: spatial r gegraphic and functinal. Bth are cnverging twards a mre hlistic cnceptin f territry, seen as key in understanding the prcesses in the physical cntext is carried ut. In 2003 the Gvernment cvered the implementatin f Law N f 1998, began t develp Imprvement Prgram (PMG) in public services, invlving the fulfillment f management bjectives f incentive mney fr fficials (Ministry f Finance, 2005, 2). With this regulatry framewrk are pushed plitics "Gd Gvernance and Integrated Land Management (GTI), where the Interir Ministry described as..."t develp effective capabilities t define and implement plicies that encurage develpment articulated prcesses territries and cmmunities, making effective use f all instruments and public resurces. " This prpsal was put t wrk thrughut the cuntry frm its visin f land regins, away frm the traditinal sectred perspectives. The GTI beynd being a new system within the system Imprvement Prgram (PMG) f the Public Sectr is validated by the Secretariat fr Reginal and Administrative Develpment (SUBDERE), Ministry f Interir (Ministry f Interir, 2004, 6), since it is abve all a plicy f nn cncentratin and decentralizatin in the Quartermasters, natural agents fr their implementatin, as leaders f this prcess. The GTI is referred t the Public Services incrprated in this prcess wuld cmply with the technical requirements t enable them t help deliver better care t the cmmunity, thus generating a higher degree f satisfactin f custmer needs, users and beneficiaries. This satisfactin is achieved thrugh greater integratin between public and territrial equity in accrdance with the prvisin f their prducts, gds and services, which is achieved thrugh the adaptatin f the definitin, mdes f access and prvisin f their prducts t reginal reality. In shrt, this particular integratin thrugh greater cmplementarities f prducts, gds and services prvided by related services, s t give an integrated ffering f prducts and services in the regins (Ministry f Interir, 2004, 6). These and the guidelines given t the highest reginal authrities set up the installatin f the Cmprehensive Reginal Cabinets (GRA) fr the purpse f addressing the GTI system. In that
13 13 Wrkshp 21: Legal Aspects f Husing, Land and Planning cntext was f great imprtance the wrk dne prir t the reginal authrities wh allwed the cntents and rdering the GTI strategically target the respective regins. S was the Reginal Mayrs began a wrking cmmissin that wuld address the pillars f develpment. Fr this purpse it was necessary t have infrmatin that wuld give bdy t the prpsal frm the Quartmasters, which was based n: 1. Identifying reginal pririties in cherence and cnsistency with existing reginal develpment strategies r ther strategic guiding dcument fr definitins and the pillars f develpment, incrprating a reginal perspective. 2. Prvide guidance and / r definitins f territrial units t deal with a GTI, and it was assumed that the basic territrial unit was in the regin. Hwever, because certain prcess unleashed in sme regins it was pssible t identify certain pririty areas f interventin as the beginning f this prcess, but at the same time be flexible t address the successive stages f the PMG system and in relatin t areas develpment thrugh existing reginal public institutins, cnsistent with the identificatin f strategic definitins previusly defined. 3. Organize the structure that the GRA wuld be given t meet the challenge f a GTI. Ntably, the crdinatr f the GRA must cmply with a reginal public plicy prfile f highlevel and cnfidence f the Mayr and have a systemic view f management f reginal public institutins. On this basis, the gals reached at the meetings were GRA installatin recmmendatins fr the develpment f the GTI amng which are: - Transmissin f the bjectives sught t achieve with the installatin f a prcess f GTI in the regin, in the cntext f the challenges f decentralizatin and gd gvernance in the territries. -The intercnnected cmpanies and public institutins linked t the prductive develpment, envirnment, and innvatin, shuld develp a table f effective publicprivate wrk, which bviusly then blend the scial, cultural and plitical jintly the ecnmic and prductive amalgamated the scheme (GORE O Higgins 2004: 61) Thus we have the management mdel develped in the cntext f the GTI, prmting reginal develpment and space advantage catalyst ptential and strengths f each area f develpment. Cnclusins There is a kind f dichtmy between the territry administratively predefined Clchagua Prvince and the prcesses that ccur in it: it is passed thrugh the watershed, shackled by the prductive prcesses f the wine industry and related t wine turism industry. It is in this valley, has been setting up a reginal map that extends beynd plitical bundaries - administrative and invlving cmmunities and areas f neighbring prvinces, such as Cardinal Car and Cachapal. Land Management shuld be based primarily n regular prper use frm a cherent ecnmic explitatin, amalgamated t their gegraphy, envirnmental care and energy resurces, harnessing scial equity and preserve its tangible and intangible heritage place value r their identity. With n less than it culd be fully sustainable territries. The infrmatin cllected in public services in the O'Higgins Regin, reveals that the whle f them, identify and use the territrial apprach, specifically in the implementatin f
14 Mixité : an urban and husing issue? 14 their prducts, gds and services, which in ne way r anther benefit fr Users/Custmers/Beneficiaries in the territry f the regin. Hwever, it was nt clear territrial fcus accuracy is cnceptualized and managed within each institutin, s yu culd deduce that it used the traditinal gegraphic area, which is the plitical administratin with its best at the cmmunity level. We fund examples f sectred rigin, but with a visin f territrial integrity, the Integrated Reginal Prgrams CORFO, the Watershed Management Prgram f CONAMA (Muñz 2009, 26, 28) and the Prgram Management Imprvement, Integrated Land Management SUBDERE (GTI) (GORE O HIGGINS 2004; 60, 61). In the case f Integrated Territrial Prgram CORFO, they had been designed with a territrial apprach that exceeded the traditinal administrative, plitical, defining a mre specific znes r areas 12, t reslve a territrial and sectred issues t facilitate the crdinatin f the entities participating in a territry. The prject "Assessment and Management Plan Tinguiririca River and Zamran stream, develped by CONAMA, had a highly significant impact n its agenda fr disseminatin, training and awareness at the prvincial level, with the varius stakehlders n water quality necessary fr varius prductive and recreatinal activities arund the River. This prject, in turn diagnsed the current state f the basin, taking int accunt the gegraphy, gelgy, hydrlgy and gemrphlgy, ppulatin, flra and fauna f the envirnment, making it pssible t highlight the natural and cultural attractins, develping and, a nature turism and anther assciated with the prductin f wine frm the Clchagua Valley which als has encuraged the znal and lcal cuisine. Clchagua Valley wrking n the prspect f a wine cluster, defined as value-adding prcess and vertical and hrizntal jints, "starting with a cre activity, gathers arund it a variable number f activities (including intangible as research and develpment, cnsulting, marketing services, etc...) which later may have an independent develpment and even exprt ptential. In practice, the cluster refers t a grup f intercnnected cmpanies and institutins in a particular field, which ne are clse gegraphically, and are linked by cmmn elements and cmplementarities" (Arenas, Lavanders, Pérez, Fernández. 2008, 14). Assessment carried ut in develping the first year f this prcess f implementatin f the Imprvement f Integrated Land Management GTI, allwed us t recgnize that knwledge is develped between the services and the generatin f inter-institutinal relatins, especially amng public institutins invlved Prductive axis Ecnmic Develpment, Institutinal and Plitical Science and Technlgy, highlighting the Wine as the hub f develpment in the prvince. It is clear that the quantum leap t be carried ut as a result f the infrmatin btained is t achieve a realignment f plitical and administrative divisins. This shuld lead t an assimilatin f the electral districts t the territry, with its gegraphical, prductive, scial and administrative characteristics. This will facilitate the prcesses f financial and prgram management fr each territry invlved, making a mre efficient and 12 It was assumed that the basic territrial unit was the regin, hwever, because certain prcesses unleashed in sme regins it was pssible t identify certain pririty areas f interventin as the beginning f this prcess, but at the same time be flexible t address the successive stages f system in the PMG and in relatin t the develpment areas, thrugh existing reginal public institutins.
15 15 Wrkshp 21: Legal Aspects f Husing, Land and Planning sustainable management f them, withut having t deal with installatins f activities that are harmful t the smth running f the cntext, and achieve as a result, decentralizatin effectively maintaining the unitary character f the Chilean plitical system. The case f the experience develped in Clchagua, said that in this prcess have been given the right plitical and administrative decisin, which respected the cncerns, aspiratins and decisins f the actrs, which led t a series f successful and cnsistent with the territry, which guarantees that regulatry actin can be taken t make it sustainable these interventins in time. All this is perfectly transferable t ther areas, each with its particular prperties. References ARÁNGUIZ Andler, Ivnne. La Meta en la Ruralidad. En: Ordenación Territrial, desarrll de predis y cmunas rurales. Mngrafías de Eclgía y Territri. Facultad de Agrnmía e Ingeniería Frestal, Pntifica Universidad Católica 2002, ISBN X. Arenas, Y., Teresita, Lenard Lavanders L. Nancy Pérez O. Pedr Fernández de la Reguera B Diseñ de una metdlgía para la frmación y desarrll de clusters basada en redes de valr y capital intelectual. Infrme Final. Pryect KEA 62, CONICYT, Universidad Federic Santa María, p.14. Alburquerque, Francisc Desarrll ecnómic lcal y descentralización en América Latina., Revista de la CEPAL. Nº82, p Alburquerque, Francisc Enfque de desarrll territrial. Prgrama nacinal de apy a ls territris. Francisc Alburquerque, Dcument de trabaj Nº1, Edicines Institut nacinal de Tecnlgía Agrpecuaria INTA. ISBN Nº Argentina, pp. 11 y 13. Cmisión Nacinal del Medi Ambiente Diagnóstic y plan de gestión para las aguas del Rí Tinguiririca y Ester Zamran. Región de O Higgins Resumen ejecutiv, 5 pp. Cmisión Nacinal del Medi Ambiente Región de O Higgins. Sistema de Gestión Territrial, Etapa 1, Diagnóstic. Región de O Higgins. 36 pp. CORFO Región de O Higgins PMG y GTI, Ficha de evaluación, actividad 1: Identificar prducts /bienes / servicis (p/b/s) que se entregan a sus clientes /usuaris /beneficiaris (u/c/b) que les crrespnde aplicar perspectiva territrial. DURÁN Basts, Diana. Cmarcalización rural y análisis territrial. Una prpuesta metdlógica para un área de serranía deprimida. En: Ordenación Territrial, desarrll de predis y cmunas rurales. Mngrafías de Eclgía y Territri, Facultad de Agrnmía e Ingeniería Frestal, Pntifica Universidad Católica. 995 p ISBN X. FERREIRA Mendes, J. L. Reginal planning as a decisin-making prcess: lessns frm Eurpean experience and perspectives t furth develpment plan in Prtugal. Editrial The Hague, GASTÓ, Juan y trs, Ordenación Territrial rural en escala cmunal: bases cnceptuales y metdlgía. En: Ordenación Territrial, desarrll de predis y cmunas rurales. Mngrafías de Eclgía y Territri, Facultad de Agrnmía e Ingeniería Frestal, Pntifica Universidad Católica p. ISBN X. Gbiern Reginal de O Higgins, Prgrama de Mejramient de la Gestión Territrial Integrad, Región de O Higgins. Rancagua, pp.60 y 61.
16 Mixité : an urban and husing issue? 16 Gurrutxaga San Vicente, Mikel y Lzan Valencia, Pedr J Evidencias sbre la eficacia de ls crredres eclógics: Slucinan la prblemática de fragmentación de hábitats?; Revista Observatri Mediambiental, 2008; 11. Páginas ISSN McKinney Urbanizatin as a majr cause f bitic hmgenizatin. Revista Bilgical Cnservatin, Vlume 127, Issue 3, January 2006, Pages Urbanizatin Mel Jara, Ovidi; Vial Recabarren, Jsé Gestión Integrada de ls recurss hídrics y algunas experiencias de rganizacines de usuaris del agua. Departament de Recurss Hídrics de la Facultad de Ingeniería Agrícla de la Universidad de Cncepción. 44 pp. MIDEPLAN Catálg. Metdlgías de Planificación Territrial., Cuadernill 1, Santiag, Chile. P. 4. Ministeri de Hacienda Prgrama de Mejramient de la Gestión. Prgrama Marc. República de Chile, Dirección de Presupuests. Dcument Técnic, Santiag, Chile, p. 2. Ministeri del Interir Guía metdlógica sistema de Gestión Territrial Integrada, Versión 2.0. Prgrama de Mejramient de Gestión, sistema de Gestión Territrial Integrada. Subsecretaría de Desarrll Reginal y Administrativ. División de Desarrll Reginal Departament de Frtalecimient Reginal, Santiag, Chile. p. 6 Ministeri de Obras Públicas Diagnóstic y clasificación de ls curss y cuerps de agua según bjetivs de calidad. Infrme final. Dirección General de Aguas, Ministeri de Obras Públicas, Gbiern de Chile, Santiag, Chile. 362 pp. Muñz Parra, Carls. Un paisaje rdenándse en trn al vin. Cuaderns de Investigación Urbanística Ci(ur) 66. Departament de Urbanística y Ordenación del Territri de la ETSAM (U.P.M.). Septiembre Octubre ISSN Madrid, España. Páginas 15 a 34. Muñz Parra, Carls; Dzieknski R. Matias; Lamilla, Ninska; St, Gabriela. Hábitat y territri: Cherencia para el rdenamient territrial. El cas de la Prvincia de Clchagua, Chile. Revista INVI Nº70, Vlumen Nº25, Nviembre de Institut de la Vivienda, Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanism de la Universidad de Chile. ISSN Santiag, Chile. Paginas 119 a 150. Navia, Patrici; Rjas, Priscila. Representación y Tamañ de ls Distrits Electrales en Chile, Escuela de ciencia plítica, Universidad Dieg Prtales. Dcuments de trabaj ICSO, numer 1, añ 1, juli 2005, Santiag de Chile. 25 páginas. Zamra, Jrge y Barril, María Eugenia Turism y vin: Un estudi frmativ sbre la evlución de las rutas del Vin en Chile. Estud. perspect. tur. [nline]. Vl.16, (2), pp ISSN