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1 dlsoft Barcodes By dlsoft

2 This manual was produced using ComponentOne Doc-To-Help.

3 Contents Barcodes 1 Introduction D Barcodes... 1 Barcode types supported... 2 GS1 - EAN and UCC barcodes Recommended sizes ISBN barcode changes Location numbering D Barcodes D Barcode types supported Pattern strings Composite symbol products GS1 Composite Symbols Notes on Metafiles Index 55 dlsoft Barcodes Contents iii

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5 Barcodes Introduction dlsoft products support a wide range of barcode types and we endeavour to keep up to date with barcode specifications. However, it is important to understand that the standards specified for barcodes have arisen from a wide range of sources, and some barcode specifications have been modified over a period of time. Furthermore some barcode types have been largely superseded by more modern code types, usually because modern types have a higher reliability. In these notes we aim to provide: 1) Details of the barcode types supported by dlsoft barcode products; note that not all products support all barcode types included here. 2) Some general information about the codes you need to provide to produce satisfactory barcode images 3) The code # numbers required to access the barcode types if you are programming the dlsoft products that support multiple barcode types, such as the Universal products (dbarcode DLL, dbarcode.net, dbarcode-2k, Active Barcode Component Universal). Programmers who are using multiple code types are advised to print out the code type table. The dlsoft barcode library forms the basis of the dbarcode range of products and a number of label and form printing applications. For this reason a number of references to dbarcode appear in the text. To accommodate the different formats in which this document appears most barcodes are shown at larger sizes than they would normally be used. 1D Barcodes Several fundamental characteristics of barcodes need to be understood by users of dlsoft barcode products: 1. The thickness of bars in barcodes is important. The size of the smallest element of a barcode is known as its X unit size or X dimension and in standards this is usually specified in units of Mils (0.001 inches). dlsoft barcode products may refuse to create a barcode image if the bar thickness within the metafile becomes too small. However, even when dlsoft barcode products creates an image you may resize it within another application so that when it is printed by the other application its lines may too small for the printer's resolution. Consequently it is essential that you check that a printed barcode is readable using an appropriate scanner or reader. Barcodes printed by laser printer will, in general, be printed correctly, but codes printed by matrix printers must be reproduced at a large enough scale that the barcodes unit size is at least as large as the printer's pins. Bar reduction: All dlsoft barcode products allow the thickness of bars to be reduced (for example to allow for ink spread during wet ink printing processes), but this adjustment should only be made when the knowledge of the extent of reduction required is available. Random guesses usually produce unreadable images! dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 1

6 2. Many barcode types may use codes only of a specific length. (e.g. EAN13 requires 13 digits in the code). Some barcode type use specific digits of the code as a checksum - so not every combination of digits can form a legal barcode. dlsoft barcode products can optionally calculate checksum digits, requiring only the other digits to be entered by the user. Furthermore most coding schemes are limited to 32 characters or less. 3. The barcode types supported in this release are shown in the barcodes table below. If you plan to use a specific barcode type you should examine the notes on that type before printing any barcode images. 4. Users should be aware that it is possible to generate barcodes of a specific type and find that normal retail scanners are unable to decode the images. This does not necessarily mean that there is anything wrong with the barcode image. Most scanners aimed at the retail market are not programmed to interpret barcode codes reserved for other (eg. military) use. 5. The Extra options. All of our products, which use the DLSBARxx barcode library, provide access to two options not detailed in the product manuals. These are the options EXTRA1 and EXTRA2, which may appears as checkboxes in dialogs, or as additional bit flags in the DLL or OCX. These options are used only for a limited number of barcodes, which have unusual features. The effect of these options is described under the barcode types, which use them. For all other barcode types these options may be ignored or set to 0. Barcode types supported In the table below the types of barcodes supported by this release of the library are summarised, together with the type and number of characters, which are specified for that barcode type. In this connection "any" means capital letter and number characters; in some cases additional characters are defined, but lower case letters are not permitted. The code# represents the code type number used in calls to the dbarcode DLL (DLSBAR32.DLL). Telepen provides codes for the first 127 ASCII characters, but with restrictions on the ordering of letters and numbers. Only Extended Code 39 and the EAN 128 and Code 128 codes provide symbols for the full ASCII character set. There are many named barcode types, which are actually derivatives of major types. To avoid the table (and userprogramming) becoming excessively complex, both the table and calls to the library report only the generic name. For example: The ISBN, ISSN and JAN coding scheme are all variants of the EAN scheme. There are several coding schemes (such as DEFCON) which are actually Code 39, and some countries use Code 128 under other names for mail tracking (as in the UK). Barcode Types Table code#.net CodeType Code type no. of characters check digit of 5 any numbers of 9 any State any 1 optional 41 51* Australia Post numeric 1 automatic China Postal Any numeric 1 optional 16 2 Codabar/NW-7 any Code 11 any 1 or Code 128 any 1 automatic 8 0 Code 39 any 1 optional 36 6 Code 93 any 2 optional Code B any numbers none Code128 Type A any 1 automatic Code128 Type B any 1 automatic Databar Omni (AI +)14 numbers 1 automatic 2 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

7 69 55 Databar Truncated (AI +)14 numbers 1 automatic Databar Limited (AI +)14 numbers 1 automatic Databar Expanded any Deutsche Post numeric 10 9 EAN/UCC-128 any 1 automatic EAN/UCC numbers EAN13 13 numbers EAN numbers EAN numbers EAN-8 8 numbers EAN numbers EAN numbers Ext. Code 93 any (full ASCII) 2 optional 18 1 Ext. Code 39 any (full ASCII) 1 optional 31 FIM A fixed code 0 32 FIM B fixed code 0 33 FIM C fixed code 0 75 FIM D fixed code HIBC Code 128 various HIBC Code 39 various IATA 2 of 5 Any numeric 66 52* InfoMail A 21 numeric Intelligent Mail numeric IM Package Barcode numeric 1 Mod automatic 12 4 Interleaved-2 of 5 number pairs 1 optional ISBN 10/13 digit ISBN 1 automatic ISBN+2 digit any / 2 1 automatic ISBN+5 digit any / 5 1 automatic ISMN 8/9 digit ISMN 1 automatic ISSN 9/10 digit ISSN 1 automatic ISSN+2 digit any / 2 1 automatic ISSN+5 digit any / 5 1 automatic 53 49* Italian Postal 2/5 12 numbers 1 automatic 52 50* Italian Postal 3/9 2+8+c ITF numbers 1 (EAN optional) 7 39 ITF-6 6 numbers Japan Post any automatic 51 48* Korean Postal 6 1 Authority 39 5 Matrix 2/5 numeric 1 optional MSI any numbers 1 or Planet automatic Planet automatic Plessey numeric/some alpha PostNet type A 5 numbers PostNet type C 9 numbers PostNet type C' 11 numbers PZN 6 numbers 1 automatic RM4SCC any 1 44 SISAC SICI codes SSCC 17 numbers 1 dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 3

8 42 Swiss Post fixed code Telepen ASCII any 1 optional Telepen numeric any 1 optional Telepen standard any 1 optional 4 18 UPC-A 12 numbers UPCA+2 14 numbers UPCA+5 17 numbers UPC-E 7 numbers 1 23 UPCE+2 9 numbers 1 24 UPCE+5 12 numbers * UPC-E0 12 reduced to * UPC-E1 12 reduced to 7 1 *.NET v2.0 components only 2 of 5 2 of 5 is a discrete, self-checking numeric only coding scheme, which is not very efficient and not recommended for new applications. 2 of 5 symbols do not use a check digit of 5 2 of 5 is also known as Standard 2 of 5 or Industrial 2 of 5. 2 of 7 Code 2 of 7 Code is also known as Codabar (see Codabar) 4 State 4 State is a clocked code (ie. A constant pitch between the vertical bars) with 4 possible bar positions. It is used in some European countries to encode postal codes on mail, often without start and stop bars and in some cases without a check digit. 4 State The UK postal RM4SCC code is based on the 4-State code but requires start and stop bars and a check digit. Australia Post The Australian Postal Service uses a variant of the 4 State code with Reed-Solomon Error Correction. 4 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

9 Australia Post barcodes are made up of a two digit Format Control Field (FCC), an 8 digit Delivery Point Identifier (DPID), and (for Customer 2 & 3 formats) a variable length Customer Information Field. For convenience some of the formats may be created automatically: Standard Customer code (FCC=11): by unchecking both the EXTRA1 and IEXTRA2 checkboxes in applications, or clearing the flags parameter bits DL_FLAG_EXTRA1 (bit 4 of the flags variable) and DL_FLAG_EXTRA2 (bit 5 of the flags variable). Customer 2 (FCC=59): by checking the EXTRA1 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA1 (bit 4 of the flags variable). Customer 3 (FCC=62): by checking the EXTRA2 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA2 (bit 5 of the flags variable). If both EXTRA1 and EXTRA2 flags are checked (or both flags parameter bits DL_FLAG_EXTRA1 (bit 4 of the flags variable) and DL_FLAG_EXTRA2 (bit 5 of the flags variable) are set, then the barcode type is determined by the first two digits of the data according to the following table: FCC type number of bits 11 Customer Barcode Metering Manifesting Customer Barcode Bussiness Reply Paid Customer Barcode Bussiness Reply Paid Metering Metering Customer Barcode International Reply Paid Metering Customer Barcode International Reply Paid Customer Barcode International Reply Paid Redirection Barcode 37 If the 8 digit DPIP is then the FCC field is set to 00. This FCC is used on mail where customers DO NOT include the DPID of a customer, but do want to take advantage of imbedding their own data in the barcode. Australia Post The barcode will typically be printed with a height of 5 mm, and an overall length reflecting the number of bars at approximately bars per inch Bookland barcodes Bookland barcodes are unique numbers that are printed on the covers of books. They contain the book's ISBN number and pricing information encoded using EAN 13 bar codes with a 5 digit supplementary code. (Note that a new ISBN numbering system was added in 2007 see ISBN) dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 5

10 For a book with ISBN retailing at $19.95 in the US, the data to encode is generated by taking 978, followed by the ISBN number (the last digit of the ISBN number is a check digit and is not included), followed by a currency digit (5 for US$) and a four digit price (51995), ie These numbers may be entered in dlsoft products using the \ separator between the ISBN number and the supplementary, eg /51995 China Postal Code The China Postal Code is a variant on Matrix 2 of 5 but with modified start and stop characters. China Postal Code is also known as Datalogic 2 of 5 Codabar Codabar is a discrete, self-checking symbology developed by Monarch Marking Inc in It is known as NW-7 in Japan, as it has Narrow and Wide bars and 7 elements per character. It is also known as USD-4 and 2 of 7 code. The Codabar coding scheme has 16 characters in its character set; the digits 0-9, and the characters $ : / It has a choice of four start & stop characters, although some versions allow a choice of eight! By default dlsoft barcode products uses A and C for start and stop respectively. However, by prefixing the barcode with a caret (^) and two of the allowed symbols, or by including the start and stop characters in the data you can use any of the allowed Codabar characters may be used for start and stop; eg prefixing data with. ^AT causes A to be used as the start character and T to be used for the stop character Codabar The allowed Codabar start and stop characters are: A B C D E N T * The start and stop characters may be displayed in text form by setting the Extra 2 flag. 6 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

11 Codabar does not define a check digit, and being a self-checking code a check digit is somewhat pointless. However, two check digit type are in common use. Mod 10 check digits are often used in Codabar symbols, and by default dlsoft products will generate a Mod 10 check digit if required. The alternative check digit type is the AIM (Mod 16) check digit. Setting the Extra 1 flag causes dlsoft products to use the Mod 16 algorithm for checkdigits in Codabar symbols. Codabar barcodes are also known as Monarch barcodes, 2 of 7, NW-7 and USD-4 barcodes. Code 11 Code 11 is an older discrete, non-self-checking numeric code that is used by a number of large organisations, but is rarely found on retail scanners Code 11 Code 11 symbols may optionally include one or two Mod 11 checkdigits. The dlsoft libraries use a single checkdigit for data lengths of 11 characters or less, and two checkdigits for data lengths of 11 characters or more. Code 39 Code 39 is a discrete, self-checking symbology, is by far the most common barcode scheme outside the retail area and is read by most scanners, although it is not as compact as Code 93 or Code 128. The normal Code 39 scheme encodes both numbers and upper case letters, and was the first alphanumeric symbology: Standard Code 39 Code 39 has an optional Mod 43 checkdigit. The Extended Code 39 scheme also includes the lower case letters and much punctuation. abcd Extended Code 39 dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 7

12 It should be noted that Extended Code 39 represents most of the additional characters by using two characters from the standard Code 39 character set. Consequently Extended Code 39 symbols are about twice as long as standard Code 39 symbols. Code 39 is a discrete symbology - so the gap between ciphers may be larger than a unit space. Some users mistake that inter-cipher gap for a space and become concerned because it is not the same size as in another barcode representing the same characters. There is no substitute for testing the barcode with a scanner! Also the start and stop characters are the same, and sometimes may be represented in the human readable form by an asterisk. If iextra1 is set the start and stop characters are shown as an asterisk in the human-readable form. If iextra1 is not set then the start and stop characters are not represented in human-readable form. If iextra2 is set an inter-cipher gap of 1 unit is used. If iextra2 is not set there is no inter-cipher gap. Code 93 Code 93 is a continuous, non-self-checking symbology, was designed to complement Code 39 and is a more compact code than the latter. The library supports both the standard Code 93 (numbers and upper-case letters) and the Extended (full ASCII) Code Z Code 93 Code 93 symbols allow for two optional Mod 47 check characters, which are not normally included in the human readable form. Code 128 & GS1-128 Code 128 and GS1-128 are modern very high density, continuous and self-checking symbologies. They have three coding schemes each and permit the inclusion of special characters not present on the keyboard. If no coding scheme is specified the dlsoft libraries automatically select the most suitable type. For GS1-128 scheme C is used for any code which has numbers in the first four digits (as recommended by the GS1). A specific subtype scheme may be selected by making the first character one of the start characters specified below or, in most dlsoft products, by selecting the Code 128A or Code 128B subtypes. All Code 128/GS1-128 symbols contain a Mod 103 check character. The dlsoft libraries always calculate the Mod 103 check digit required in 128 barcodes, and this check digit is never produced in human readable form. GS1-128 barcodes are distinguished from Code 128 by the presence of a Function 1 (FNC1) character as the first character encoded. 8 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

13 GS Code-128 The special characters may be entered as <ALT>0XYZ, where XYZ is the 3 digit ASCII code (+128 for values <32), or according to the following table: XYZ character Code A Code B Code C 197 Å DEL 198 Æ func. 3 func Ç func. 2 func È shift shift 201 É code C code C 202 Ê code B func. 4 code B 203 Ë func. 4 code A code A 204 Ì func. 1 func. 1 func Í Start A Start A Start A 206 Î Start B Start B Start B 207 Ï Start C Start C Start C 208 Ð NUL Code C codes only the digit pairs Note that EAN/UCC-128 codes have parentheses removed before coding, so ( and ) may appear in the human readable form but will be omitted from the barcode. Parentheses may not be used as part of the code data except where surrounding a GS1 Application Identifier (AI).. Spaces may be stripped from the text provided for input by checking the EXTRA1 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA1 (bit 4 of the flags variable) or BarCode.Extra1 in the OCX. This allows spaces to appear in the text under the symbol while not being included in the symbol itself. dlsoft barcode products normally provide the control codes for switching between subtypes automatically, but this facility can be turned off by checking the EXTRA2 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA2 (bit 5 of the flags variable) or BarCode.Extra2 in the OCX. When the barcode library is to provide control codes no additional control codes should be provided by the user, although an initial Start A or Start B code may be given if it is desired to force the symbol to start in a particular code type. Users should note that if this option is chosen then the barcode produced may not appear identical to a sample obtained from another source - although it will scan to produce the same characters. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 9

14 Many dlsoft products also include the option to select Code 128A or Code 128B code types and these attempt to encode the data using subtype A or subtype B respectively without requiring the user to insert start characters. The majority of support calls result from users not using the correct 128 code variants (ie. A, B or C) or not being aware of which code variant a customer is expecting. Some customers expect only Code C, while others start in Code A and then switch to Code C, etc. It is important to be aware that the three code variants exist and will commonly be encountered within the same barcode. For this reason it is essential to ascertain which type the customer wants and if and where the code variant should change along the barcode. Users of EAN 128 should note that while there is a nominal size for these symbols (31.8 mm high and 11*n+2 mm long, where n is the number of characters including control codes), many applications of these codes use recommended sizes of between 50% and 84% of nominal. Code B Code B is a basic discrete numeric only code, which is fairly efficient in use of space Code B Code B do not define a check digit. Datalogic 2 of 5 See is also known as China Postal Code (see China Postal Code). Deutschen Post The Interleaved 2 of 5 barcode forms the basis of the German Identcode and Leitcode symbols used by Deutschen Post. These are 12 and 14 digit barcodes respectively, including an unusual weighted Mod 10 check digit Checking the EXTRA1 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA1 (bit 4 of the flags variable) turns on the Deutschen Post check digit when auto-check digit is also on, enabling the I-2 of 5 barcode image to be used as Identcode and Leitcode symbols. Note that spaces and periods are removed from the strings supplied for I-2 of 5 barcodes before the barcode image is created so the correct layout for Identcode and Leitcode text may be used to create the symbols. 10 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

15 DUN-14 DUN-14 is an older name for the EAN-14 numbers, based on the Distribution Unit Number. EAN-13 EAN-13 is now known as GS1-13. EAN-13 is the main scheme used throughout world-wide for retail article numbering. It is a numeric only coding scheme. The > symbol in the right margin is a light margin indicator. In the left margin the first code digit is used as the margin indicator. No other marking should appear in the light margins > EAN-13 EAN-13 codes require 13 digits (12 plus a check digit which may be calculated automatically). Numbers used for EAN article numbering are known as GTIN (Global Traded Item Numbers) assigned by the country s GS1 organisation. All EAN/UCC 13 barcodes use a checkdigit based on the GS1 Mod 10 calculation. Recommended sizes: The recommended size for EAN-13 barcodes is for an X value of 13 Mils and a bar height of 25 mm (1 inch). The permitted range of sizes is from 80% (X = 11 Mils, bar height = 20 mm (0.8 inch)) to 200% (X = 26 Mils, bar height = 50 mm (2 inch)). The ratio of height to width should be constant. Symbols with a smaller height than calculated from these figures are known as Truncated symbols and such symbols may not be acceptable for omnidirectional scanning. EAN codes may contain 2 or 5 digit supplementaries: 12> EAN13+2 dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 11

16 12345> EAN13+5 The ISBN coding scheme is EAN-13, with the first three digits being 978 or 979, and until recently the 9 digits the ISBN number of the book (without the ISBN check digit). The final digit is the GS1 calculated check digit. Since digit ISBN numbers have been issued and these contain the GS1 check digit. (See also the ISBN entry below). The ISSN coding scheme is EAN-13, with the first three digits being 977, 7 digits showing the ISSN number of the periodical (without check digit), and 2 spare digits (used in the UK to indicate price code changes, but which are otherwise 00). The final digit is the GS1 calculated check digit. The ISMN coding scheme is EAN-13, with the first three digits being 979, followed by 0 and the first 8 digits of the ISMN number. The final digit it the GS1 calculated check digit. The JAN coding scheme is EAN-13 with the first two digits being 49. Note that there is not a one to one correspondence between bars and the code numbers. EAN-8 EAN-8 is now known as GS1-8. GS1-8 is a smaller and shortened version of the GS1 13 barcode, requiring only 8 digits (7 digits plus a check digit) and supports 2 and 5 digit supplementaries. The 8 digits may consist of a 1, 2 or 3 digit GS1 prefix; the remaining digits comprise an item reference and a check digit. Where the prefix consists of the digit 0 or 2 the remaining 6 digits are available for internal (ie. non-traded) use, plus the check digit. In this case the GS1-8 symbols are mainly used for encoding local information - such as the price of an item in a supermarket EAN-8 EAN-8 requires 8 digits (7 plus a check digit which may be calculated automatically), and support 2 and 5 digit supplementaries. Recommended sizes: The recommended size for EAN-8 barcodes is for an X value of 13 Mils and a bar height of 18 mm (0.7 inch). The permitted range of sizes is from 80% (X = 11 Mils, bar height = 14.5 mm (0..56 inch)) to 200% (X = 36 Mils, bar height = 50 mm (1.4 inch)). 12 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

17 EAN/UCC-14 EAN/UCC-14 numbers may be represented by ITF or GS1-128 barcodes, and modern implementations should use GS1-128 so that is what the barcode libraries use. EAN/UCC-14 barcodes may be constructed from 12/13 digit retail UPC/EAN barcode numbers by left-filling the numbers with zeros, and uses a special checkdigit. EAN/UCC-14 in GS1-128 barcode format may be created by providing 13 digits; the Logistical Variant digit (normally 0 in the UK) followed by the first 12 of the retail digits (eg. from EAN-13 numbers but without EAN's check digit). Creation from UPC-A numbers requires two 0s followed by the first 11 digits of the UPC-A barcode number without the check digit. dlsoft barcode libraries can calculate the GS1 Mod 10 check digit if Auto-checkdigit is enabled, and then produces the GS1-128 barcode. If the EAN/UCC-14 checkdigit is to be provided the 14 digits are required, and Auto-checkdigit should be disabled. The library automatically inserts the (01) Application Identifier for identification of a Fixed Measure Trade Item, or, if the Extra1 flag is set, the (02) AI for identification of multiple trade items. (If an alternative identifier is required the GS1-128 barcode type should be used and the AI included in the data). Recommended sizes: The recommended size for EAN-14 barcodes is for an absolute minimum X value of 10 Mils, but more commonly within the range 20 Mils and 40 Mils. The bar height may be within the range 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) and 50 mm (2 inch). For further details see the GS1 general specification. FIM The Facing Identification Mark, or FIM, is a bar code designed by the United States Postal Service to assist in the automated processing of mail. There are four FIM codes which have the following uses: FIM-A FIM A is used for courtesy and metered reply mail with a pre-printed PostNet bar code. FIM B is used for business reply mail without a pre-printed ZIP+4 bar code. FIM C is used for business reply mail with a pre-printed ZIP+4 bar code. FIM D is used only with IBI postage. GS1-128 GS1 has now renamed EAN-128 and UCC-128 barcodes as GS dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 13

18 GS1-128 GS1-128 is a modern very high density coding scheme based on Code 128. GS1-128 uses the Code 128 scheme C for any code which has digits in the first four character positions (excluding brackets). GS1-128 barcodes are distinguished from Code 128 by the presence of a Function 1 (FNC1) character as the first character encoded. The GS1-128 coding scheme uses Application Identifiers (AIs) which are numbers with a predefined meaning and usually enclosed in brackets in the human readable form. While many AIs are followed by fixed length strings, some may be followed by a variable length string in which case the string is terminated with a Function 1 character. Most dlsoft products automatically recognize both fixed length and variable length AIs and insert the termination character as required. Application Identifiers are defined by GS1, and some examples are shown below: (01) identifies a GTIN (Global Traded Item Number) (10) identifies a Batch or Lot Number (11) identifies a Product Date (as YYMMDD) (15) identifies a Best Before Date (as YYMMDD) (21) identifies a Serial Number (400) identifies a Purchase Order Number (422) identifies a Country of Origin (as ISO code) Recommended sizes: : The recommended size for GS1-128 barcodes is for an absolute minimum X value of 10 Mils, but more commonly within the range 20 Mils and 40 Mils. The absolute maximum length for a GS1-128 symbol including the minimum light margin of 10 X is 165 mm (6.5 inch).. The bar height may be within the range 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) and 50 mm (2 inch). For further details see the GS1 general specification. GTIN GTINs are Global Trade Item Numbers which may be 8, 12, 13 or 14 digits long. GTINs are assigned by the country s GS1 organisation. A trade item is any item (product or service) upon which there is a need to retrieve pre-defined information and that may be priced, or ordered, or invoiced at any point in any supply chain. This includes individual items as well as all their different configurations in different types of packaging. All GTINs contain a check digit, which is calculated by: 1. Starting at the right-hand side of the number (excluding the check digit), adding up alternate digits and multiplying the result by Adding up the remaining digits. 3. Adding together the results of steps 1 and subtracting the result from the nearest equal or higher multiple of 10. The result is the check digit with a value of 0 to Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

19 HIBC (LIC) Barcodes used by suppliers to the health industry may be those specified by the Health Industry Business Communications Council (HIBCC), or by other international organizations. A labeller that chooses to utilize the HIBC Labeler Identification Code (LIC) should follow the HIBC LIC data and symbology format. The barcodes have an initial + encoded in the data, and modern systems should surround the human readable text with asterix to indicate that the text is complete. Barcodes may be encoded using either Code 128 or Code 39 symbologies, but in each case the barcode must contain a Mod 43 check character. dlsoft products that support HBIC symbols can generate the appropriate check character and can include the * (usually by selecting the Extra1 option in the barcode properties). HIBC LIC Code 128 form HIBC LIC Code 39 form Details of the requirements for HIBC symbols may be found on the HIBCC we site at IATA 2 of 5 IATA 2 of 5 is still a widely used barcode type, essentially the same as Standard/Industrial 2 of 5 but with different start and stop bars. IATA 2 of 5 Most dlsoft products generate IATA 2 of 5 when Standard 2 of 5 is selected and the Extra 1 flag is set. Checking the EXTRA1 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA1 (bit 4 of the flags variable) in libraries sets this flag. IATA 2 of 5 symbols do not use a check digit. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 15

20 InfoMail Barcode A InfoMail Barcode A uses a variant of the 4 State code with Reed-Solomon Error Correction. The final barcode consists of 51 bars made from 17 code words, 12 data words and 5 error-correction words. The data is constructed from 6 numeric fields. In the dlsoft implementation the data string may be provided by joining either the fields of the required length (space filled or made up with leading 0s), or comma or tab separated fields. The following fields are required: Field name Field length Max value AccountID ProductID 2 99 ClassID 1 3 DayMonthID* ConsignmentID 2 49 UniqueID * DayMonthID is provided in the form of ddmm, where dd is the day of the month and mm is the month of the year; thus June 3 is provided as InfoMail Barcode A The barcode will typically be printed with a height of 5 mm, and an overall length of 56.5 mm. or approximately 23 bars per inch Intelligent Mail Intelligent Mail (formerly OneCode) is a four-state system used by the US Postal Service mailstream. It is also known as the USPS 4-State Customer Barcodes (4CB). The code combines the routing ZIP code and tracking information into a single fixed length code. Intelligent Mail barcodes are clocked codes consisting of 65 bars, each of which may be one of four heights. Intelligent Mail The data for Intelligent Mail symbols consists of 20 digits of tracking information and 0, 5, 9 or 11 digits for a Delivery Point ZIP code. The allowed data lengths are 20, 25, 29 or 31 digits. The tracking information consists of: Barcode Identifier (2 digits, second digit must be 0 4) Special Services (3 digits) Customer Identifier (6 digits) Sequence number (9 digits) The first three items are assigned by USPS, while the Sequence number is assigned by the mailer. Intelligent Mail symbols contain an 11 bit CRC check sequence. 16 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

21 During 2007 the size of the bars specified in the Intelligent Mail standard was reduced. dlsoft products dated after November 2007 incorporate this change. The barcode height should be in (3.2 mm), and the X unit value should be 20 Mils. Intelligent Mail TM Package Barcode The IM Package Barcode consists of a data string encoded in a barcode that generally follows the GS1-128 specification. However, the US Postal Service has many unique operational requirements and deviates slightly from the GS1 specification where necessary. IM Package Barcode The barcode data consists of a number of fields. Not every barcode type may use every field, and some fields will be suppressed from the human-readable representation of the barcode. Channel Application Identifier (AI) This is a specific two-digit application identifier used to identify both the business induction channel from which the mailpiece originated and to indicate where Postal Service may locate a payment record for the mailpiece. Valid Channel Application Identifiers are 91, 92, 93, 94, and 95. Channel Identifier This one-digit field is used and encoded only in Postal Service-created barcodes (Channel Application Identifier 95 ). The Channel Identifier indicates the retail system from which a barcode originated (e.g., POS, APC). Destination ZIP Code This field may be 5 or 9 digits in length. It will not be required if the size of the mailpiece does not allow sufficient space for its inclusion or if a mailer presents specific evidence citing why it is overly burdensome to include routing information within the mailpiece barcode. Device ID This six-digit field is used and encoded in Postal Service-created barcodes. The mailer shall use this field within the retail barcode construct to help maintain uniqueness and help with traceability to an exact printing source. In the near term, the Device ID for barcodes printed on POS One will be the PVI Printer ID. An APC will include a Device ID that is the 4-digit machine ID and backfilled with zeroes. Julian Date This field is used and encoded in Postal Service-created barcodes. The mailer shall use this field within the retail barcode construct to aid in establishing uniqueness. A 4-digit, YDDD format will be used. Mailer Identifier This field may be 6 or 9 digits in length. Most mailers will be assigned a 9-digit Mailer Identifier, which is used in conjunction with AI 92. On an individual basis, some mailers or consolidators will be assigned a 6-digit Mailer Identifier, and would then use AI 93. Mod 10 Check Digit Every barcode construct shall utilize a 1-digit, Mod 10 Check Digit as the final digit in the barcode data string. The mailer shall only calculate the check digit using the package identification code (PIC) portion of the data. See Appendix E for more information. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 17

22 Postal Code Application Identifier (AI) This is a specific 3-digit GS1 Application Identifier that is used to designate the presence of a delivery Postal Code within a single Postal Authority. This field shall always be 420 and, shall precede the Destination ZIP Code if such routing information is provided. The AI (420) and the ZIP Code (5 or 9 digit) shall be suppressed in the human-readable representation of the barcode data. For example, the barcode shown above is created using the following data string, including the (420) AI, even though that AI and its associated data is no shown in human readable form under the barcode: (420)12345(92) Serial Number Every barcode shall contain a serial number. Retail barcodes shall use a 5-digit serial number. Online mailers / systems shall have the option of using a 5 or 8-digit serial number, based on mail volume and uniqueness requirements. Commercial mailers, depending upon length of their Mailer Identifier, may use a 7, 10, 11, or 14-digit serial number. Service Type Code This 3-digit field identifies the mail class or product and the presence of any extra services. This shall include identifying instances where no extra services have been purchased, e.g., Parcel Post with no extra services. The service type code also identifies if the mailpiece belongs to a special Postal Service program, such as Open & Distribute or Merchandise Return Service. Source Identifier This 2-digit field shall be used only in conjunction with Channel Application Identifier 94. It indicates the type of online source/platform that generated the barcode, be it a source external to the Postal Service such as a PC Postage vendor or an internal Postal Service system such as Click-N-Ship. Note that labels containing an IMPB barcode also have other requirements including the USPS Tracking number and horizontal lines. Some dlsoft C/C++ products that support graphic images can generate these items (our.net products do not support these). The Height specified for the barcode image is the total height from the upper horizontal line to the lower typically 40 mm or 1.6 inch, and the X value between 14 and 20 Mils.. If the data is provided in the form (420)12345(92) Then the barcode is created with a gap above the bars to allow for tracking information to be included. However, if the data is provided with a trailing / and the Extra2 flag is set, then characters following the / may be used to provide the tracking information. For example, the data (92) /TRACKING CODE # results in the barcode shown below 18 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

23 ISBN The older ISBN-10 coding scheme is EAN13, with the first three digits being 978 or 979, and 9 digits the ISBN number of the book (without check digit). The final digit is the EAN calculated check digit. Users can produce the ISBN barcode by selecting EAN-13 as the barcode type and entering the EAN number. Alternatively the ISBN barcode complete with the ISBN text above the barcode may be obtained by selecting ISBN as the barcode type and entering the ISBN 9 or 10 digit ISBN value (which may include dashes, eg ). The barcode image which results is as shown below. ISBN ISBN Note that the final digit of a 10 digit ISBN number is an ISBN check digit and this is NOT included in the barcode image. The barcode image will contain the GS1 check digit. The spacing of the text above the barcode may be modified by entering a character spacing value between 50 and 100%. Since January 2007 the ISBN Agency has been assigning 13-digit identifiers to books and book-related products. These identifiers, "ISBN-13s", will incorporate the existing Bookland EAN into a new book identifier where the prefix can be either '978' (current value) or '979'. ISBN-13 dlsoft Barcode components will automatically recognize ISBN-13 barcode data starting with 978 or 979 and generate the appropriate ISBN-13 barcode. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 19

24 dlsoft Barcode components will generate ISBN-13 barcodes using the 978 prefix from data supplied as the ISBN 10 data. ISBN with 2 and 5 digit supplementaries are supported by some dlsoft products. The supplementary characters must be separated from the ISBN numbers with a / character. ISMN Since January 2008 the ISMN coding scheme is EAN13, with the first three digits being 979. The ISMN number should be supplied complete with hyphenation, and this will appear above the barcode. ISMN Unused older (10 digit) ISMNs may be converted to the new format by omitting the M and prefixing the 9 digits ISMN with ISSN The ISSN coding scheme is EAN13, with the first three digits being 977, 7 digits showing the ISSN number of the periodical (without the ISSN check digit), and 2 spare digits (the Sequence Variant, used in the UK to indicate price code changes). The final digit is the EAN calculated check digit. ISSN Data may be provided to dlsoft products either as the ISSN number (with or without the ISSN check digit), eg , or as the full ISSN barcode number, eg In either case the ISSN check digit and the ISSN barcode check digit will be calculated. If the ISSN check digit is not known and a Sequence Variant is required, the data should be supplied with a 0 in the eighth position and the dlsoft library will replace this with the correct check digit, eg. For a Sequence Variant of 12 the data may be provided as and this will correctly produce the ISSN as and the barcode number ISSN with 2 and 5 digit supplementaries are supported by some dlsoft products. The supplementary characters must be separated from the ISSN numbers with a / character. 20 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

25 Interleaved 2 of 5 One of the most common codes outside the retail area is Interleaved 2 of 5, a high density, continuous, self-checking numeric symbology that codes digit pairs. Because of this I-2 of 5 can only be used for even numbers of digits. If an odd number of digits is provided the dlsoft library automatically adds a leading 0 to the front of the data Interleaved 2 of 5 Interleaved 2 of 5 symbols may include an optional Mod 10 check digit. Italian Postal 3/9 The Italian Postal 3/9 code is encoded using Code 39 symbology, except that the check digit is calculated from the first 8 digits using a weighted Mod 11 algorithm, and the normal Code 39 check character is not used. AB AB Italian Postal 3/9 The code consists of two alphabetical characters eight digits one check digit two alphabetical characters. The dlsoft library calculates the check digit when required, and inserts spaces between the components of the code. The data may be supplied without spaces. Italian Postal 2/5 The Italian Postal 2/5 code is encoded using Interleaved 2 of 5 symbology, except that a check digit is calculated using a Mod 10 algorithm. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 21

26 Italian Postal 2/5 The code consists of eleven digits one check digit The dlsoft library calculates the check digit when required, and inserts a dash or a space between the components of the code. A dash is normally inserted, but a space may be inserted by checking the EXTRA1 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA1 (bit 4 of the flags variable). The data may be supplied without a space/dash. ITF-14 ITF-14 (or ITF) is a variant of the Interleaved 2 of 5 barcode with its specification defined by GS1. ITF is a larger code intended for use on the outside of packing cases and scanning a distance. In this form it most commonly uses the same data as EAN-13 but with a LEADING 0. If a check digit is calculated by dbarcode for this code then the EAN-13 check digit is produced. (shown reduced in size) The horizontal bars supporting the bars of the barcode are called Bearer Bars, and these are recommended rather than mandatory. dbarcode can produce the bearer bars at any size, although the normal size recommended is about 5 mm. This size is largely historical and allowed for the spreading of pressure during metal plate printing; the actual size has no effect on the scanning of the barcode. An Extra option is provided for producing the vertical bearer bars at the same thickness and these may be obtained by checking the EXTRA1 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA1 (bit 4 of the flags variable) or BarCode.Extra1 in the OCX. 22 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

27 (shown reduced in size) Similarly dbarcode does not normally include the optional H printer gauge marks (nor the accompanying extra light margin space), because these were also features of older printing technologies, designed to check for impression depth and ink spread. If the H gauges are required they may be obtained by checking the EXTRA2 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA2 (bit 5 of the flags variable) or BarCode1.Extra2 in the OCX. Note that these ITF codes are not the same library selection as Interleaved 2 of 5 (I-2of5) Recommended sizes: The recommended size for ITF-14 barcodes is for an X value of 40 Mils and a bar height of 30 mm (1.2 inch). The permitted range of sizes is from 62% (X = 25 Mils, bar height = 18.6 mm (0.75 inch)) to 120% (X = 48 Mils, bar height = 36 mm (1.4 inch)). The Wide/Narrow ratio should be 2.5 and the margin width should be 10.2 mm (0.4 inch) at 100%. ITF-6 ITF-6 is a shortened version of ITF (ITF-14) and is specified by GS1 (see ITF) ITF-6 The ITF 6 code is not intended to have H gauges or a check digit. Note that these ITF codes are not the same library selection as Interleaved 2 of 5 (I-2of5) Recommended sizes: The recommended size for ITF-6 barcodes is for an X value of 40 Mils and a bar height of 30 mm (1.2 inch). The permitted range of sizes is from 62% (X = 25 Mils, bar height = 18.6 mm (0.75 inch)) to 120% (X = 48 Mils, bar height = 36 mm (1.4 inch)). The Wide/Narrow ratio should be 2.5. JAN The JAN coding scheme is then same as EAN13 with the first two digits being 49. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 23

28 Japan Post The Japan Post barcode is a clocked barcode similar in appearance to 4 State code, with a mod 19 checkdigit. The elements are normally reproduced at 8, 9, 10, or 11.5 point, although values between 7 and 12 point are permitted. The symbol will accept digits and uppercase letters and the hyphen. The data consists of a 7 digit postal code plus address data. If the address data is less than 13 characters the remaining character positions are filled with control characters to make the length 20. The postal code section may have a hyphen at the 4 th character position (eg ) although this hyphen does not appear in the encoded data. There may also be a hyphen between the postal code and the address data (eg A-507). Again this hyphen does not appear in the encoded data. Note that the remaining hyphens are encoded. Korean Postal Authority The Korean Postal Authority code is a clocked code consisting of a 6 digit Zip code plus a single Mod 10 checkdigit. The Zip code may be provided with a dash between the first three and last three digits. The dash is not encoded and a human readable form is not included under the barcode. Matrix 2/5 Matrix 2/5 is an older discrete, non-self-checking numeric-only code, with an optional modulo 10 check digit. Not recommended for new applications. Matrix 2/5 Monarch Monarch barcodes are more commonly known as Codabar barcodes (See Codabar). MSI MSI, also known as the Modified Plessey Code, is a relatively weak symbology that is continuous but not self-checking and is inefficient in use of space. 24 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

29 MSI with single checkdigit Normally this code has a single Modulo 10 check digit. However, there are two variations of a double check digit form in common use. One uses a Mod 11 check digit before the normal Mod 10 check digit, the other uses two Mod 10 check digits although the Mod 11 digit is included only if it has a value between 0 and MSI with extra Mod 10 checkdigit MSI with extra Mod 11 checkdigit These two-checkdigit forms are accessible through the use of the Extra1 or Extra2 parameters - ie by either checking the Extra1 or Extra2 check boxes in applications, or setting the DL_FLAG_EXTRA1 (bit 4) or DL_FLAG_EXTRA2 (bit 5) flags in the DLL, or by setting the BarCode1.Extra1 or BarCode1.Extra2 parameters in the OCX. The effects are as shown below. Note that BOTH options also require the autocheckdigit calculation to be enabled. If Extra1 is set then a Modulo 10 check digit is calculated and inserted before the normal checkdigit. If Extra2 is set then a Modulo 11 check digit is calculated and inserted before the normal checkdigit. Some scanning equipment cannot read both forms. (In fact some scanning equipment cannot read either of the two checkdigit forms). Check your scanners documentation to ensure that you choose an appropriate combination. DO NOT SET BOTH Extra1 and Extra2. NW-7 NW-7 barcodes are also known as Codabar (see Codabar) Planet Planet codes are clocked codes used within the US Postal Service for the confirmation of incoming or outgoing mail. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 25

30 Planet_OC Planet codes (Postal Alpha Numeric Encoding Technique) consist of 9 or 11 digits prefixed by a code to indicate which Origin Confirm or Destination Confirm service is required, and postfixed by a mandatory Mod 10 check digit. The dlsoft library automatically provides the check digit. There is no text content associated with these codes. The USPS is likely to replace Planet codes with the more versatile Intelligent Mail symbology. Plessey An older symbology still popular in some industries, the continuous, non-self-checking Plessey symbology supports numbers and the characters X, B, C, D, E and F, plus an 8 bit CRC split into two check characters Plessey It is the practice in some industries using Plessey barcodes to separate the barcode characters from their checkdigits. This can be done by setting the EXTRA2 flag in applications or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA2 (bit 5 of the flags variable), or by manually including a space character at the end of the barcode data. PostNet PostNet codes are the clocked codes used in the US mail system. There are three types of PostNet code (identified as A, C and C ), which differ in the number of characters encoded. These codes are based on the US ZIP code system plus a Mod 10 checkdigit. PostNet A The USPS is likely to replace Postnet symbology with the more versatile Intelligent Mail symbology. The dbarcode library also allows the creation of the US postal FIM symbols FIM A, FIM B and FIM C. There is no text content associated with these codes. PZN PZN (Pharma-Zentral-Nummer) is a variant of Code 39 including a Modulo 11 check digit, and is used for marking pharmaceutical and health care products in Germany. 26 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

31 PZN RM4SCC RM4SCC is the Royal Mail (UK) version of the 4 State clocked barcode used for directing mail. The codes contain a start and stop bit, while the 4 State code does not. While both codes offer the option of a checkdigit, it should be noted that the Royal Mail code must include the checkdigit (which should be calculated automatically). RM4SCC These codes are based on the UK Post Code system, but may also contain an International Prefix and a Delivery Point Suffix. Note that in both RM4SCC and 4 State all characters are converted to upper case prior to encoding and any illegal characters with ASCII codes >32 are converted to X. Illegal characters with ASCII codes <= 32 are ignored -- so spaces and carriage returns are ignored. SISAC Unlike most other barcodes the SISAC barcode symbol does not have a one-to-one correspondence with the SICI code printed underneath it. dlsoft barcode products generate the SISAC barcode from the SICI code, and it can only do this if the SICI code itself is correct. If the SICI code is not correct then the library will report error number (199109/10)3:9/10;1-H The SICI code must be entered into the Code edit box or supplied as a database field, and it must contain at least the following items: The ISSN number complete with a hyphen between digits 4 and 5, e.g A date item enclosed in brackets. If no date item is required the () symbols MUST STILL BE PRESENT. A number item is optional. e.g. 14:1 Index or supplement numbers are optional, e.g. *1 The standard version number which is currently ;1- and all three characters MUST BE PRESENT A SICI check digit may immediately follow the - of the version number. The check digit may be entered manually or may be calculated by dbarcode by enabling Auto Checksum. A typical SICI code is thus: (199109/10)3:9/10;1- and the check digit (H in this case) may be added automatically. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 27

32 Note: When copying SICI codes from publications it is not always easy to distinguish the : and ; characters. SICI codes ALWAYS end with (semicolon) ;1-n where n is a check digit. dlsoft barcode products do not support SICI location codes. SSCC The Serial Shipping Container Code is a unique identification of individual shipping containers. It uses the standard GS1-128 barcode symbology, using the GS1 Application Identifier Standard. The SSCC uses an 18 digit number which consists of: a) a single extension digit assigned by the company that constructs the SSCC b) the GS1/UCC/EAN company prefix. Those assigned by UCC are prefixed with 0. c) a serial reference number that must remain unique for at least 12 months d) a single Mod 10 check digit. (00) SSCC When an SSCC barcode is generated using dlsoft components the data is prefixed by the (00) Application Identifier. The Mod 10 check digit may be generated by selecting the Auto-check digit option. The Show check digit option is ignored, as the Mod 10 check digit must always be shown in the human readable form. Swiss Post The related Strichcode for A-Post and B-Post as used by the Swiss Postal Service is also supported. The B-Post symbol is produced by checking the EXTRA1 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA1 (bit 4 of the flags variable). There is no text content associated with these codes. Other Swiss postal barcodes may be created as Code 128 or Datamatrix symbols. 28 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

33 Telepen Telepen provides three coding schemes, each having its own pair of start and stop characters and an optional Mod 127 check digit: Full ASCII encodes the lower 128 ASCII characters Compressed Numeric where the encoding starts in compressed numeric mode (encoding two digits per group of bars) and may be followed by ASCII encoding. This scheme is for encoding an even number of digits. If an odd number of digits is to be encoded then either a switch from Compressed numeric to ASCII is required before the final digit or the string of digits must be prefixed with a 0. ASCII where the encoding starts in full ASCII mode and is followed by digits in compressed numeric encoding Telepen Telepen N The switch from ASCII to Compressed numeric (or vice versa) is accomplished by the insertion of an ASCII DLE character, but this is permitted only once in any symbol. The dlsoft barcode library provides standard Telepen (in which the above are followed), Telepen N (which uses the above scheme but forces the full ASCII start and stop bars), and Telepen A (which encodes all data as ASCII without compressed numeric). The Telepen ASCII mode provides the full ASCII character set. Codes below 32 (space) may be entered as <ALT>0XYZ, where XYZ is the 3 digit ASCII code The ASCII ESC character required on some Telepen Numeric systems as the first character may be obtained by checking the EXTRA1 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA1 (bit 4 of the flags variable) or BarCode.Extra1 in the OCX. Normally a switch from Compressed numeric to ASCII is used to handled odd length digit strings, but by checking the EXTRA2 checkbox in applications, or setting the flags parameter bit DL_FLAG_EXTRA2 (bit 4 of the flags variable) or BarCode.Extra1 in the OCX, the library will prefix the digits with a 0 to make the total number of digits even. UPC The UPC (Universal Product Code) is widely used in the USA as a retail code. However, it has wider application and this can result in some confusion. The actual UPC code is a 10 digit code. The 10 digit number is preceded by a number system digit, which is 0 for the retail version, and followed by a check digit. In many retail systems only the 10 digits of the UPC code need to be entered in the event of a mis-scan, so there have been times when the leading 0 has not been included in the human readable form. However, other values of the number system digit are used for specific purposes (eg. 6 or 7 are used for manufacturing identification numbering, 3 for drug products, etc.). dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 29

34 The UPC-A code is one variant of a number of 12 digit codes widely used in the USA. Retail codes are usually thought of as those with 10 digits (or 11 if the checkdigit is being entered explicitly), and in fact are 12 digit codes made up of a leading 0, followed by 10 product digits and 1 checkdigit. The library generates the barcode images for UPC-A if the leading 0 is provided, followed by the 10 digit product code. The check digit may either be entered explicitly or calculated by the library. This technique allows alternative leading digits to be used for their intended purposes. Users of such alternative codes will know what those leading digits may be, or may obtain the information from the authorised code provider. The UCC has produced more than one specification of the UPC codes. The current (and GS1) specification suggests that the country code (always 0 in the USA) and the codes checkdigit should be printed aligned with the coded digits, but in the light margins. Earlier specifications suggested that these digits should be printed in different positions or not at all. The library offers the choice of not printing the digits or of printing them in the light margins (using the Margin Indicators ON option) for both UPC-A and UPC-E codes UPC-A Recommended sizes: The recommended size for UPC-A barcodes is for an X value of 13 Mils and a bar height of 25 mm (1 inch). The permitted range of sizes is from 80% (X = 11 Mils, bar height = 20 mm (0.8 inch)) to 200% (X = 26 Mils, bar height = 50 mm (2 inch)). The ratio of height to width should be constant. Symbols with a smaller height than calculated from these figures are known as Truncated symbols and such symbols may not be acceptable for omnidirectional scanning. UPC-E codes are shortened versions of UPC-A symbols designed for use in restricted spaces. By default the dlsoft libraries generate UPC-E symbols using the number system 0 from 6 digit data (and a check digit). The symbol may be forced to number system 1 by setting the Extra 1 flag UPC-E UPC-A and UPC-E codes support 2 and 5 digit supplementaries. The libraries also offer the option of creating UPC-E0 (number system 0) or UPC-E1 (number system 1) symbols from a suitable UPC-A number. These options should not be used unless the user has been assigned UPC-A number suitable for this reduction. Supplementaries are not supported for these modes. 30 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

35 USD-4 USD-4 is also known as Codabar (see Codabar) GS1 - EAN and UCC barcodes EAN International (European Article Numbering International) and the United States UCC (Uniform Coding Council) have agreed on common barcoding standards. The organizations have combined under the common name of GS1. Two of the standard barcode types have been renamed (EAN/UCC 128 has become GS1-128 and RSS has become GS1- Databar). However, other standard types may appear under different names. Thus EAN-14 is the same as UCC-14, and may be referred to as EAN/UCC-14, and similarly for EAN-13 and EAN-8. Recommended sizes Barcodes formerly know as EAN, JAN or UCC types are now called GS1 barcodes Barcode used for traded items have recommended sizes based on the X dimension (the width of the thinnest bar in Mils thousandths of an inch, and the height of the bars (in millimetres or inches). GS1 standards specify a Nominal or 100% size, and provide an allowed range of size variation that may be used. The table below summarises these recommendations. These values are provided as a guide. For authoritative information please see the GS1 web site at Type X value (Mils) Height (mm) permitted range % GS %+ GS %+ GS1-14* % GS %; minimum height 20 mm ITF % ITF % SSCC % UPC-A %+ UPC-E %+ * GS1-14 numbers are normally produced as GS1-128 barcodes, but may be created as the ITF-14 barcode type. + These ranges require that both the height and width (or X value) are modified in the same proportion. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 31

36 ISBN barcode changes In January 2007 the US ISBN Agency began assigning 13-digit identifiers to books and book-related products. These identifiers, "ISBN-13s", incorporate the existing Bookland EAN into a new book identifier where the prefix can be either '978' (the pre-2007 current value) or '979'. ISBN-13 dlsoft Barcode components will automatically recognize ISBN-13 barcode data starting with 978 or 979 and generate the appropriate ISBN-13 barcode. dlsoft Barcode components will generate ISBN-13 barcodes using the 978 prefix from data supplied as the ISBN 10 data, if the EXTRA1 property is set to TRUE; otherwise it will generate an ISBN-10 barcode as before. ISBN with 2 and 5 digit supplementaries are supported by some dlsoft products. The supplementary characters must be separated from the ISBN numbers with a / character. Location numbering In 1995, EAN International (now GS1) agreed that all numbering organisations will standardise on the product numbering (ie standard EAN-13) check digit algorithm when calculating check digits for location numbers. The cut-off date for using older check digit algorithms was January 1st dlsoft products will produce the recommended check digits and will not produce older variants. 2D Barcodes dlsoft 2D barcode software include products that support the generation of barcode images for the following types of two-dimensional barcodes: Code 16k Code 49 PDF417 MicroPDF417 Aztec code Data Matrix Databar (formerly RSS) Codablock F This document describes some of the important features of these barcode types and the character sets they support. Details of the structure and translation algorithms are beyond the scope of this document, and users are referred to the technical documentation available from the following sources: AIM 1326 Freeport Road Pittsburgh 32 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

37 PA USA Information on PDF417 is also available from Symbol Technologies Inc. 116 Wilbur Place Bohemia NY USA Information on the Aztec barcode is also available from Welch Allyn Data Collection Division 4619 Jordan Road PO Box 187 Skaneateles Falls NY USA 2D Barcode types supported Current versions of the dbarcode-2d Dynamic Link Library, dbarcode.net 2D Component, and Active 2D-Barcode Component support the following code types: dbarcode Code type dbarcode.net type Active Barcode Component Code Type Barcode type 0 - Code 16k 1 - Code PDF Aztec DataMatrix Maxicode MicroPDF Databar 8 - Coablock F QR Code Micro QR Code Note that most common 1D barcodes are supported by the standard dbarcode library (DLSBAR32.DLL) and Active Barcode Component 1D Universal. Aztec dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 33

38 Aztec is a matrix symbology which supports the entire ASCII character set and offers several error checking modes. Aztec symbols are square and may be read at any orientation. The symbol is made up of squares which "grow" from the centre around a centre mark. The size of the symbol is characterised by the number of "layers" outside the centre mark, and this can range from Security and Layers For Aztec symbols in Normal mode the user may select any percentage of the symbol to contain error checking data within the range 1 99%. This is the Security Level in dbarcode-2d. If a value of 0% is used then the symbol will actually be produced with the default amount of error correction (which is 23% + 3 codewords). The higher the security level the greater will be the number of layers required to contain the symbol and hence its overall size. In Compact mode the user specifies the number of layers used to contain the symbols information and this is restricted to the range 1 4. dbarcode will insert error correction data in the space available. In Full range mode again the user specifies the number of layers allowed for the symbol, but this time the range is Again error correction data is used to fill otherwise unused space in the specified number of layers. In Full range mode the maximum capacity of Aztec Code symbols is approximately as follows: Digits only maximum capacity 3800 digits Alphanumeric text maximum capacity 3000 characters* Byte values maximum capacity 1900 bytes *Note that capital letters, punctuation and new lines/paragraphs reduce this value. Runes are special Aztec symbols which consist of a single layer and have no security options. Appended symbols are not supported at this time. Codablock F Codablock F is a stacked barcode symbology based on Code 128. It can encode the full ASCII character set in a symbol which consists of multiple rows of Code 128 type symbols, using a common Start A start character and a common Stop stop character. Apart from the start and stop character the other characters in adjacent rows have a horizontal line between them. 34 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

39 Each row in a Codablock symbol contains (in addition to the common start and stop characters) a subset selector, a row indicator and a check digit, along with a number of data characters. This enables each row to be read by Code 128 scanners. Codablock symbols can hold a maximum of 2725 characters, although this value is significantly reduced by the presence of subset change characters. Codablock symbols can have between 2 and 44 rows, and each row can hold between 4 and 62 characters plus the subset selector, row indicator and check digit. Codablock symbols are character self-checking and may be scanned in any direction. The subtypes used in the symbol are essential identical with those use in Code 128 symbology. Code 16k Code 16k is a stacked barcode of the type illustrated below Code 16k encodes characters using a reverse video version of Code 128. Each row starts and ends with a UPC digit, which indicates the row number and the direction of scan. Each row encodes 5 data characters and the Code 128 type C mode is used for numeric-only strings. A maximum of 16 rows are permitted, giving a capacity of 154 digits or 74 alphanumeric characters. Code 16k has three coding schemes and permit the inclusion of special characters not present on the keyboard. If no coding scheme is specified scheme B is used by default. Scheme C is used for any code, which has numbers in the first four digits. An alternative scheme may be selected within dbarcode-2d from the allowed modes: Start mode Code set leading char 0 auto 1 A 2 B 3 C dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 35

40 4 B Fnc1 5 C Fnc1 6 C Shift B 7 C Double Shift B Other function and shift characters are as specified below (and may be typed as <ALT>0XYZ). XYZ character Code A Code B Code C 197 Å DEL 198 Æ func. 3 func Ç func. 2 func È shift shift 201 É code C code C 202 Ê code B func. 4 code B 203 Ë func. 4 code A code A 204 Ì func. 1 func. 1 func Í Start A Start A Start A 206 Î Start B Start B Start B 207 Ï Start C Start C Start C 208 Ð NUL Code 49 A code 49 symbol is a stacked symbol containing between 2 and 8 rows, each separated by a separator bar. Each row contains 16 words (which are generated from character pairs) and a start and stop character. The last row also contains the number of rows in the symbol and the check digit characters. There are 2400 possible words which can be generated from each pair of characters (by taking the value of the right hand character plus 49 times the value of the left hand character). Symbols with less than 7 rows contain 2 check digits in the final row. Symbols with 7 or 8 rows contain 3 check digits in the final row. A numeric mode allows 5 digits to be encoded in the same space as three alphanumeric characters, so offering a higher density and a maximum capacity of 81 digits compared with 49 alphanumeric characters. Encoding code 49 symbols may be accomplished in Auto mode. 36 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

41 Databar The GS1-Databar Symbology (formerly RSS) is a family containing three linear symbologies and three stacked variants. The Omnidirectional variant encodes the full 14 digit GS1 item identification in a linear symbol that can be scanned in any direction. The Limited version encodes item identification suitable for use on small items, but not for use at point-ofsale. The Expanded version encodes the 14 digit GS1 item identification plus supplementary AI elements. The Stacked version is a variant which is stacked in two rows, either as a truncated version (above) used for small item marking, or as an omni-directional version (below) designed to be read by omnidirectional scanners. The non-expanded versions encode the full 14 digit EAN.UCC item identification number and this may be prefixed with the (01) AI although this is NOT encoded. The dlsoft Databar implementation uses the following Start Mode property values to specify the symbol: dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 37

42 Start Mode Databar version 0 Omnidirectional 1 Truncated 2 Limited 3 Stacked 4 Stacked Omnidirectional 5 Expanded 6 Expanded Stacked All Databar symbols are based on Xunit size, where the Yunit (height) is treated as a multiplier of the Xunit value. The following height values should be used: Omnidirectional: a minimum height of 33 X Truncated: a minimum height of 13 X Stacked: a fixed height (top row 5X, bottom row 7X, separator 1X) Stacked Omnidirectional: minimum height 33X (each row) Limited: minimum height 10 X. Expanded: minimum height 34 X Expanded may also be used in a stacked version, and the extent of stacking may be specified using the columns property, which can range be set between 1 and 10, where the value represents the width of the symbol in segment pairs. Again each row shall have a minimum height of 34 X. Databar Expanded may be used to encode AIs in addition to the item identification number as listed below: (01) (xx) (01) (3103) - 6 digit metric weight (01) (3202) - 6 digit pound weight (01) (392x) - price (variable length) (01) (393x) - 3 digit ISO currency code followed by price (01)....(310x).(yy).. metric weight and six digit date (01)....(320x).(yy).. English weight and six digit date (where yy may be 11 (production date), 13 (packaging date), 15 (best before date) or 17 (expiration date). Variable length AI data must be terminated using a FNC1 character (#). For Expanded types the Level setting value (default=0) is used as the Linkage. (At the present time the dlsoft library does not support linked barcode symbols, but the Linkage parameter may be used by developers wishing to support linked symbols.) DataMatrix DataMatrix is a two dimensional matrix symbology which is made up of square modules arranged within a finder pattern. DataMatrix symbols may be square or rectangular. 38 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

43 Encoding modes Most dlsoft products that support Datamatrix offer automatic encoding (to generate the most compact symbol) as well as permitting the user to specify and encoding mode. The following encoding modes are supported: ASCII: encodes all lower ASCII characters (<127) and pairs of digits in a single codeword; extended ASCII (>128) characters are preceded by a Latch character. C40: encodes three characters (upper case letters, digits and spaces) into two codewords. Other ASCII characters require two C40 values Text: encodes three characters (lower case letters, digits and spaces) into two codewords. Other ASCII characters require a shift character X12: encodes the standard ANSI X12 characters - upper-case alphabetic characters, numerics, space and the three standard ANSI X12 terminator and separator characters. EDIFACT: includes 63 ASCII values (values from 32 to 94), including all the numeric, alphabetic and punctuation characters defined in the EDIFACT Level A character set. EDIFACT encodation encodes four data characters in three codewords. Base256: encodes all byte values Encoding mode DataMatrix type 0 Auto Square 1 Auto Rectangular 2 ASCII Square 3 ASCII Rectangular 4 C40 Square 5 C40 Rectangular 6 Text Square 7 Text Rectangular 8 X12 Square 9 X12 Rectangular 10 EDIFACT Square 11 EDIFACT Rectangular 12 Base 256 Square 13 Base 256 Rectangular dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 39

44 Security DataMatrix symbols can include a user-selected amount of error-correction data. For Square symbols the Security Level setting may be in the range 0 24, while for Rectangular symbols the allowed range is 0 6. See below for details. DataMatrix symbols can encode the entire ASCII character set and uses multiple encoding modes which are, in order of efficiency: Double digits maximum capacity 3100 digits Alphanumeric text maximum capacity 2300 characters* Byte values maximum capacity 1550 bytes *Note that capital letters, punctuation and new lines/paragraphs reduce this value. dlsoft 2D barcode products support only ECC200 symbols the older ECC140 and below are not supported. Also at this time ECI and Appended symbols are not supported. If the GS1 flag is set then the first data character is made FNC1 (ASCII 232) and the remaining data is treated as EAN/UCC data; i.e. brackets are removed from the data. Any AIs included in the data that are NOT fixed length will be terminated with a FNC1 character if not included in the data. (The FNC1 character may be entered from the keyboard by holding down the <Alt> key and typing 0232 on the numeric keypad.) If the DL_DEUTSCHEPOST flag is set data is encoded only in Base256 mode as required for some symbols used for the German postal service. The industry standard Macro sequences [)><RS>05<GS> and [)><RS>06<GS> are supported (where <RS> represents ASCII 30 and <GS> is ASCII 29). The following character translations are made for data following the [)> start sequence: String converted to <ET> ASCII 4 <FS> ASCII 28 <GS> ASCII 29 <RS> ASCII 30 <US> ASCII 31 Symbol sizes Datamatrix supports a range of symbol sizes, 24 square symbols and 6 rectangular one. The available sizes are identified by the security level as shown in the table below. Capacity Level height width numeric alphanumeric byte % error* correction Square symbols Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

45 Rectangular Symbols *The % of the symbol devoted to error-correction codewords Most dlsoft products also permit the size of a Datamatrix symbol to be specified by setting the number of columns in the symbol. For Rectangular symbols there are two sizes that permit 36 columns (12 * 36 and 16 * 36). Setting the number of Columns to 35 will generate the first of these, while 36 will generate the latter. Deutschepost Datamatrix Some applications of Datamatrix symbols used by Deutschepost require that the encoding uses Base256 mode rather than the standard ECC200 ASCII satart mode. Base256 mode can be enforced by checking the Deutschepost option in applications or setting the DL_DEUTSCHEPOST flag (bit 9, decimal 512) in DLL components. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 41

46 PostMatrix The Deutsche Post PostMatrix code is a Datamatrix symbol preceeded by two vertical lines before the vertical alignment edge of the Datamatrix symbol. PostMatrix Many dlsoft products that can generate Datamatrix symbols can also generate PostMatrix codes, gnerally by selecting Datamatrix as the barcode type and checking the PostMatrix option in applications, or setting the DL_POSTMATRIX flag (bit 6, or value 64) in the flags of the Barcode2D structure in DLL components. Mailmark The Mailmark barcode type is used by the Royal Mail in the UK and by Royal Mail customers using barcode enabled options of the existing Retail and Network Access product portfolios. There are two types of Mailmark available: a 2D version, which includes spare space for customer use, and a 4-state version. A Complex Mail Data Mark (CMDM) is a 2 dimensional barcode that has the specified format of a Datamatrix type ECC200 code complying with the international standard ISO/IEC 16022, version A CMDM Mailmark barcode can be any of the following formats of Data Matrix type ECC200 as defined in ISO/IEC 16022: Format 7 (24 x 24 modules) Format 9 (32 x 32 modules) Format 29 (16 x 48 modules) The module size of Mailmark CMDMs must be in the range of mm. 42 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

47 The data used to generate the barcode is summarised in the table below. Field Length example UPU country ID 4 JGB<space> Information type ID 1 0 Version ID 1 1 Class 1 1 Supply chain ID Item ID Destination postcode 9 AB19XY1A RTS flag 1 0 RTS postcode 7 7 spaces reserved 6 6 spaces Customer content variable All dlsoft products that support the Datamatrix barcode may be used for generating CMDM Mailmark symbols by selecting the appropriate C40 encoding for the Datamatrix type and specifying the number of columns for the symbol.. MaxiCode MaxiCode is not really a barcode it doesn't have any bars. It is a fixed size matrix symbology made up of offset rows of hexagonal modules, with a Finder pattern in the centre. MaxiCode symbols are reproduced at a width of 25.5 mm and a height of 24.4 mm (in each case there is a tolerance of 1.5 mm). Intended primarily for encoding addresses for postal and delivery applications, it has a relatively low information content. On the other hand the fixed physical size of the image simplifies the facilities required for both printing and scanning the symbols. MaxiCode is characterised by the two "messages" which make up its data content the Primary message and Secondary message. The symbology may be used in 5 modes which utilise the two message in different ways and with different levels of error correction, as shown in the table below: Mode Use 0 obsolete (not supported) 1 obsolete (not supported) 2 Primary message encode numeric postal code, country code and service code, secondary message dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 43

48 encodes additional data 3 Primary message encode alphanumeric postal code, country code and service code, secondary message encodes additional data 4 Any data up to 84 data characters automatically split between primary and secondary messages. 5 Any data up to 68 data characters automatically split between primary and secondary messages. Enhanced error correction used 6 Similar to 4, but used for reader control. In modes 4, 5, and 6 virtually any ASCII data may be encoded up to the maximum number of data characters allowed. However, encoding introduces additional shift and latch characters whenever characters other than uppercase letters and numbers are used and the maximum length of text becomes correspondingly smaller. Modes 2 and 3 are for Structured Carrier Messages and require specific data in the correct order to produce a scan able symbol. Basically the data consists of the sequence: postal code G country code G service class G secondary message where the 4 components are separated by ASCII 29 characters, shown as G. In mode 2 the postal code must be numeric only and up to 9 digits. In mode 3 the postal code may be up to 6 alphanumeric characters. The country code and service class elements must be three digits each. Mode 2 or 3 message which begin with the sever character sequence [)>R01G (where G is ASCII 29 and R is ASCII 30) are treated in the special way described in the MaxiCode specification. Any secondary message can terminated with an End of Transmission character (ASCII 4). Because the non-printable ASCII characters are a required part of MaxiCode messages in Modes 2 and 3, dlsoft software recognises the following keyboard sequences for the entry of such characters: Sequence Alternative ASCII value <FS> {FS} 28 <GS> {GS} 29 <RS> {RS} 30 <US> {US} 31 <ET> {ET} 4 A typical string for a Mode 2 Maxicode is: [)><RS>01<GS> <GS>840<GS>001<GS>1Z <GS>UPSN<GS>06X610<GS>159<GS> <GS>1/1<GS><GS>Y<GS>634 ALPHA DR<GS>PITTSBURGH<GS>PA<RS><ET> Appended symbols are not supported by dlsoft software at this time. MaxiCode symbols are sensitive to the gap between hexagons. For printing on a 300 dpi laser we recommend the line width reduction parameter be set to Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

49 PDF417 PDF417 (Portable Data File 417) is a stacked barcode symbology capable of encoding over a kilobyte of data in a symbol. PDF417 symbols may include extensive error-correction enabling data to be recovered from a symbol which has been damaged or corrupted. There are 900 different patterns (codewords) which may be incorporated into a PDF417 symbol, and several modes available for encoding. Encoding Modes EXC (Extended Alphanumeric Compaction mode) - allows encoding of all printable ASCII characters into about 2 characters per codeword. Within the EXC mode there are several submodes: EXC Alpha - starts in upper case EXC Lower - starts in lower case EXC Mixed - numeric and other punctuation EXC Punctuation - punctuation & bracket characters. Binary/ASCII Plus mode - allows encoding of 256 international characters including the full ASCII set plus any 8-bit value in the range This mode allows encoding approximately 1.2 bytes per codeword and so is considerable less efficient than EXC mode. Numeric mode - allows encoding of a string of digits with a density of approximately 2.95 digits per codeword. Recommended where more than 13 digits are to be encoded. Numeric mode symbols may not contain non-numeric characters. The maximum capacity of PDF417 symbols is approximately as follows: Numeric mode maximum capacity 2700 digits* Alphanumeric text maximum capacity 1800 characters* Byte values maximum capacity 1100 bytes *Note that capital letters, punctuation, mode shifts and new lines/paragraphs reduce these value. Security level One of PDF417 s most valuable features is its ability to allow correction of errors. This ability is provided by the inclusion of additional codewords within the symbol, so that the data codewords may be reconstructed even if some are defaced or misread. The number of damaged codewords (Nmax) which may be recovered depends on the security level (which in turn determines the number of additional caharacters included in the symbol) dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 45

50 Security level Nmax Aspect ratio PDF417 symbols may be reproduced with different number of codewords per row, and therefore in several different height to width ratios. The user may select the target number of codewords per row. In general tall, thin barcodes read more reliable than short, wide symbols, although there may be restrictions applied by the type of barcode scanner employed. The dbarcode library will attempt to form a symbol which meets a target number of codewords per row, but users should note that some things are just not possible! The following character translations are made if the Flag is set (the flag checkbox in applications or the AztecFlag property in components) String converted to {ET} ASCII 4 {FS} ASCII 28 {GS} ASCII 29 {RS} ASCII 30 Appended symbols are not supported at this time. Truncated PDF417 PDF417 symbols that are missing one data codeword and the stop bars from each row are known as Truncated PDF417 symbols. Most scanners will read such symbols, but some will not! Truncated PDF417 symbols have the advantage of being smaller than full PDF417, but the disadvantage of being less able to tolerate damage without becoming unreadable. 46 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

51 MicroPDF417 MicroPDF417 is a multi-row symbology based on PDF417 designed for applications requiring a greater area efficiency but lower data capacity than PDF417. A specific and limited set of symbol sizes is available, each size including a fixed level of error correction. MicroPDF417 provides for three encoding modes: Text, Byte and Numeric compaction. Text is for general text, Numeric for encoding data consisting only of digits, and Byte to allow for the first 127 ASCII characters but with a reduced level of efficiency. Four symbol widths are permitted, each specifying the number of data columns (1 4). Within each symbol width a variable number of rows provide for a maximum data capacity of: Text compaction mode 0: 250 characters (2 data characters per codeword) Byte compaction mode 1: 150 characters (1.2 data characters per codeword) Numeric compaction mode 2: 366 characters (2.93 data characters per codeword) The following additional parameters are allowed for each symbol: Level/Columns: Number of data columns in the symbol. (1 4) X-unit: Thickness of thinnest bar in mils (4 200) Y-multiplier: Height of each bar in X-units ( 2 5) The industry standard Macro sequences [)><RS>05<GS> and [)><RS>06<GS> are supported (where <RS> represents ASCII 30 and <GS> is ASCII 29). The following character translations are made if the data start with the sequence [)> String converted to <ET> ASCII 4 <FS> ASCII 28 dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 47

52 <GS> ASCII 29 <RS> ASCII 30 <US> ASCII 31 Appended symbols are not supported at this time. QR Code QR Code is a matrix symbology consisting of a square array of modules with a finder pattern located at three corners. A wide range of symbol sizes is supported along with four levels of error correction, and the symbology is noted for its high data density. The dlsoft libraries support QR Code Version 2 in Numeric, Alphanumeric, Byte and Kanji modes. Active Barcode Components and dbarcode DLLs that support QR Code provide for automatic encoding changes along the data stream except for Kanji encoding, where Kanji mode must be specified.. The theoretical maximum data capacities of the symbols (at Level 0 error correction) are: Numeric data 7089 digits Alphanumeric data 4296 characters Byte data 2953 bytes Kanji 1817 characters Note that Alphanumeric includes digits and uppercase letters, the space and the $ % * + -. / : characters only. Active Barcode Components and dbarcode DLLs that support QR Code only support a data length of 4095 characters. The Reed-Solomon error correction allows the following recovery of damaged codewords: Level 0: 7% Level 1: 15% 48 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

53 Level 2: 25% Level 3: 30% Micro QR Code Micro QR Code is a very small QR Code that fits applications that require a smaller space and use smaller amounts of data, such as ID of printed circuit boards and electronics parts, etc. The efficiency of data encoding has been increased with the use of only one position detection pattern. The capacity of Micro QR Code symbols at the lowest error correction level is: Numeric data 35 digits Alphanumeric data 21 characters Byte data 15 bytes Pattern strings For many reasons a developer may prefer to draw the bars to generate the barcode, rather than use the metafile image returned by the dbarcode-2d library. To do this use the pattern string returned from the DLL or OCX. The choice of size for the drawn bars is a matter for the developer. However, some features of the drawn image should be considered in relation to the notes below for the different barcode types supported. In particular note that some stacked barcode types require separator lines to be drawn between each row. In general separator lines are drawn with the thickness of a single unit (the same as the thinnest bar in the symbol). Aztec strings The pattern string returned for an Aztec barcode consists of the sequence of characters used to create the symbol, arranged by row, with a 1 for a black square and a 0 for a white square. Each row is separated by a newline (\n or CHR(10)) characters. Two successive zero bytes indicate the end of the pattern. Codablock F strings The pattern string returned for a Codablock F barcode consists of 0s and 1s, where the 1s represent bars and the 0s represent spaces. Each row of the barcode image terminates with a newline character (\n or CHR$(10)). The stacked barcode row separators are NOT included in the pattern string. Code 16k strings The pattern string returned for a Code 16k barcode consists of 0s and 1s, where the 0s represent bars and the 1s represent spaces. Each row of the barcode image terminates with a newline character (\n or CHR$(10)). The stacked barcode separators extend 7 units in front of the first bar and 1 unit after the last bar and the spaces which allow for this are included in the pattern string. Separator lines are also required above the first row and below the last row. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 49

54 Code 49 strings The pattern string returned for a Code 49 barcode consists of 0s and 1s, where the 1s represent bars and the 0s represent spaces. Each row of the barcode image terminates with a newline character (\n or CHR$(10)). The stacked barcode separators extend 2 units in front of the first bar and 2 units after the last bar, but the spaces which allow for thess are NOT included in the pattern string. Separator lines are also required above the first row and below the last row. Composite symbol products dlsoft products that create Composite symbols do not generate pattern strings. Databar strings The Pattern string for a linear Databar symbol consists of a stream of digit characters, with alternate characters representing first bars, then spaces. So the pattern represents an 1 unit bar followed by a 2 unit space, a 1 unit bar, a 3 unit space and a 1 unit bar, etc. The Pattern strings for Stacked Databar symbols are a little more complex. The string consists a stream of digit characters, with each row of the symbol (including the separator patterns) being separated by a newline (\n or CHR(10)) character. For the stacked symbols each row start with a space of the specified width. So the row pattern represents a 2 unit space followed by a 1 unit bar followed by a 2 unit space, a 1 unit bar, a 3 unit space and a 1 unit bar, etc. If the initial digit in a row is 0 then this means there is no starting space. The row heights are given in the Databar barcode section. Users requiring further information on the allowed sizes for Databar codes should refer to the Databar standard specification.. DataMatrix strings The pattern string return for a DataMatrix barcode consists of the sequence of characters used to create the symbol, arranged by row, with a 1 for a black square and a 0 for a white square. Each row is separated by a newline (\n or CHR(10)) characters. Two successive zero bytes indicate the end of the pattern. MaxiCode strings Owing to the nature of MaxiCode, no pattern string is produced for this barcode type. MicroPDF417 strings The pattern string returned for MicroPDF417 has the same properties as that for normal PDF417. PDF417 strings The pattern strings returned for PDF417 barcodes consist of a stream of digit characters, with alternate characters in each row representing first bars, then spaces. So the pattern represents an 8 unit bar followed by a 2 unit space, a 1 unit bar, a 3 unit space and a 1 unit bar. Each row of the barcode symbol is terminated by a newline character (\n or CHR$(10)) in the pattern string. PDF417 symbols do not contain row separators. QR Code strings The pattern string return for a QR Code barcode consists of the sequence of characters used to create the symbol, arranged by row, with a 1 for a black square and a 0 for a white square. Each row is separated by a newline (\n or CHR(10)) characters. Two successive zero bytes indicate the end of the pattern. 50 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

55 GS1 Composite Symbols GS1 Composite symbols consist of a linear component associated with an adjacent 2D component which is used for encoding supplmentary data such as a batch number or expiration date. The linear component should be scannable by normal 1D scanners even though such scanner may ignore the 2D component. The linear component may be one of the following: EAN-13, UPC-A, EAN-8, GS1-128 or a Databar symbol. The 2D component may be a CC-A or CC-B component (a variant of Micro PDF417) or, in the case of GS1-128 linear components, may be a CC-C component (a variant of PDF417). The choice between CC-A and CC-B components is made on the basis of the amount of data to be encoded in the 2D component. CC-A can accommodate up to 56 digits (excluing any control characters), while CC-B can hold up to 338 digits. A CC-C component may be used only with a GS1-128 linear component, but can hold up to 2360 digits. The 2D component includes a linkage flag to distinguish the component from a stand-alone 2D barcode and to ensure that the 2D component does not scan without the linear component. The following examples illustrate the range of combinations available. EAN-13 with CC-A and 5 digit supplementary EAN-8 with CC-A dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 51

56 GS1-128 with CC-A/B composite GS1-128 with CC-C composite Databar Omnidirectional with CC-A/B Databar Stacked with CC-A/B 52 Barcodes dlsoft Barcodes

57 Databar Expanded-Stacked with CC-A/B Notes on Metafiles The picture images placed on the clipboard by dlsoft barcode products (excluding the.net products) are ANISOTROPIC metafiles. This means that they can be resized within applications (usually by dragging a corner). While the barcode bars can be resized over very wide ranges, any text included within the image may not resize as expected. In general changing the height of the image by resizing within another application will change the fontsize used to render the text. Changing the width of the image within another application may cause the position of any text under the barcode to change. To overcome text size problems caused by resizing metafile images choose an alternative fontsize within the product. The use of TrueType fonts is recommended to prevent unusual effects caused by resizing of text. When metafiles are printed the most commonly encountered problem is that the thickness of bars may be greater than expected - which results in the barcodes not scanning correctly. To overcome this problem all dlsoft barcode products allow bar thickness reduction. When the bar thickness reduction is positive the thickness of a bar is reduced in proportion to its nominal width. So a bar that is three units wide is reduced in thickness by three times as much as a bar that is one unit wide. This technique is designed for wet-ink printing - where the amount of ink spread is proportional to the area inked. When the bar reduction is negative the thickness of each bar is reduced by the same amount - a proportion of the smallest bar - and a bar which is three units wide is reduced by the same amount as a bar which is one unit wide. This technique can be used to overcome problems with printers that print all lines thicker than instructed - a common problem with 300 dpi laser printers. In general if a barcode will not scan correctly the symbol should be examined under a magnifier to ensure that the thinnest space in the symbol is at least as wide as the thinnest bar. If it isn't then some reduction in bar thickness is probably required. It should be noted that the correctness of the barcode bar thickness cannot be judged from the screen image - this will always be correct. dlsoft Barcodes Barcodes 53

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