Revenue Generation Strategies for Law Schools

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1 1101 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC P F Revenue Generation Strategies for Law Schools In this report, Hanover Research explores a range of strategies used by law schools to generate alternative revenue streams. Based on a review of the literature and the practices used in law schools nationally and internationally, this report presents an overview of strategies in three areas alternative programming, partnerships, and fundraising. MARKET EVALUATION SURVEYING DATA ANALYSIS BENCHMARKING ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY

2 Introduction In a paper presented at the International Association of Law Schools Conference in 2009 Being a Law School Dean in These Challenging Economics Times H. Reese Hansen, Dean of the J. Reuben Clark Law School at Brigham Young University, made several salient points regarding the stark reality of legal education in the United States during the recession. The following points negate many long-running preconceptions about law school being a solid revenue generator within higher education: 1 The demand for legal education may not, in fact, continue to increase over the longer term. Students may not always be willing to pay higher and higher tuition because law graduate earnings are not increasing and law jobs for graduates are not as plentiful as in the past. Students willingness to incur large student loans to go to law school may decrease because their future earning capacity as lawyers has become doubtful because practicing lawyers are being laid off. All curricular offerings and teaching methods must undergo more rigorous evaluation because teaching budgets are either frozen or are being reduced. Support for travel, research assistants, and leaves must undergo more rigorous evaluation because budget funds are diminishing and endowment principles and earnings are reduced. Investment strategies require reevaluation in face of newly perceived market risks. The current fiscal environment for law schools is particularly challenging due to declining or stagnating enrollments caused by rising tuition prices and poor job prospects for law school graduates. Falling Law School Applications and Rising Tuition Employment prospects for law school graduates are waning, causing enrollment numbers to stagnate. Since 2008, according to a Northwestern Law study, around 15,000 attorney and legal-staff jobs at large firms have been eliminated. As corporations aim to reduce their legal expenses, many have eliminated recruitment programs and associate positions, instead outsourcing entry-level legal work to contract, temporary employees. 2 A March 2011 Wall Street Journal article notes that student applications to law schools are down sharply this year, as college seniors grow leery of a degree that promises certain debt and uncertain job prospects. 3 1 Hansen, H. Reese. Being a Law School Dean in These Challenging Economics Times. Presented at the International Association of Law Schools Conference. Canberra, Australia. May 26-27, Segal, David. Is Law School a Losing Game? The New York Times. January 8, Koppel, Nathan. Law School Loses its Allure as Jobs at Firms are Scarce. The Wall Street Journal. March 17,

3 According to the Law School Admission Council Inc., law school applications for fall 2011 dropped 11.5 percent from last year to 66,876, marking the lowest tally of applications since 2001 at the March point in the admissions process. 4 While applications are dropping, tuition prices have followed the opposite trend. Law school tuition has grossly outpaced the rate of inflation for the last 20 years, making law school an increasingly costly endeavor. 5 The following table compiles data from the American Bar Association (ABA), illustrating the significant increases According to the Law School Admission Council Inc., law school applications for fall 2011 dropped 11.5 percent last year to 66,876, marking the lowest tally of applications since 2001 at the March point in the admissions process. in average tuition and fees seen between 2000 and 2009 at private law schools. As shown in the table, both average and median tuition and fees have tended to increase at least 5 percent on an annual basis, far exceeding average annual inflation rates. Table 1.1: Private Law School Tuition, Year # of Average Increase over Median Increase over schools Tuition/Fees Previous Year Tuition/Fees Previous Year $21,790 5% $21,920 5% $22,961 5% $22,870 4% $24,193 5% $24,228 6% $25,574 6% $25,500 5% $26,952 5% $27,005 6% $28,900 7% $28,670 6% $30,520 7% $30,670 6% $32,367 6% $32,168 5% $34,298 6% $33,985 6% $35,743 4% $36,000 7% Source: American Bar Association 6 Though tuition is rapidly rising, it may not be enough to sustain many private law schools that rely heavily on tuition revenue. In Being a Law School Dean in These Challenging Economics Times, Hansen made the following point regarding tuition revenue at private U.S. law schools: Private U.S. law schools with no, or very small, endowments depend on tuition revenue to pay all, or nearly all, of the cost of operating their law schools. Tuition rates at these schools are already generally quite high. Because of this fact, the problem of funding these schools will become more 4 Ibid. 5 Segal. Op. cit. 6 Law School Tuition American Bar Association. 3

4 difficult as competition for students increases if the U.S. applicant pool shrinks. Furthermore, if students become less willing to borrow to finance their legal educations it may be difficult for tuition dependent schools to raise tuition sufficiently to pay increasing operating costs. 7 Private schools are not the only ones that are rapidly raising tuition; many public law schools will soon be inching closer to private school tuition levels. Arizona State University (ASU) College of Law is one of a group of public law schools across the country that are making a move toward financial independence from their parent institutions in response to cuts in state funding for higher education. In order to compensate for the 34 percent of its budget that comes from state funding, ASU law school will hike its $21,000 a year tuition and fees bill, and increase the size of incoming classes. 8 Elizabeth Capaldi, ASU s provost and executive vice president recently stated, The college of law seemed a very likely place where we could raise tuition, grow the size of the class, and still increase quality and remove state support all at the same time. 9 This mentality at ASU speaks to another law school trend attempting to increase class sizes to compensate for falling revenues. Many law schools are exploring this option, though it contradicts recent law school trends. As the table below illustrates, student-faculty ratios at law schools fell significantly between the academic years and at law schools of all sizes. Student-faculty ratios at the largest law schools fell most If students become less willing to borrow to finance their legal educations it may be difficult for tuition dependent schools to raise tuition sufficiently to pay increasing operating costs. H. Reese Hansen, Dean, J. Reuben Clark Law School at Brigham Young University significantly over this time period, from 18.3 to Increasing class sizes would shift these ratios upward, working against the low student-faculty ratios on which many law schools capitalize in their advertising materials. 7 Hansen. Op. cit. 8 Post, Tim. U of M Law School Prepares for Loss of All State Funding. Minnesota Public Radio News. May 17, Ibid. 4

5 Table 1.2: Student-Faculty Ratios at Semester System Law Schools Law School Size Year FTE FTE FTE FTE FTE Enrollment Enrollment Enrollment Enrollment Enrollment ,099 Above 1, Source: American Bar Association 10 Yet, across-the-board tuition increases paired with larger class sizes are likely to become unsustainable in the long-term, especially with prospective students already hesitant about the benefits of a legal education. Furthermore, this strategy may not be sufficient to compensate for stagnating enrollments at some universities. Law school tuition often comprises less than half of law school revenue. This leaves endowment earnings and gifts to cover the remainder of law school budgets. As these sources of revenue prove unstable or fall into decline, law schools are forced to look at additional revenue generating possibilities. Report Structure In this report, Hanover Research presents a series of revenue generating strategies utilized by law schools. We include examples of the practices in place at a wide range of law schools both domestically and internationally, though we pay particular attention to third- and fourth-tier U.S. institutions. 11 The report is structured as follows: Key Findings o Revenue Generating Trends Offering Alternative Legal Programs 10 Student Faculty Ratio Semester System Schools, American Bar Association. 11 These peers are based on the Top Law Schools 2011 law school rankings, which consolidate all of the 2011 law school rankings available. See: Third Tier and Fourth Tier Law Schools. Top Law Schools. 5

6 o Demand for Alternative Legal Programs o Online LL.M. Programs o Master s Programs o Programs for International Students o Certificate Programs o Summer and Winter Programs o Returning Lawyers Programs o Specialized JD Programs Forging Law School Partnerships o Corporate Partnerships o Institutional Partnerships o Facility Usage Partnerships Seeking Funding o Corporate Donations o Grants o Private Donations 6

7 Key Findings Our research yielded the following key findings regarding potential strategies for generating additional revenue. Revenue Generating Trends An increasing number of law schools, both nationally and internationally, are offering online LL.M. programs. These LL.M. degrees usually cater to industry professionals often post-jd professionals interested in professional development in a specific area, such as taxation, environmental law, estate planning, health law, intellectual property law, or entertainment law. Tuition for online programs typically ranges from $1,200 to $2,000 per credit. Many law schools are using master s degrees in law to compensate for falling revenues from JD programs. Master s degrees generally cater to non-jd graduates looking to advance professionally and allow law schools to leverage their specialties in areas such as mental disability law, Indian law, taxation, employment law, education law, intellectual property, or corporate law. Some are offered online and most tend to cost under $1,000 per credit or cost the same per credit as JD programs. Many law schools offer post-baccalaureate certificate programs to both non-degree and degree-seeking students seeking specialization in certain areas of the law. Certificate programs vary widely, though dispute resolution, health law, and taxation are common focal points. Demand for paralegal/legal assistant certificates increased significantly between the and academic years, with a few law schools offering this type of certification. Credit requirements for certificates vary significantly, though tuition is generally on a per-credit basis at an equal or similar rate to JD or LL.M. programs. Law schools have taken a wide range of approaches to international student programs. Examples include LL.M. degrees for students from transitional democracies, certificate programs for visiting students, and advanced standing JD programs for foreign-trained lawyers. Some international programs benefit from relationships with specific universities abroad that result in new students migrating from the partner institution annually. The summer and winter terms provide a key opportunity for law schools to generate additional revenue. Various law schools hold programs to help under-achieving students increase their skill level prior to the beginning of the academic year. Other programs include credit-bearing summer or winter 7

8 institutes focused on specialties such as dispute resolution, child welfare, tax and estate planning, or intellectual property. Tuition tends to fall between $1,200 and $1,500 per credit. More unique options are summer certificate programs for international students or winter programs in exotic locations. Offering a program to lawyers who have taken a leave from practice and want to return to practice is a unique programming option. These programs provide participants with substantial updates on the current legal environment. These programs integrate into existing CLE programs and can generate significant additional revenues by targeting local professionals. Specialized JD programs allow students to pursue specialized certificates or, more unusually, law schools can offer JD programs jointly with foreign degrees, such as a Canadian JD or Mexican L.E.D. or joint JD/LL.M. program. These programs generally extend JD students enrollment duration at a law school, thus generating additional revenue. Select law schools have established successful corporate partnerships, wherein the law school provides custom research, consultancy, or training to employers and their employees. Far more law schools pursue institutional partnerships, particularly with international universities. These partnerships can lead to joint degree programs and visiting student arrangements. Other potential institutional partners include for-profit education providers and undergraduate institutions with which law schools can develop guaranteed admission programs. Donations from corporations, individuals, or grant-making bodies are difficult to obtain in the current economic climate, but law schools that can offer reciprocal benefits or can leverage a niche specialty with an interest group are more likely to benefit from external funding streams. The remainder of this report will focus on the details of these programmatic and funding strategies that can generate additional revenue for law schools. 8

9 Offering Alternative Legal Programs There are numerous alternatives to the traditional JD program offered by law schools. Alternative legal programs allow law schools not only to attract a wider range of students, but also to increase access to the law school and to generate additional revenue. Programs designed to attract and serve legal professionals, international students, underachieving prospective students, and online students are all possibilities discussed in this section of the report. This section addresses the following topics: Demand for Alternative Legal Programs Online LL.M. Programs Master s Programs Programs for International Students Certificate Programs Summer and Winter Programs Returning Lawyers Programs Specialized JD Programs As noted in the introduction to this report, though the examples used in this section include a range of law schools both nationally and internationally, the primary focus is on the activities of third- and fourth-tier U.S. law schools. Continuing Legal Education (CLE), dual degrees, and study abroad programs are not covered in this section of the report, though it should be noted that these are important sources of revenue generation at many law schools. Demand for Alternative Legal Programs The following tables and graphs compile IPEDS completions data from all institutions nationwide between and The program completions data were narrowed to: 1) first majors, 2) master s degrees, doctoral degrees (new and old degree classifications), first-professional degrees, and certificates, and 3) all six-digit CIP codes under CIP 22 (Legal Professions and Studies). It is important to note that the CIP codes cited below are based on the 2000 CIP code listing. Though NCES recently released its 2010 CIP code listing, all degree completions data for to were based on the 2000 CIP structure. 12 The tables and graphs below illustrate the number of degree and certificates awarded by U.S. law schools for doctoral programs, master s programs, and certificate programs separately. 12 To identify any relevant changes in CIP codes between the 2000 and 2010 listings, Hanover Research recommends using the crosswalk available through NCES. See: CIP National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. 9

10 To provide a benchmark for degree completions, Figure 2.1 and Table 2.1 illustrate the number of doctoral degree completions reported by U.S. law schools between and The JD is the core academic program offered by all law schools. Clearly, the rise of JD completions from 43,982 in to 44,698 in drove the most significant growth, though SJD completions accounted for the second most popular doctoral degree. A declining interest in the increasing costs and decreasing job market benefits of law school (discussed in the introduction to this report) did not appear to damage nationwide completions up to ,200 45,000 Figure 2.1: Doctoral Degree Completions, to ,957 44,800 44,600 44,490 44,400 44,200 44,080 44,145 44,227 44,000 43,800 43,600 Source: IPEDS Table 2.1: Legal Doctoral Degree Completions, to CIP Degree Program Law (LLB, JD) 43,982 44,016 44,084 44,318 44, Advanced Legal Research/Studies, General (LLM, MCL, MLI, MSL, JSD/SJD) American/US Law/Legal Studies/Jurisprudence Legal Professions and Studies, Other Legal Research and Advanced Professional Studies, Other Tax Law/Taxation (LLM, JSD/SJD) Comparative Law (LLM, MCL, JSD/SJD) Energy, Environment, and Natural Resources Law (LLM, MS, JSD/SJD) Health Law (LLM, MJ, JSD/SJD) International Law and Legal Studies (LLM, JSD/SJD) TOTAL 44,080 44,145 44,227 44,490 44,957 Source: IPEDS 10

11 Though JD degrees represent the core law school program, recent growth in the legal education field has, in part, also been a result of the rising number of master s and certificate completions. This section of the report specifically focuses on the growing significance of graduate legal degrees and certificates. The data below illustrate that total master s degree completions grew from 4,170 in to 5,153 in an approximately 24 percent increase. Though it is not possible to tell exactly which types of master s degrees contributed most significantly to this growth given the variety of CIP codes utilized by law schools in the IPEDS reporting process, it appears that LL.M. degrees attracted the most students. Law schools vary regarding how they report and classify completions by subject, though it is worth noting that Programs for Foreign Lawyers grew by over 50 percent during this time period, from 513 completions in to 795 completions in (CIP ). Importantly, certificate completions nearly doubled, from 675 in to 1,149 in The data in Table 2.3 most clearly illustrate the increase in paralegal/legal assistant completions between and Completions increased steadily from 396 to 692 over the five-year period a nearly 75 percent rise. Though paralegal certificates may be offered primarily through vocational schools, continuing education programs at universities, or community colleges, the potential exists for law schools to develop and offer these programs. The completions in Table 2.3 also show recent increases in certificates in health law and tax law. Figure 2.2: Master s and Certificate Completions, to ,000 5,153 5,000 4,755 4,453 4,487 4,170 1,149 4,000 1, , ,000 1, Master's Certificates Source: IPEDS 11

12 Table 2.2: Master s Degree Completions, to CIP Degree Program Advanced Legal Research/Studies, General (LLM, MCL, MLI, MSL, JSD/SJD) American/US Law/Legal Studies/Jurisprudence Banking, Corporate, Finance, and Securities Law (LLM, JSD/SJD) Comparative Law (LLM, MCL, JSD/SJD) Energy, Environment, and Natural Resources Law (LLM, MS, JSD/SJD) Health Law (LLM, MJ, JSD/SJD) International Business, Trade, and Tax Law (LLM, JSD/SJD) International Law and Legal Studies (LLM, JSD/SJD) Legal Assistant/Paralegal Legal Professions and Studies, Other ,132 1, Legal Research and Advanced Professional Studies, Other Legal Studies, General Programs for Foreign Lawyers (LLM, MCL) Tax Law/Taxation (LLM, JSD/SJD) TOTAL 4,170 4,453 4,487 4,755 5,153 Source: IPEDS Table 2.3: Post-Baccalaureate Certificate Completions, to CIP Degree Program Advanced Legal Research/Studies, General American/US Law/Legal Studies/Jurisprudence Energy, Environment, and Natural Resources Law Health Law International Business, Trade, and Tax Law International Law and Legal Studies Law Legal Assistant/Paralegal Legal Professions and Studies, Other Legal Research and Advanced Professional Studies, Other Legal Studies, General Legal Support Services, Other Programs for Foreign Lawyers Tax Law/Taxation TOTAL ,054 1,149 Source: IPEDS 12

13 Online LL.M. Programs Internationally, there is a group of over 50 law schools that now offer a fully online LL.M. program. 13 Though there is controversy over the stigma attached to online learning within the context of legal Internationally, there is a group of over 50 law schools that now offer a fully online LL.M. program. education, the growth of these programs backed by the increasing capabilities of online learning platforms indicates that students from around the world consider them to be viable legal degree options. In particular, online programs accommodate students who must juggle work and family commitments along with their educational pursuits. The focus of many LL.M. students is to develop professionally within their industry. Not all are lawyers; the programs also attract managers who work in legalfacing areas. 14 Vermont Law School recently launched a new online law degree program that is the first of its kind in the country. 15 Vermont Law School launched the LL.M. in Environmental Law for post-jd candidates and a separate Master of Environmental Law and Policy in May These two online programs will ultimately enroll a total of 60 students per year in two different cohorts, limiting class sizes to 15 students and using an asynchronous delivery format. 17 The cost of tuition for these programs will be the same whether students complete the coursework on-campus or online and will come to $38,033 per year (or $1,268 per credit) in , along with a $500 tuition deposit. 18 In contrast, the JD costs $1,499 per credit. Speaking to this trend, in February 2011, the New York University School of Law dropped the residency requirement for its Executive LL.M. in Taxation in order to offer the program in a fully online format. The 24-credit program is primarily designed for experienced attorneys, and applicants must hold either a JD or LL.B. degree. 19 The NYU School of Law boasts that, for more than 65 years, the NYU Law Graduate Tax Program has been the preeminent program of its kind, offering dozens of courses taught by the country s most respected academics and leading practitioners. 20 With the advent of fully online courses, students can utilize the asynchronous video courses and interactive online platform to complete the entire 13 Wish, V. Online LL.M. Programs: Learning from Afar, But Not Alone. LLM Guide. 14 Ibid. 15 Galloway. Op. cit. 16 Sloan, Karen. Vermont Offers Online LL.M. in Environmental Law. Law.com. May 10, Ibid. 18 Tuition and Fees. Vermont Law School. 19 Executive LL.M. in Tax. New York University School of Law. 20 Ibid. 13

14 degree. Students in the program are considered part-time students and are charged tuition on a per-credit basis of $2,040 per credit as of the academic year. 21 Illustrating a different approach to online learning, the Western New England University School of Law offers a synchronous online LL.M. in Estate Planning and Elder Law. The School of Law claims that this program is the only live, interactive online program in estate planning and elder law in the country. 22 The program is taught in virtual classrooms in real-time, making it unique among the largely asynchronous online programs found elsewhere. Students pay tuition on a percredit basis ($1,535 per credit in ), in addition to an annual fee of $520, which includes registration, general services, graduation fees, and transcripts for life. 23 As of the academic year, other universities that have launched entirely online LL.M. programs include Loyola University Chicago School of Law (LL.M. in Health Law for post-jd students), Southwestern Law School (LL.M. in Entertainment and Media Law), and Florida Coastal School of Law (LL.M. in U.S. Law for international students). 24,25,26 Loyola and Southwestern worked with Kaplan Legal Education to develop the online technology for their programs. 27 There are a range of other institutions that offer at least one LL.M. program completely online, such as the University of Alabama School of Law (LL.M. in Taxation) or the John Marshall Law School (LL.M. or M.S. in Employee Benefits). 28,29 Partially online programs also exist, such as the hybrid Executive LL.M. in International Business Law at the Boston University School of Law, which requires completion of either one six-week summer session on-campus or two-week on-campus modules over several years. 30 Online LL.M. programs are not limited to U.S. law schools. For example, the University of Liverpool Law School in the UK offers online LL.M. programs in International Business Law, International Finance and Banking Law, and Technology and Intellectual Property Law in conjunction with Laureate Online Education. A recent article explains that, during the programs eight-week modules, online 21 Fall/Spring Tuition. New York University Office of the Bursar. 22 Message from the Director. Western New England University School of Law. 23 Tuition, Fees, and Financial Aid. Western New England University School of Law. 24 LLM Degree. Loyola University Chicago Beazley Institute for Health Law and Policy. 25 LL.M. Programs. Southwestern Law School. 26 LL.M. Home. Florida Coastal School of Law. 27 Weiss, Debra Cassens. More Law Schools Offer Online LLM Programs. ABA Journal. May 4, LL.M. in Taxation. The University of Alabama School of Law. 29 Online LLM & MS Courses Employee Benefits. John Marshall Law School. 30 Executive LL.M. in International Business Law. Boston University School of Law. 14

15 students are expected to devote around ten to twenty hours a week to the program, including time spent discussing the week s topic in the online classroom. 31 In these programs, about two-thirds of the students are qualified lawyers while another third are managers working in legal-facing areas. 32 For U.S. students, the cost for the Liverpool online programs would come to $20,900 in There are numerous other UK-based graduate online law programs, such as those at Edinburgh University, the University of Oxford, and the University of Dundee. Outside the UK, programs exist at institutions such as the National Law School of India University, Universität St. Gallen (Switzerland), Freie Universität (Germany), the Open University of Hong Kong, and the University of Canberra (Australia). 34 Online legal programs not only hold the potential for additional revenue generation (given the ability to serve more students without the infrastructure costs associated with more on-campus students), but also offer law schools a route to increase access to new student populations nationwide and internationally. Master s Programs As the IPEDS data previously cited indicate, the number of master s degree completions in law increased significantly between the and academic years. Offerings at the master s level are increasing rapidly, with many programs geared toward non-jd graduates Offerings at the master s level are increasing rapidly, with many programs geared toward non-jd graduates interested in applying specific areas of law to their professions. interested in applying specific areas of law to their professions. Most importantly, the revenue from master s degrees can help compensate for some of the lost revenue from falling JD applications. For example, a July 2011 article reported that Vermont Law School will see a 23.8 percent decline in new law student enrollments this fall. The 50-student drop represents an approximately $6.5 million drop in revenues over a three-year period. To compensate, Vermont Law School has slightly offset the drop in incoming law school candidates with an increase in the number of students seeking master s degrees in law and environmental law programs. 35 Still, only about $1.1 million in tuition will result from the 15-student increase in enrollments in the master s degree program. 36 Like Vermont Law School, many law schools are capitalizing on master s degree programs to decrease the revenue burden placed on JD programs. 31 Wish. Op. cit. 32 Ibid. 33 Law Fees. University of Liverpool. 34 Ibid. 35 Galloway, Anne. Vermont Law School enrollment down 23.8 percent. VT Digger. July 11, Ibid. 15

16 Some master s degree programs in the field of law are offered online. For example, New York Law School offers both its Master of Arts and Certificate in Mental Disability Law Studies online. 37 Tuition for the degree or certificate was $2,400 per course for the academic year. Students working for non-profit organizations or government agencies paid $1,500 per course. 38 Beginning in August 2011, the University of Tulsa College of Law will leverage its location to offer an online, 30- credit Master of Jurisprudence in Indian Law for non-lawyers. The program has been designed in partnership with Concord Law School of Kaplan University. 39 Importantly, most master s programs are geared toward non-lawyers. For example, Capital University Law School in Ohio offers a 24-credit Master of Taxation designed for working professionals, with all courses offered in the evenings. 40 Students in the program have full access to law school services, including financial aid, the Office of Professional Development, the library, student counseling, and parking. 41 The program costs the same per credit as the JD program $1,127 per credit hour in Similarly, the Shepard Broad Law Center at Nova Southeastern University in Florida emphasizes that its online master s programs are not open to attorneys or law students. Students can pursue a 30-credit Master of Science in Employment Law, a 30-credit Master of Science in Health Law, or a 35- credit Master of Science in Education Law. 42 Tuition for these programs is very affordable, ranging from $490 to $575 per course credit. 43 However, the University of Dayton School of Law leaves its options wider open, with a Master in the Study of Law (M.S.L.) in Intellectual Property and Technology Law available to lawyers and non-lawyers, both domestically and internationally. Students may or may not have previously earned a JD or the equivalent. 44 The cost of tuition for these programs is $950 per credit. 45 Most importantly, master s degrees offer law schools the opportunity to leverage their expertise in specialized fields to generate additional revenue. For example, Widener Law School in Delaware (with another campus in Pennsylvania) offers a wide range of non-jd graduate programs in corporate and health law. The majority of these programs are designed for practicing lawyers to advance their knowledge in a specific 37 Online Mental Disability Law Program. New York Law School. 38 Online Mental Disability Law Program Tuition. New York Law School. 39 Online Master of Jurisprudence in Indian Law. The University of Tulsa College of Law. 40 Graduate Tax & Business Law. Capital University Law School. 41 MT Program: Frequently Asked Questions. Capital University Law School. 42 Nova Southeastern University Shepard Broad Law Center. 43 Online Non-Lawyers Graduate Programs. Nova Southeastern University Law. 44 Graduate Programs in Intellectual Property & Technology Law. University of Dayton School of Law. 45 Tuition and Costs. University of Dayton School of Law. 16

17 area, though a few programs are available to non-lawyers and healthcare professionals seeking legal training. Programs include the: 46 Master of Laws in Corporate Law and Finance (for practicing lawyers) Master of Jurisprudence in Corporate and Business Law (for anyone seeking graduate-level training) Master of Laws in Health Law (for practicing lawyers) Master of Jurisprudence in Health Law (for healthcare professionals) Master of Jurisprudence/Master of Public Health (for healthcare professionals, offered in collaboration with Thomas Jefferson University) Doctor of Juridical Science in Health Law (for practicing lawyers) Doctor of Laws in Health Law (for practicing lawyers) Another option is to combine master s degree programs with JD programs. For example, Creighton University School of Law in Nebraska offers students the opportunity to complete a Master of Science in Government Organization and Leadership (GOAL) in Law schools are increasingly offering specialized LL.M. degrees that cater to both international and domestic students. combination with their JD studies. Students can complete the program in three years. The GOAL program is designed to prepare students to assume leadership positions in government counsel offices, agency legal advisory roles, and related operations. 47 The program includes a semester-long externship in a government counsel office in Washington, DC. Tuition for the program is $21,000, including two summers at $2,500 each and four semesters at $4,000 each. 48 This tuition rate (for the GOAL program) is charged in addition to the JD tuition, making it a good source of additional revenue. Law schools are increasingly offering specialized LL.M. degrees that cater to both international and domestic students. For example, Golden Gate University School of Law in San Francisco offers LL.M. programs in the following specializations: Environmental Law, Intellectual Property Law, International Legal Studies, Taxation, and United States Legal Studies. 49 Similarly Chapman University School of Law in California offers the following LL.M. programs to both international and domestic students: Business and Economics, Entertainment and Media Law, International and Comparative Law, Prosecutorial Science, Taxation, and Trial Advocacy Graduate Programs. Widener Law. 47 Master of Science in Government Organization and Leadership (GOAL) Program. Creighton University School of Law. 48 Ibid. 49 Academic Law Programs. Golden Gate University School of Law. 50 Academic Programs. Chapman University School of Law. 17

18 York University Osgoode Hall Law School in Canada illustrates another LL.M. programming option that is, the incorporation of a research option. Students at Osgoode Hall can pursue two types of LL.M. programs. One is a full-time research stream designed for students looking to advance to the Ph.D. This stream requires a page orally-examined thesis, in addition to course and seminar work. Alternatively, students can pursue a part-time professional development stream LL.M. designed for active law professionals. 51 Certificate Programs As demonstrated in the previously cited completions data, there was a substantial increase in post-baccalaureate certificate completions between the and academic years. Numerous law schools offer a range of certificates to non-degree seeking students. Notably, the certificates discussed in this section are primarily those offered to non-degree seeking students, rather than those designed for JD students to complete as a specialization, though the latter are also increasingly offered by law schools nationwide. 52 Hamline University School of Law offers certificates through its Dispute Resolution and Health Law Institutes, as listed below. Most certificates are available to degree-seeking graduate students, attorneys, and professionals, while others are designed exclusively for JD students. 53 Tuition is charged on a per-credit basis of $1,445 per credit, with most certificates requiring completion of six credits. 54 Dispute Resolution Institute o Certificate in International Business Negotiation o Certificate in Advocacy and Problem-Solving o Certificate in Dispute Resolution o Certificate in Global Arbitration Law and Practice (summer abroad program at Queen Mary University of London) Health Law Institute o General Health Law Certificate o Certificate in Healthcare Compliance There is a wide range of other certificate topics available at law schools both domestically and internationally. The University of Baltimore School of Law recently began offering a 12-credit post-jd Certificate in Estate Planning. The certificate can be completed as either a stand-alone program or in conjunction with 51 Graduate Studies at Osgoode. York University Osgoode Hall Law School. 52 For example, Loyola University New Orleans offers Certificates in Civil Law and Common Law, International Legal Studies, Environmental Law, and Taxation Law that are earned at graduation by students who complete all the curriculum requirements as well as three additional courses. 53 Certificates. Hamline University School of Law. 54 Costs and Financing. Hamline University School of Law. 18

19 the LL.M. in Taxation program. 55 The per-credit cost of tuition is the same as for the LL.M. degree, at $1,112 per credit for in-state students and $1,584 per credit for outof-state students as of fall The law school at McGill University in Canada offers Graduate Certificate programs to provide advanced legal training over one term of full-time studies or two terms of part-time studies to candidates who wish to pursue graduate legal education for a limited period and particular career-related purposes. 57 McGill students can complete Graduate Certificates in Comparative Law or Air and Space Law. More unusually, Capital University Law School offers post-baccalaureate certificate programs that give students the credentials to become Legal Nurse Consultants, Life Care Planners, or Paralegals. These accredited programs are Capital University Law School offers certificate programs aligned with three career options: Legal Nurse Consultant, Life Care Planner, or Paralegal. designed for working professionals. The 20-credit Legal Nurse Consultant program is held on the first weekend of each month for 10 months, while the 11-credit Life Care Planner program requires 135 hours of intensive online modules and one on-site Trial Practice module. 58 The 27-credit Paralegal program is offered to students through summer immersion courses or through evening courses. 59 These courses cost $360 per credit hour, plus additional fees. 60 Programs for International Students As noted above, programs classified under the CIP code titled Programs for Foreign Lawyers experienced a significant rise in degree completions between the and academic years. For example, California Western School of Law in California offers a JD, as well as an LL.M. and Master of Comparative Law (M.C.L.) program, to international students. Combined, the LL.M. and M.C.L. programs enroll over 300 graduates from 55 countries. 61 The cost of tuition is $26,995, plus a $100 activity fee Certificate in Estate Planning. University of Baltimore School of Law. 56 Fall 2011 Taxation Tuition and Fees. University of Baltimore. 57 Graduate certificate programs in law. McGill University. 58 Life Care Planner Program. Capital University Law School. 59 Paralegal. Capital University Law School. 60 Paralegal and Certificate Programs. Capital University Law School. 61 LL.M. and M.C.L. Programs for Foreign Lawyers. California Western School of Law. 62 LL.M./M.C.L. Fees and Expenses. California Western School of Law. 19

20 Some law schools offer more niche programs. The LL.M. in Democratic Governance and Rule of Law at Ohio Northern University Pettit College of Law is an LL.M. program designed for international students. Qualified applicants to the program are lawyers with two to five years of experience in the public or non-profit sectors within transitional democracies. 63 Students in the class of The LL.M. in Democratic Governance and Rule of Law at Ohio Northern University Pettit College of Law is a niche LL.M. program for international students. Qualified applicants to the program are lawyers with two to five years of experience in the public or non-profit sectors within transitional democracies came from Botswana, Georgia, Guyana, and Uzbekistan. Though the College of Law provides a limited number of full financial support opportunities and encourages students to pursue outside funding, full tuition and technology fees for the program total $42,000 for the academic year. 64 Certificate programs for international students are becoming increasingly common. California Western School of Law recently began offering a Certificate Program in Comparative and International Law for foreign lawyers, judges, and legal academics and scholars who are only able to visit the United States for one semester. These students complete one required, two-credit course, as well as up to eight additional credit hours in qualifying elective courses and seminars. 65 Similarly, Oklahoma City University School of Law offers a Certificate in American Law for Chinese students and lawyers. The four-week program includes an introduction to the American legal system and the role of attorneys in that system, an introduction to sources of law in America and research and writing techniques for American law, and an introduction to trial advocacy in the American legal system. 66 Students in the program tour local law firms and courts, meet with lawyers and judges, and observe trial court proceedings, as well as engage in a range of cultural activities. Uniquely, the University of Toledo College of Law offers JD options for international students. International students can complete a standard JD program or a two-year JD program for foreign-trained lawyers. If a student has completed a substantial portion of the requirements for a non-u.s. law program, he or she may be eligible to enter the JD program with conditional advanced standing of up to 29 credit hours. The student must then complete 30 credit hours at the College of Law, maintaining a cumulative GPA of 2.5, to earn a JD degree. 67 In addition, Toledo 63 Qualifications. Ohio Northern University Pettit College of Law. 64 Financial Support. Ohio Northern University Pettit College of Law. 65 Certificate Program in Comparative and International Law. California Western School of Law. 66 Certificate in American Law Program for Chinese Students and Lawyers. Oklahoma City University School of Law. 67 Two-Year J.D. Program for Foreign-Trained Lawyers. The University of Toledo College of Law. 20

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