Brighton Business School. Referencing Handbook. Editor: Tracey Taylor

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1 Brighton Business School Editor: Tracey Taylor

2 Contents 1 Introduction: Referencing your work Why reference? Are all sources equally useful for referencing? Where to reference? What s a bibliography and how does it differ from a reference section Harvard Referencing System Are there any exceptions? Citing within the text How do I cite within the text? What about page numbers and quotes? One page only More than one page Indented quotations Importance of accuracy When to use quotations When you don t need to acknowledge sources Can you quote too much in a piece of work? i Are there any variations to this? 5 2 Examples: books, journals, newspapers etc One author Two authors of one work Three authors of one work More than three authors of one work Authors of two different works An author with more than one cited publication in the same year Citing secondary sources Edited books Chapter in book two examples below Encyclopedia or dictionary Journals - article reference Conference paper Newspaper articles Corporate authors, reports, etc Annual report a Commercial report Lecture notes or in-house publications 14

3 2.17 Letters & other forms of personal communication Figures tables graphs- diagrams 15 3 Examples: electronic sources Citing in the text What s a corporate author? Reference section Search engines are not valid bibliographic sources Electronic article reference International electronic journal article Journal abstract from online database Online newspaper articles with author byline Online newspaper articles with no author byline Websites/Company websites Multiple references to website/company website Figures tables diagrams Electronically sourced lecture notes two examples: s E-book CD-ROM Radio or TV broadcast Video or DVD Online Video Clips 26 4 Example: Government publications Official publications/command papers: example Official publications/command papers: example Official publications/command papers: example A House of Commons Report A House of Lords Report An Act of Parliament 30 5 Creating the reference section 31 6 Glossary 35 7 Bibliography and notes 36 8 Notes: 38

4 1 Introduction: Referencing your work Please make sure that you read the following information. 1.1 Why reference? are essential. They acknowledge the sources of your information, ideas and arguments. The reader must be able, from your reference list, to follow up all your sources of information independently. Your references will demonstrate how widely you have read in a particular area. They will ensure that your ideas, opinions and arguments will be supported and strengthened by published and peer reviewed authors. Careful and meticulous referencing will mean that you do not lay yourself open to accusations of plagiarism. Remember that failure to acknowledge sources constitutes cheating leading to penalties and the probability of at least a lower class degree. Importantly, good referencing will lead to better marks. You are also strongly advised to consult the University s Plagiarism Awareness Pack, handed out at the start of the year and available on Studentcentral. 1.2 Are all sources equally useful for referencing? The straightforward answer to this is no. As University students you must endeavour to select valid, pertinent and authoritative sources. Lecturers will always assist you by furnishing you with relevant reading lists. You should also ensure you are familiar with Business Source Premier (BSP) and Emerald which you will find on Studentcentral on the online databases via the online library. This is a quick route to up-to-date journal articles which will need to figure prominently in your research. 1

5 1.3 Where to reference? need to be cited in two places. I: You need to make an abbreviated in-text citation when you refer to an author s material in the report or essay you are writing. This is sometimes also known as referencing in the text or source referencing. II: You will also need to make a full reference at the end of your report or essay. All sources that have been directly referred to within your piece of work must be listed, in full, in alphabetical order, by surname, in the reference section as the end of your piece of work. 1.4 What s a bibliography and how does it differ from a reference sections A bibliography differs from a reference section in that it will reflect your wider reading in a particular area even though you have not made direct use of the material in your own work. However, both the reference section and any bibliography need to include the full bibliographic description of each source. This means you must learn the academic habit of consistently noting all the elements required for the reader to find the information source: eg Author, date, title, publisher etc. Should your lecturers require you to produce a bibliography in addition to a reference section they will indicate this to you clearly. 1.5 Harvard Referencing System The following is generalised guidance based on the Harvard referencing system which is the preferred and accepted system of referencing within Brighton Business School. It is an author-date system and demands that the bibliographic information be structured in a specific and consistent order. 1.6 Are there any exceptions? There are other forms of referencing, most commonly used in History and Law, and you may come across these footnote and endnote styles in your reading. Please note that special conventions apply to the presentation and referencing of legal scholarship. Therefore, if you are submitting a piece of law coursework please refer to the detailed guidance in the Studying Law at Brighton Business School Handbook. An electronic copy of the Handbook is available on the School area of Studentcentral. 2

6 Note too, that the absolutely essential point regarding referencing is that the reader can go back and find the exact same source as you used. So, while you may see that there are variations of Harvard referencing regarding punctuation, use of italics and underlining etc, if your lecturer can track down your sources with ease you will not have too much to worry about. 1.7 Citing within the text This is a crucial skill to learn. A precise source reference will enable the reader to locate the material referred to easily and is the hallmark of good quality work. 1.8 How do I cite within the text? You need to include the minimum essential units of information that will directly link the reader to the full bibliographic details in your reference section. It should be organised in such a way that it causes the least amount of disruption to the reader s understanding of your sentence. Usually this means that in-text citations are positioned at the very end or the start of sentences. For example, let s say you have been reading a single authored text by Wendy Bloisi which was published by McGraw Hill Higher Education in 2006 called An Introduction to Human Resource Management. When you use this author s material in your own work you need only include the author s surname and date of publication - (Bloisi, 2006) - as this will take the reader directly to the work which will be arranged alphabetically by author surname in the reference section. For example, you might write in your work: Bloisi (2006) comments that human resource management is an essential aspect of successful business. (Sometimes called author-prominent referencing) or Human resource management is an essential aspect of successful business (Bloisi, 2006). (Sometimes called information prominent-referencing) 3

7 You do not need to include the title of the work, or its publisher, or the author s initial when you are citing within the text. So, remember, you need the smallest amount of essential information. This nearly always consists of AUTHOR(S) SURNAME and YEAR OF PUBLICATION. 1.9 What about page numbers and quotes? When citing in the text you need only include page numbers when you make a direct quote. For example: 1.10 One page only Peacock (2008, p47) states that self-selection is the process where a job seeker is given information about the negative aspects of of a vacancy More than one page If the quote used is longer and goes across more than one page the Harvard convention is to precede the number range with pp. This would as: The costs of staff turnover can be significant both financially and also in terms of the impact on an organisation s reputation and internal morale (Lanigan, 2008, pp48-49) 1.12 Indented quotations Longer quotes (more that 3 lines/30 words) need to be indented on a new line, in a smaller font size, and do not need quotation marks. Barry (2001, p3) observes of the modern, technology-driven world - We live in a technological society to the extent that specific technologies dominate our sense of the kinds of problems that government and politics must address, and the solutions that we must adopt. A technological society is one which takes technical change to be the model for political invention. or, Communication to the employee s immediate supervisor is, perhaps inevitably, the most important form of direct upward communication. However, we can also include here direct access to senior management, quality circles and suggestion schemes as ways in which some organisations have tried to provide channels to encourage employees to make their individual grievances known or to draw on the innovative and entrepreneurial skills of their workforce. (Brewster, Sparrow & Vernon, 2007, p196) 4

8 1.13 Importance of accuracy When using quotations you need to integrate them as well as you can into your text. Furthermore, you need to take care that you are absolutely accurate in how you reproduce the words. You must keep to the author s spelling, punctuation, grammar and choice of vocabulary. If there is an error of spelling or other oddity in the original text the word [sicshould be inserted immediately after in square brackets to indicate that this is how it s in the original. For example This in death [sic] research showed (Student meant to write in depth ) 1.14 When to use quotations Quotations can be used where the author has used an especially elegant phrase or, for example, outlined a major point that you need to use as evidence. They are also useful when you need to construct an argument for or against an idea expressed. Used in this way quotations are an excellent way of underpinning your own work When you don t need to acknowledge sources Occasionally it will not be necessary to reference. If you cite the Bible or Shakespeare (doesn t often happen in the Business School) or, if an idea can be considered to be in the public domain, then a reference may not be required. However, take care. At undergraduate level you will not be penalised for over-referencing work you have read and the academic convention of supporting your work with well sourced references is one you must grasp and master Can you quote too much in a piece of work? Yes. Remember that we are looking for evidence that you have understood the texts that you have read. This means that you must learn to paraphrase and summarize the ideas, information and theories of the published authors obviously with correct references. A list of long quotations in the words of the original author(s) does not show your tutor/lecturer that you have understood the material Are there any variations to this? Clearly not all texts are written by a single author and, as well as journals and books, you will need to make use of conference proceedings, electronic publications, official government publications as well as other forms of publication. In every case you will need to find the minimum, essential units of information that will make a clear link to the full bibliographic details in your reference section. Below, therefore, we give examples of standard Harvard referencing practice for the various types of publications you will more commonly use in your research at University 5

9 2 Examples: books, journals, newspapers etc. 2.1 One author Jones (2011) demonstrates the relevance of key areas Jones, L. (2011) Introduction to Business Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press Author surname, Initial. (date) Title. edition, Place: Publisher 2.2 Two authors of one work According to Berry & Robertson (2010) Berry, A. & Robertson, J. (2010) Financial Accounting: an introduction. 2 nd ed. Harlow:Pearson Author surnames, Initials. (date) Title. Edition, Place:Publisher (list author names in the order they on the title page) 6

10 2.3 Three authors of one work Slack, Chambers & Johnston (2006) argue persuasively that Slack, N., Chambers, S. & Johnston, R. (2006) Operations Management. 5 th ed, London: FT Prentice Hall Bibliographic order this is the order in which each detail must Author surname, Initial. (date) Title. edition, Place: Publisher (list author names in the order they on the title page) 2.4 More than three authors of one work Note: et al. which is Latin for et alli means and others and, when used, should always be italicized Brewster et al. (2003) states that retention is an advantage of flexible patterns of work Brewster, C., Carey, L., Dowling, P., Grobler, P., Holland, P. & Warnich, S. (2003) Contemporary Issues in Human Resource Management: gaining a competitive advantage. Cape Town: Oxford University Press Author surname, Initial. (date) Title. edition, Place: Publisher (list author names in the order they on the title page) 7

11 2.5 Authors of two different works Note: The references in brackets are in alphabetical order. According to a number of surveys (Holbeche, 2001, Jay, 1998), the main reasons people leave a job include Holbeche, L. (2001) Aligning Human Resources and Business Strategy. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Jay, D. (1998) The Essential Personnel Sourcebook. 2 nd ed. London: Financial Times Pitman Author surname, Initial. (date) Title. edition, Place: Publisher (references should in alphabetical order) 2.6 An author with more than one cited publication in the same year Note: Distinguish these by adding lower case letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year and within the brackets: Arnold (2004a) proposed that It has been argued by Arnold (2004b) that Reference Arnold, G. (2004a) Financial Times Guide to Investing: the definitive companion to investment and the financial markets. London: Financial Times Arnold, G. (2004b) Handbook of Corporate Finance: a business companion to financial markets, decision & techniques. New York: Financial Times. Author surname, Initial. (datea) Title. edition, Place: Publisher Author surname, Initial. (dateb) Title. edition, Place: Publisher 8

12 2.7 Citing secondary sources I: Best practice is to cite from the original source. However, this is not always possible especially when students are directed to introductory text books which survey a large body of knowledge. In these instances it is incumbent upon you to ensure that the reader knows you discovered the material from a secondary source. II: In the example below you will see that the reference section needs full details of Huczynski & Buchanan because you have not read the original work by Deborah Tanner. You must, therefore, direct your readers to find the reference to it in Huczynski & Buchanan. Tanner (1998, cited in Huzcynski & Buchanan, 2007) claims that girls are disadvantaged by. Huczynski, A. & Buchanan, D. (2007) Organizational Behaviour: an introductory text. 6 th ed, London: Prentice Hall Author surname, Initial. (date) Title. edition, Place: Publisher (list author names in the order they on the title page) 2.8 Edited books There is no doubt that computer aided process and product engineering are hugely valuable to business (Puigjaner & Heyen, 2006). Puigjaner, L. & Heyen, G. (eds) (2006) Computer Aided Process and Product Engineering. Chichester: Wiley Author surname, Initial. (editor(s)) (date) Title. Place: Publisher (list editors names in the order they on the title page) 9

13 2.9 Chapter in book two examples below As stated by Roberts (2003, p91) Shukla & Cheng-Ting (2008) make the point Roberts, L. (2003) Capital accumulation. Tourism and development processes in Central and Eastern Europe, in D Hall (ed) Tourism and Transition: governance, transformation and development. Oxfordshire: Cabi Publishing, pp Shukla, P. & Cheng-Ting, C. (2008) Buying behaviour in consumer to consumer (C2C) online auction commerce, in C Veloutsour & N Papadopoulos (eds) Marketing in Dynamic Environments: Contemporary Research Advances. Athens: Atiner, pp Editor s initial precedes the surname as the person s name is irrelevant when arranging the reference list alphabetically. Note too, that only the book title is italicized not the chapter title Author surname, initial. (Year) Title & subtitle of chapter, in Editors (eds), Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, pages of chapter 10

14 2.10 Encyclopaedia or dictionary Note that you need to arrange this work by O for Oxford not T for the when you complete your reference section and that title is used as Author. The Oxford English Dictionary (2001) defined it as The Oxford English Dictionary. (2001), Vol 3, 2 nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Title as author, (Date) Volume, Edition, Place: Publisher 2.11 Journals - article reference Note: even if you retrieve a journal article electronically using the online library and its databases,( Emerald or Business Source Premier, for example), this does not mean that the article is an e journal article. It simply means that you have gained access to a print journal via an online database. You need to be clear about this. Any journal that is published in print format does not need online details in the reference section. So, the following example shows you how to do this CORRECTLY Lain (2011) suggests that a US policy approach would Lain, D. (2011) Helping the Poorest Help Themselves? Encouraging employment past 65 in England and the USA. Journal of Social Policy. Vol. 40, No. 3, p493 Author. (Date) Article title, Journal Title. volume, part, pages To add the URL is INCORRECT. You do not need a URL/web address for an article that has been published in a print journal. Please avoid doing this. 11

15 2.12 Conference paper Research by Taylor (2011) shows a clear correlation between Taylor, T. (2011) The Trouble with First Years: Attendance, Achievement and Attitudes of 1st year Business Students. Scanning the Horizons: Institutional Research in a Borderless World. HEIR Conference. June 16-17, University of Kingston Author surname, initial. (date) Title of paper. Conference Name, Date of conference, Location of conference, Place of publication: 2.13 Newspaper articles The cost of placing ads on Facebook has risen by 74% (Bradshaw, 2011). Bradshaw, T. (2011) Facebook ad prices soar as brands shift spending online. Financial Times. July 19, 2011, p17 Author, (date) Title of article, Title of Newspaper. detailed date, page number(s) 2.14 Corporate authors, reports, etc Many pieces of work are not the responsibility of one individual as they are produced by an organization. This is known as a corporate author. In such instances the organization should be listed as the author. 12

16 2.15 Annual report Note that the author in this instance is a corporate author. In a challenging economic climate profits are up by more than 12%. (Marks & Spencer, 2011) Marks & Spencer (2011) Annual Review and Financial Statements London: Marks & Spencer Corporate Author (year), Report Title. Place, Publisher 2.15 a Commercial report Webb (2004) states that knowledge management is an emerging discipline Webb, J. (2004) Knowledge Management for SMEs: Solutions & Strategies. London: Ark Group Author (year), Report Title. Place, Publisher 13

17 2.16 Lecture notes or in-house publications Note: provide the best details that you can. Harris (2008) highlighted the Harris, C. (2008) Performance Related Pay. [Lecture notes] Brighton: University of Brighton Business School, Unpublished Author. (date) Title of Lecture. [Medium] Place of publication: Publisher Letters & other forms of personal communication Note: Ordinarily personal forms of communication would not in a published reference section as they would not be available to the general reader. Oakley (2008) pointed out Oakley, P. (2008) Discussion on grade inflation. [Personal communication] 22 April 2008 Author. (date) Title/Topic of communication. [Medium] date 14

18 2.18 Figures tables graphs- diagrams Note: figures, tables, graphs and diagrams must always be numbered and labelled. They must also be included in your contents page. For example, if you were to include a figure you had accessed from the MBA Handbook: Study Skills for Postgraduate Management Study, you would need to number the figure and, below the figure, give its source or, state that it was adapted from plus the source. For example: Figure 1: Relevance tree Source: (Cameron, 2001, p125) 15

19 Relevance trees, such as figure 1 above (Cameron, 2001, p125) show Cameron, S. (2001) Relevance Tree, The MBA Handbook: Study Skills for Postgraduate Management Study. London: FT Prentice Hall Bibliographic order this is the order in which each detail must Author. (year) Title of table, Title. Place: Publisher 3 Examples: electronic sources Students often have trouble referencing correctly from electronic sources - in part because this is a still an emerging area but mostly because they mistake something that they access via the internet as an electronic source when it is not. It is, therefore, particularly important that you read the following section carefully. Remember that the same principle applies to electronic sources as apply to paper based sources. The reader must be able to track back to your source. The information that s in your in-text citation must be the minimum amount of information that will take the reader directly to the author in your reference section. 3.1 Citing in the text When citing in the text you need only author, date, and remember, it may well be a corporate author. 3.2 What s a corporate author? Where there is no personal author it is usual to reference by the body that commissioned the work, for example, government departments, companies and organisations. 16

20 3.3 Reference section In the reference section you need: Full bibliographic details as well as the type of medium; e.g. CD-Rom or Online, and this will in [square brackets]. The full web address with chevrons at the beginning and end; e.g. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/ stm> And finally, in square brackets, you need to include the date you accessed the material; e.g. [accessed 24 th April 2008]. 3.4 Search engines are not valid bibliographic sources You must be careful not to mistake a search engine for the correct web address. Students should be reminded that Google, for example, is a search engine and therefore not to be used in your references. The following is an example of a URL from Google for the Stern Report on climate change: meta= This just shows the search terms put in not the result of the search. The first result from Google is the link to the URL: climate_change/sternreview_index.cfm which would be the correct URL to include in the online part of the reference. The same applies to Altavista and Ask Jeeves etc. 17

21 3.5 Electronic article reference Note: The clues that this is an e journal article and not a print article are 1) in the title of the journal which is plainly called Sociological Research Online and 2) the absence of page numbers. Because it is only available online you must include the URL address as shown below. According to Hammersley and Gomm (1997) Hammersley, M. & Gomm, R. (1997), Bias in social research. Sociological Research Online [Online], Vol 2 (Issue 1) Available at <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/socresonline/2/1/2html> [Accessed 16 June 1998] Author(s), (year) Title, Journal Title. [Online], volume (issue). Available at <URL> [Accessed date] 3.6 International electronic journal article Note: If you include a foreign language article you must translate the title into English. Farache, Wanderley & Perks (2007) discuss this point Farache, F., Wanderley, L. & Perks, K. (2007) Responsabilidade Social das Empresas na web: estrategias de divulgacao adotadas por empresas no Brasil e na Franca. ( Corporate Social Responsibility in the web: communication strategies adopted by French companies in Brazil and France ) Gestão.Org [ Online], Vol 5 (Issue 3), p Available at <http:// PARCERIAS_EXIB_01.pdf> [ Accessed on 23 June 2008] 18

22 Bibliographic order this is the order in which each detail must Author(s), (year) Title. ( Translated title ), Journal Title [Online], volume (issue). Available at <URL> [Accessed date] 3.7 Journal abstract from online database Boughton s (2002) proposal examines Boughton, J.M. (2002) The Bretton Woods proposal: an in-depth look. Political Science Quarterly, [Online] Vol 42 (Issue 6). Abstract from Blackwell Science Synergy database, <http://www.pol.upenn/ articles, Blackwell Science Synergy [accessed 12 June 2005] Author, (Date) Title of article. Title of Journal, [Medium] Volume (issue/ part), page(s) <URL> [Accessed date] 3.8 Online newspaper articles with author byline According to Grimston (2008) Grimston, J. (2008) Nearly a quarter of students do not finish their university courses. What is going wrong? The Times, 24 th February 2008 [Online] <http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sitesearch.do?query=student+retention+un iversity> [accessed 15 March 2008] Author, (date) Title of page/article. Title of Newspaper, detailed date [Medium] <URL> [Accessed date] 19

23 3.9 Online newspaper articles with no author byline Apple sold over 20 million iphones in its third quarter (Guardian, 2011) Guardian (2011) iphone sales boost ARM as FTSE rises. Guardian. 20 July [online] <http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/marketforceslive/2011/ jul/20/arm-leads-rising-ftse> [accesses 21 July 2011] Bibliographic order this is the order in which each detail must Author (date) Title of page/article. Title of Newspaper, detailed date [Medium] <URL> [Accessed date] 3.10 Websites/Company websites L Oreal (2009) offers opportunities in 5 major areas At Corus (2009) new business development is an important L Oreal (2009) Careers [Online] < index.aspx> [accessed 14 June 2009] Corus (2009) Technology [Online] < technology/> [accessed 14 June 2009] Author, (date) Title. [Type of Medium], <URL address> [date accessed] 20

24 3.11 Multiple references to website/company website Note: Where you have cause to refer multiple times to a particular website it is useful to the reader if you differentiate the pages clearly using the a/b/c system as shown below. According to recent studies of PlayStation gaming habits (BBC News 2004a, BBC News 2004b) there is a lot of... BBC News, (2004a) New PlayStation set for May debut. [Online] <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/ stm> [accessed 12th July 2004] BBC News, (2004b) Gaming pleasures to come. [Online] <http:// news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/ stm> [accessed 12th July 2004] Bibliographic order this is the order in which each detail must Author, (date) Title. [Type of Medium], <URL address> [date accessed] 3.12 Figures tables diagrams Note: figures, tables, graphs and diagrams must always be numbered and sourced. They must also be included in your contents page. For example, if you were to include a table you had accessed from the Council of Mortgage Lenders, you would need to number the table and, below the table, give its source or, state that it was adapted from plus the source. It would look like this: 21

25 Source: Council of Mortgage Lenders 22

26 We can see in Table 1 above (CML, 2008) that Council of Mortgage Lenders, (2008) Table 1 Real GDP Growth. CML Housing and Mortgage Market Forecasts. Council of Mortgage Lenders [Online] <http://www.cml.org.uk/cml/statistics> [Accessed 22 June 2008] Author, (year) Title of table, Title. Publisher [Medium] <URL> [date accessed] 3.13 Electronically sourced lecture notes two examples: Bachan (2008) states Greener (2008) refers to Bachan, R. (2008) Lecture 11: The Labour Market. [Online lecture notes] delivered for EC161, Brighton University Business School, available from <https://studentcentral.brighton.ac.uk/webapps/portal/ frameset.jsp?tab=courses&url=%2fbin%2fcommon%2fcourse. pl%3fcourse_id%3d_50054> _ [27 June 2008] Greener, S.L. (2008) Collecting & Analysing Qualitative Data. [Online lecture] delivered for Research Methods module on 19th May 2008, Manchester, available from <http://campus.nccedu.com/resources/dotlrn/uowba/rm_9/ pages/frames.html> [Accessed ] Bibliographic order this is the order in which each detail must Author, (date) Lecture title. [online lecture] delivered for module on date, Place, available from <URL> [date accessed] 23

27 3.14 s Note: Ordinarily personal forms of communication would not in a published reference section as they would not be available to the general reader. Berry (2004) suggested that Berry, A Business education in Sussex. [ ] Personal to J. Smith. [28 Feb 2004]. Author, Year. Subject line from posting. [ ] Type of posting (personal, to group, memo) [date accessed] 3.15 E-book Fishman (2005) notes that Fishman, R. (2005) The Rise and Fall of Suburbia. [e-book] Chester: Castle Press, Available at <libweb.anglia.ac.uk/e-books> [accessed 5 June 2005] Bibliographic order this is the order in which each detail must Author, (date) Title. [Medium] Place of publication: Publisher, <URL> [Accessed date] 24

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