1 feture lnlopmtion Litepcy-K-20 m MEEM I", I Mking the Lep from High School to College Three New Studies bout Informtion Litercy Skills of First-Yer College Students Mry Ann Fitzgerld Mry AnnFitzgerld is Associte Professor in the Deprtment of Instmrctionl Technology t the University of Georgi in Athens nd member of the Knowledge Quest EditorilBord. 2004M4ryAnn Fitzgerld Mny high school grdutes, ccustomed to esy success in high school, struggle in college. In their first semester they must red rems of difficult text, tke comprehensive exms tht require nlysis not covered in clss, nd write ppers tht synthesize ides from multiple resources. Unprepred to hndle the volume nd level of cdemic work, they fil. In the first yers of this century, slighdy more thn 60 percent of high school grdutes enrolled in college. In the south, less thn hlf of college students grdute within six yers. Studies show tht students who drop out of college do so predominndywithin the first yer. Such problems hve been documented in other res s well, such s New York City.' I'vo recent reserch studies my shed light on this subject, probing college fculty to discover wht skills re required of new college students. Interestingly, these studies dvocte skills nd dtinking hbits tht closely relte to informtion litercy. Another importnt study mesures informtion litercy skdlls in college students. Regrdless of grde level, school librry medi specilists (SLMSs) need to be wre of these three studies nd consider how to improve librry medi progrms ccordingly. These re the skills tht re needed by mture dults in our society-skills for survivl. The Cliforni Study Acdemic Litercy:A Sttement of Competencies Expected of Students Entering Cliforni's Public Colleges nd Universities reports the results of Web-bsed survey of college fculty who regulrly tech freshmen. 2 It provides informtion bout wht these professors ctully expect students to be ble to do s prerequisites to their clsses. These skills include mny tht relte to the mission of the medi center nd the informtion litercy stndrds. In ddition, Web-bsed interviews quizzed fculty bout their ssessments of how skilled they believed their students to be. Fculty Expecttions According to this study, college fculty first-yer students should: * hve dequte ccess nd experience widh computer technology; d hve informtion-finding nd bsic Internet reserch skills; * hve reserch skills, including the bility to conduct disciplined, plnned inquiry; o hve sophisticted reding skdlls tht include criticism, nlysis, nd follow-up inquiry; * be ble to provide nlysis of dt, informtion, nd ides s well s personlly held opinions nd beliefs; * hve evlution skdlls, including the will nd bility to evlute resources for "clrity, ccurcy precision, relevnce, depth, bredth, logic, significnce, nd firness" nd to recognize rhetoricl devices;' o hve judgment skills, including the bility to gther evidence in support of judgment, postpone judgment until enough evidence is gthered, nd "tolerte mbiguity" in the mentime; 4 - hve synthesis slkill, including the bility to "relte prior knowvledge nd experience
2 -I: c; Q0 en to new informtion... mke connections to relted topics or informtion... synthesize informtion in discussion nd written ssignments"; 5 be responsible nd hve the disposition to represent, nlyze, nd criticize the ides of others ethiclly, using proper documenttion; o hve communiction skills nd be ble to prticipte in discussions, provide cler orl nd written communiction, nd listen nd reciprocte; * hve rgument skills nd be ble to formulte, communicte, nd rgue n ssertion supported by crefully weighed evidence; nd * be independent nd hve the will nd bility to work lone with only occsionl ssistnce, drwing freely upon helpful resources. Hbits of Mfind A notble feture of the Cliforni study re the themes of integrtion nd hbits of mind. Integrtion refers to the wy tht cdemic litercy skills intertwine closely with ech other. Hbits of mind, term used in mny different contexts, refers to set of ttitudes nd behviors tht re notoriously difficult to seprte into components, nd therefore to describe. The Cliforni study clls them foundtionl dispositions nd dmits them to be interrelted nd multitered. Severl of these hbits of mind re listed in the study, but the ones most closely relted to informtion litercy re these: * curiosity nd spirit of inquiry-the disposition nd bility to sk provoctive questions nd to seek out new ides, informtion, nd points of view; * courge-dring, wilingness to experiment; * willingness to prticipte in intelectul discussions; * respect for lterntive perspectives nd the wid nd bility to chllenge personl beliefs in response to new dt, informdon, or ides (openness); nd * criticl stnce-the bility to criticize nd pproch new' ides with helthy skepticism. Overlpping with criticl thinking nd the other higher-order thinking skils, hbits of mind re n importnt wy to think bout the deep, underlying skills tht educted people possess. We re currently operting in climte of ccountbility bsed on observble, mesurble behviors nd stndrdized tests. Therefore, this difficult-to-ssess, fuzzy re is t rislk The Relity of High School Grdute Skills Tken together, the list of expecttions bove is substntil. Despite their best intentions, mny high school eductors would gree tht some students re unble to perform ech skll on the list t the end of high school. According to the Cliforni study, professors believe tht firstyer college students enter higher eduction poorly prepred. We re l wre of the tendency of receiving techers to believe tht students come to them unprepred-high school techers blme middle school techers, middle school techers blme elementry techers, nd so on. With tht cution in mind, professors estimte tht two-thirds of entering students cnnot dequtely nlyze informtion or rguments nd cnnot synthesize informtion from multiple sources. They dim tht minority know how to evlute online resources. Fculty complin tht students lck experience with hbits of mind. Finlly, they believe tht "students re more diligent thn in the pst, but less ble to tckle difficult questions, nd much less curious" nd less willing to deeply engge in difficult thinkig tsks.' Summry The strength of this study is tht it looks between the discipline res, not lmiting itself to sdence or history or mth, but exploring the overrching high-level thinking nd process skills tht entering freshmen need. The expecttions of these Cliforni fculty represent highly credible kind of dt, becuse these expecttions exist whether resonble or not. I believe the expecttions to be resonble, becuse professors envision wht qulified coliege grdutes should be ble to do in their chosen disciplines. Their ssessments of student bilities re more subjective in nture. However, their opinions re stid vluble becuse they highlight the discrepncy between wht they would like to tech nd wht they must remedite. A Second Study: Stndrds for Success Understnding University Success:A Report from Stndrdsfor Success sked the question "Wht must students know nd be ble to do in order to succeed in entry-level university courses?"' Insted of nonymously gthering fculty opinions bout wht students need, this project ws lrge-scle stndrds writing project, collbortively chieved through democrtic group process. Understnding University Success lists competencies by disciphne, using structure nd lnguge esily dopted by K-12 eductors. There re strong similrities between this project nd the Cliforni study, including n emphsis on hbits of mind, evluting informtion, nd independence. Both documents emphsize the importnce of online reserch nd the prticulr problems of using Internet resourcesprobbly n indiction of some of the problems experienced by fculty with online plgirism nd nivete. linportnt dditionl ides in Understnding University Success include: * Reserch cross disciplines-students should be ble to conduct inquiries regrdless of the cdemic re, since l content res hve ccepted modes of inquiry. * Connective inteligence-students should use personl experience nd knowledge of other topics to connect ides cross content res, to think beyond the informtion tht is provided in lectures nd in texts, nd to move up nd down through levels of context nd generlity. * Informtion litercy-this document explcitly uses the concept of informtion litercy, defining it s the bility to find informtion, evlute it, nd synthesize ides from vriety of sources. Together, these two documents present powerful picture of wht college fculty expect of new students, nd to some extent their ssessment of students' rel bilities when they enter college.
3 m 11 lnfopmtion Litepc 0 How Are Students Doing? The Dunn Study Tking yet nother pproch, the lrge-scle Dunn study ttempts to mesure nd describe the entering informtion competence skills of Cliforni college students. 8 Its methods included quntittive questionnire pretest for entering students nd qulittive observtion to describe behvior of students serching for informtion, long with plns for other study components in yers to come. Its two primry reserch questions sought to identify the informton competence levels of freshmen nd explore methods for ssessing those competence levels. Dunn sttes tht in the pst, informdon competence ws tested with fill-in-the-blnk or multple-choice tests tht re unble to ssess student's bility to serch. According to her, "Informtion litercy skills expressed s stndrds or competences lck concrete vribles tht cn be denly ssessed," problem encountered firsthnd by mny SLMSs nd techers. 9 Qulittive observtion my be the best wy to ssess infornton competence, but n extremely demnding one in termns of n eductor's time. As one compromise, she used informton scenrios nd Web-bsed test forms. In one mode of these tests, students red informtion chllenge scenrios nd were sked to indicte wht cdons they would tke in response. Their responses were ssessed for bredth (number of initil responses) nd depth (number of "discrete ides offered to elborte" the initil responses). Significnt findings include: Only 48 percent of 34,000 responding lumne felt "confident in their bility to find informtion." Informton competence does increse over the yers student is in college. e The more often students used librry resources, the higher their bility to do well in the bredth nd depth ctegories of scenrio testing. Incresed computer litercy enhnced bredth scores on the scenrios. Reference mterils t home increse bredth nd depth performnce. Ptterns of behvior differ between student use of Web sites nd librry dtbses nd online ctlogs. Students prefer to use technology before they visit librry, ccessing Web sites to provide summry informtion from books nd dtbses nd e-miling people who might know the nswers. Qulittive dt reveled tht students pprecite the convenience of the Internet, especilly its bility to provide wide vriety of informtion in one plce from home. For nother view of freshmn perspectives of informtion litercy, including similr ssessment of nivete, see Semns.' 0 In her qulittive study of the informtion litercy skills of entering freshmen, she found similr level of nivete bout reserch nd evluting informtion. She lso found tht these students benefited from forml online informtion litercy course, nd provides recommendtions for such course. Chllenging Issues Tken together, these three importnt resources pint vivid picture of the shortcomings of entering college students relted to informtion litercy. These problems re intertwined nd complex, nd not ll reside in the students themselves. In this section, I will describe ech mjor problem. Difficult Assessment It is difficult to ssess levels of informtion litercy. Process skills re best tested through performnce ssessments, which re time- nd lbor-intensive. In ddition, the fctors tht mke up informtion litercy re difficult to seprte nd judge discretely. This problem is not the fult of eductors, since it hs to do with the complex nture of the skills themselves. However, this difficulty inevitbly leds to poor representtion of informton litercy skills on stndrdized instruments nd plces n extr burden on techers nd SLMSs who try to ssess them. Lck of Dt The Cliforni study nd Dunn's work broke new ground in the ssessment of informtion litercy. In t lest prtil consequence to the difficulty of ssessment, scnty dt exist tht describe ctul levels of informtion litercy bility. Few high schools or universities require ny sort of ssessment of informtion litercy or qulifiction to be pssed." Without dt, it is difficult to describe the problem of lck of preprtion in college freshmen, nd when they fil, it is difficult to tie tht filure in ny wy to lck of informtion litercy. If eductors could demonstrte this connection through reserch, s SLMSs know it must exist, then the future of school librry medi progrms would be much more secure. Ability to Write Reserch Question College students nd even grdute students hve tremendous difficulty generting reserch questions or choosing focused topics for study. In my own work, nd in working with mny grdute reserch projects, I find this the most problemtic nd stress-inducing prt of n entire reserch project, whether it be literture review or disserttion. Kuhlthu describes this problem in her work, nd mny inquiry models re designed to help students find their interests nd estblish focus.'3 However, these solutions do not seem to hve widely ffected the current college-ge popultion.' 3 Ability to Access Informtion The three studies present disturbing informtion relted to the most bsic of informtion litercy skills-ccess. Fewer thn hlf of Dunn's prticipnt groups lumne reported feeling confident bout their bility to find informtion. Wht does this imply bout the three-qurters of our popultion who never finish college?' 4 Appropritely or not, most students turn first to the Internet in order to find informtion. As result they my often be using unrelible resources while expensive but generlly more credible resources lnguish on shelves.'. According to Gutierrez nd Wng, students hve so mny choices of informtion tody tht they begin with the convenient nd the fmilir, nd in mny cses void visiting the imposing cdemic librry ltogether.' 6 Qurton observes tht college students hve poor understnding of mny types of bsic nd uthorittive reference resources, such s subject encyclopedis, nd tht freshmen re ifl-prepred to perform complex dtbse serches."' Ability to Evlute Informtion Problems in the re of evluting informtion re prominent, mentioned in lmost every to w 0 S..De i,i
4 0 0-1= es 75 2q.E! resource compiling this rticle, nd certinly cler from my own reserch nd experience. College fculty my be unfirly blming this problem on the Internet, when in fct it hs lwys been something of problem. Certinly tody, bises cn be redily observed in brodcst medi nd print journlism. Cses of outright frud hve occurred in wht re usully considered highly credible resources. Still, it is doubtful tht professors re overestimting the gullibility problem, whether new or not. In fct, the Stnford Web Credibility Project is documenting this extensively in the entire Internet-using popultion, including eductors."8 If lcking these evlution skills t grdution, college students "re ill prepred to function in technologicl nd informtionrich environment." 19 Ability to Apply Informtion In the opinions nd observtions of college fculty, the most serious informtion litercy problems occur in reltion to the Infor,mtion Power Stndrd 3.2 The wekness most clerly ppers in student writing, the gret exposer of ll kinds of eductionl problems. From the beginning, college students re sked to nlyze ides nd lso to synthesize positions or knowledge from multiple sources. 2 ' Synthesis is one of the most difficult of reserch tsks becuse it requires evlution nd nlysis of individul resources, deconstructing resources into component prts, nd then reconstructing ides into new, orgnized cretion with vlue dded by the uthor. Thus, it requires cretivity nd most of the higher-order thinking skills, long with responsible use of uthors' ides. Fculty feel tht only bout third of students come to college prepred to perform this tsk. 22 Technology Technology plys n interesting role in the problem, with cler reltionships to severl informtion litercy stndrds. Student comfort with technology my led them to believe tht they re technology literte nd therefore informtion literte. 23 However, while students hve grown up with the Internet, they hve not improved in their level of sophistiction in ssessing the qulity of online resources. Their csul nd dily use of the Internet for mny purposes-including recretion nd socilizing-cretes climte in which they turn first to online resources nd to their ssumption tht they hve equl credibility with print resources nd virtul librry dtbses. When they trnsfer the hbits formed from this csul use to rigorous tsks, they run into trouble. 4 Techmology cn even nourish superficil work nd shllow thinking. College professors continue to be concerned bout high levels of suspected plgirism fforded esily by the Internet. 25 Qurton further complins tht students use the Internet to help them identify reserch topics t rndom nd unrelible sites, leding to tired, shllow, pop topics. 26 The Imposing Strngeness of n Acdemic Librry The mixed blessing of technology directly contributes to n older problem: the difficulty of moving from school medi center to n cdemic librry. There re considerble differences mong school, public, nd cdemic librries. School librries tend to be very smll, with nrrow rnge of resources. Although usully orgnized in the sme wy, public librries offer lrge res tht children re not encourged to use. Acdemic librries re orgnized ccording to the Librry of Congress system, with more complex OPAC interfce nd mny virtul dtbse offerings. Adding to the problem, ctlog nd dtbse systems chnge in look nd feel every few yers. Some school librry prctices compound the problem, hndicpping our students from n erly ge. For exmple, the prctice of rrnging books by reding level to mke it esier to work with computerized reding progrms, such saccelertedreder, is poorly justified. A system tht orgnizes books by level of reding difficulty hs no trnsferbility to cdemic librries. The imposing nd lien qulities of the cdemic librry must be dunting for freshmen, cusing them to prefer their fmilir Internet reserch ll the more. 21 As Robinson nd Nelson observe, students re unwidling to lern more bout the complex librry, becuse they wnt quick nswers to shllow questions.' Appliction to School Librry Medi: Recommendtions Whether you re educting grdutes who re college-bound or seeking jobs, the chllenge is the sme. Every citizen in democrcy is consumer, voter, potentil prent, nd decision-mker. All dults need these bsic informtion litercy skids. Even if your grdute wil never write criticl essy on Chucer, he or she widl need to purchse cr, vote for cndidte, nd tke position on importnt politicl issue. Informtion litercy nd technologicl competency re required to do these socil nd economic tsks effectively. The mjority of Americn dults re not colegeeducted, group certinly lrge enough to determine the result in ny ntionl election. We wnt them to be s informed s possible; ny grde from middle school up my be our lst chnce to help student lern these criticl skills. In my opinion, too lrge proportion of our limited eductionl resources re spent on prepring students for college in such content res s clculus nd literture. Rther, we should be building bsic litercy, hbitsof mind, informtion litercy, higher-order thinking, nd, in prticulr, criticl thinking skidls in ll of our students. These skills benefit everyone nd every future, nd they re the very ones tht codlege professors most miss. Here is list of recommendtions synthesized from the literture: o We must build towrd the end of citizens being comfortble in rnge of librries, including virtul ones. We cn strt by eliminting cryptic orgniztion schemes built on reding level. Tech bout the orgniztion of informtion nd serching skills t level tht wil generlize. Use this scenrio: "Wht if you need n nswer nd you wlk into strnge librry-wht should you do first?" Include technology in the rnge of possible ctions. Botmn emphsizes tht positive mindset is more importnt thn the skills.29 If students believe they cn find the informtion regrdless of the system, nd hve curious nd open ttitude, they wil be much more likely to persevere nd find their
5 0 lnfopmtion LitePcy K-20 o nswers. Botmn reminds us tht students should feel empowered in librries, not overwhelmed. Meet nd collborte wvith the librrins in your re, including those in other schools nd in public or cdemic librries. Hving these converstions will llow you to shre your mutul concerns nd brinstorm strtegies to help bridge the gp between librries. Remember to discuss online offerings nd OPACs. Just how odd is your utomtion system? Students should be ble to move from OPAC to OPAC nd not struggle with differences between them. Group purchsing decisions nd individul feedbck to developers help shpe softwre development. * For some excellent, specific recommendtions relted to moving students long from the K-12 informtion litercy stndrds to the higher eduction ones, revisit Choy's excellent rticle in Knowledge Quest from * Renew efforts to include ll students in your medi progrm. Dunn's reserch shows reltionship between the mere mount of librry use (good or bd) with incresed performnce, yet techers, dministrtors, nd even SLMSs continue to complin tht mny medi centers re underused. Wht percentge of your students regulrly visit the medi center or some other librry? If you hve popultion of nonvisitors, why is this so? These questions cn be solved through bsic ction reserch techniques. Identify the elements in the medi progrm or in the overll school opertion tht contribute to usge. How cn they be chnged? While these problems my seem imposing, they cn be tclded if nlyzed in this mnner. Promote the use of bsic reference tools t home nd t school. Encourge prents to provide n encyclopedi nd dictionry t home. I grew up with set of encyclopedis t home, nd mde sure to repet the experience for my dughter, so I believe in this strtegy. If encyclopedis re out of household's price rnge, then show prents nd students how to ccess credible online encyclopedis nd other reference tools, nd lend out seprte volumes. Provide remotely ccessible version of substntil encyclopedi s prt of your online services, or investigte whether your students nd prents cn ccess one through the public or stte librry with librry crd. Tech students to be curious bout the reference fcts buried in the fiction they red, such s geogrphicl nd historicl bckground. Students need n ds nd lmncs s well. 3 ' If students re going to depend hevily on the Internet for ll of their informtion needs, then we need to mke sure they hve ccess to relible resources online, nd help them become sophisticted bout using them." SLMSs should fully prticipte in ll progrms tht demnd writing components, in collbortion with techers. Certinly by middle school, every discipline re should encourge or require writing from their students, incorporting inquiry nd informtion litercy skdlls s pproprite. For exmple, the Ntionl Council of Techers of Mdhemtics stndrds emphsize writing tsks to enhnce mthemticl resoning nd ssess thinking, nd scientific inquiry includes both reserch into wht is lredy known bout question nd writing up the results. 33 o Work with students to lern to generte questions in response to wht they red, from pure curiosity bsed on wht they observe round them, nd to extend wht they red. 34 Continue to prctice informtion litercy integrtion cross ll disciplines, nd consider deling explicidy widh hbits of mind. If you lredy hve strong informtion litercy progrm, it is likely tht you re lredy doing this. Explicidy teching hbits of mind provides hndy wy to conceptulize number of importnt ttitudes tht often fll through the crcks in K-12 eduction. 35 Summry These three lrge, college-relted studies will be cited often over the next few yers in our field nd in others. They provide n importnt counterblnce to the trend towrd content re ccountbility currently in vogue. While content is importnt, we know tht only pplied knowledge relly impresses the long-term memories of most people. The fcts nd detils of clculus tend to stick only for those grdutes entering engineering nd relted fields, but the resoning processes needed to survive clculus will survive lifetime. Informtion litercy skills, hbits of mind, nd other process skills provide life skills tht pply cross ll disciplines. SLMSs must believe in the importnce of informtion litercy, nd these three studies re importnt tools to help us implement our progrms nd communicte our work to the public. 3 References 1. Ntionl Center for Eduction Sttistics: Digest of Eduction Sttistics, Chpter 5. Outcomes of Eduction, July 2002, <http://nces.ed.gov/progrms/digest/do2/ tbles/dt383.sp>. Accessed 12 Dec Southern Regionl Eduction Bord Fct Book Bulletin: Tnrning Freshmen Into Sophomores Is Key to Coliege Students' Success, Jn. 2003, <www.sreb.org/ min/eddt/buletin/fbbulletinjn2003. pdf>. Accessed 12 Dec Center for n Urbn Future: Building Highwy to Higher Ed: How Collbortive Efforst re Chnging Eduction in Americ, 12 June 2001, <www.nycfuture.org/contentl reports/report_view.cfm.?repkey=10>. Accessed 24 Sept Acdemic Litercy: A Sttement of Comnpetencies Expected of Students Entering Cliforni's Public Colleges nd Universities, 2002, <www. universityofcliforni.edu/sente/ reports/cdlit.pdf>. Accessed 3 Nov Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Understnding University Success: A Reportfrom Stndrdsfor Success: A Project of theassocition ofamericn Universities nd The Pew Chritble Trusts, 2003, <wvnv.s4s.org/ understnding.php>. Accessed 4 Nov I ms
6 C:, 2 w Ei Z 8. Kthleen Dunn, "Assessing Informtion litercy Skills in the Cliforni Stte University: A Progress Report,"Journl of Acdemic Librrinship 30, no. 1/2 (n.-mr. 2002): Ibid. 10. Nncy H. Semns, "Student Perceptions of Informtion litercy: Insights for Librrins," Reference Services Review 30, no. 2 (2002): Brbr Qurton, "Reserch Skills nd the New Undergrdute,"Journl of Instructionl Psychology 30, no. 2 (une 2003): Crol Kuhlthu, SeekingAlening:A ProcessApproch to Librry nd Informtion Services (Norwood, NJ.: Ablex, 1993). 13. Qurton, "Reserch Skills nd the New Undergrdute." 14. According to Sttisticl Abstrcts, the 2000 census found tht 25.6 percent of Americns hve t lest one college degree, <www.census.gov/sttbawww/ prt2.html#eduction>. Accessed 1 Dec Dunn, "Assessing Informtion litercy Skills in the Cliforni Stte University." 16. Crolyn Gutierrez nd Jinrong Wng, "A Comprison of n Electronic vs. Print Workbook for Informtion litercy Instruction,"Journl ofacdemic Librrinship 27, no. 3 (My2001): Qurton, "Reserch Skills nd the New Undergrdute." 18. Stnford Web Credibility Reserch: (Mostly) Evidence-bsed Articles on Web Credibility, 3 Nov. 2002, <http:// credibility.stnford.edu/credlit.html.> Accessed 12 Dec Qurton, "Reserch Skills nd the New Undergrdute," Americn Assocition of School Librrins nd Assocition for Eductionl Communictions nd Technology, Inforntion Power: BuildingPrtnerships forlerning (Chicgo: ALA, 1998). 21. Acdemic Litercy. 22. Ibid. 23. Ashley Robinson nd Elizbeth Nelson, "Plug-Ins for Criticl Medi litercy: A Collbortive Progrm," Online 26, no. 4 (uly/aug. 2002): Qurton, "Reserch Skills nd the New Undergrdute," Ibid. 25. Acdemic Litercy. 26. Qurton, "Reserch Skills nd the New Undergrdute." 27. Gutierrez nd Wng, "A Comprison of n Electronic vs. Print Workbook for Informtion Litercy Instruction"; Robinson nd Elizbeth Nelson, "Plug-Ins for Criticl Medi Litercy." 28. Robinson nd Nelson, "Plug-Ins for Criticl Medi Litercy." 29. Willim Botmn, "Public Librries As Bridge for College-Bound Young Adults," Reference & User Services Qurterly 42, no. 3 (spring 2003): Ellys Stem Choy, "Will Your Students Be Redy for College? Connecting K-12 nd College Stndrds for Informtion Litercy," Knowledge Quest 30, no. 4 (Mr./Apr. 2002): Dunn, "Assessing Informtion Litercy Skills in the Cliforni Stte University." 32. Ibid. 33. Acdemic Litercy. 34. Ibid. 35. Acdemic Litercy; Qurton, "Reserch Skills nd the New Undergrdute."
7 COPYRIGHT INFORMATION TITLE: Mking the Lep from High School to College: Three New Studies bout Informtion Litercy Skills of First-Yer College Students SOURCE: Knowl Quest 32 no4 Mr/Ap 2004 WN: The mgzine publisher is the copyright holder of this rticle nd it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this rticle in violtion of the copyright is prohibited. Copyright The H.W. Wilson Compny. All rights reserved.