20 Year Australian Antarctic Strategic Plan

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1 20 Year Australian Antarctic Strategic Plan AJ Press, Head Inquirer July 2014

2 20YearAustralianAntarcticStrategicPlan AJPress,HeadInquirer July2014

3 TableofContents Introduction...2 TableofContents...3 AustraliaasaLeaderinAntarctica...5 Recommendationsofthe20YearAustralianAntarcticStrategicPlan...6 1Australia senduringantarcticpresence Australia santarcticinterests...19 AustralianAntarcticLeadership...21 APartnerofChoice Australia sadministrationoftheaustralianantarcticterritory RegionalSecurity AntarcticScience...30 AntarcticandSouthernOceanResearchCapabilityinTasmania EconomicBenefitsforTasmaniaasanAntarcticGateway...37 uelavailability DirectSupportforAustralia santarcticprogram TheProtocolonEnvironmentalProtectiontotheAntarcticTreaty...47 TheMythoftheExpirationoftheBanonAntarcticMining AntarcticaandWorldHeritageListing HeardIslandandMcDonaldIslands MacquarieIsland CaseStudies...58 Australia ssuccessfulroleinthecommissionfortheconservationofantarcticmarineliving Resources:CounteringIllegal,UnreportedandUnregulatedishing...58 ResupplyofJapan ssyowastation...59 InternationalCollaborationsonBoardAurora&Australis:SeaIcePhysicsandEcosystems Experiments /14AuroraBasinNorthIceCoreDrillingProject:Australialeadsanimportantinternational researchproject...61 KrillAquariumattheAustralianAntarcticDivision:WorldclassresearchtosupportAntarctic fisheriesandconservation...62 AttachmentAKeydatesinAustralianAntarcticHistory...63 AttachmentBLegislationRelevanttoAustralia santarcticgovernance...65 AttachmentC VesselsRecentlyActiveintheEastAntarcticSectoroftheSouthernOcean...66 P age 3

4 AttachmentDAntarcticTreatySystemListofParties...68 Appendix1 Budgetigures...70 Appendix2 ConsultationsandSubmissions...71 P age 4

5 AustraliaasaLeaderinAntarctica AustralianleadershipinAntarcticaprotectsAustralia sinterestsandourinternationalstandinginthisregion ofstrategicimportance. Whatdoesleadershiplooklike? AustraliaremainsakeyplayerintheAntarcticTreatySystemandAntarcticdiplomacy; AustraliaislookedtobyemergingAntarcticnationsforadvice; AustraliaisabletoconductactivitiesandsupportscienceinallpartsoftheAustralianAntarcticTerritory; Australiahasthelogisticcapabilitytocarryoutworldclassscienceonthewater,intheseaice,andonthe continent; Australia has the means to efficiently move scientists and personnel to and from Australia, and within Antarctica; AustraliahastheabilitytomaintainandresupplyitsAntarcticstationseffectively; AustraliaisacollaboratorofchoiceinscienceinEastAntarctica;and AustraliaisapartnerofchoiceinEastAntarcticlogistics. Whatwillthisrequire? & AffirmingAustralia santarcticinterests; & StrengtheningAustralianGovernmentadministrativearrangementsandregularreportingtoGovernment onaustralia santarcticinterests; CommissioningthereplacementforAurora&Australisandusingittofulleffect,including: efficientresupplyofaustralia santarcticstations, acomprehensiveprogramofresearchinthesouthernoceanandseaice,and aprogramoflogisticcooperationwithothercountries; Investmentintheoptionsnowavailableforinterandintracontinentalairtransporttosupplementthe corefunctionalityofthenewicebreaker; ReacquisitionofAustralia sdeepfieldtraversecapabilitytosupportactivitiesthroughouttheaustralian AntarcticTerritory,highpriorityscience,andothernationsactiveintheregion; ModernisingAustralia santarcticstationsandtheiroperations;and CommunicatingtotheAustralianpublictheimportanceofAustralia spresenceinantarctica. ortasmaniathiswillrequire: CoordinatedCommonwealthandStateprioritiesforinfrastructureinvestmentanddevelopment, especiallyinportfacilities(includingwharfandfuelinfrastructure)andthecompletionoftheextensionof thehobartairportrunway; BuildingtrainingandeducationcapabilitiesinAntarcticrelatedareasofAntarcticlaw,policyand governance;logistics;fieldtraining;tradestraining;science,technologyandinnovation;andantarctic meteorology;and Developingstrongerlinkswithindustrytoencourageinnovationandparticipationofbusinessesinthe Antarcticsector. P age 5

6 Recommendationsofthe20YearAustralianAntarcticStrategicPlan TherecommendationsofthisreportaremadetoprovideguidanceonhowAustraliacanensurethatits Antarctic interests are protected and advanced over the next 20 years and beyond. Many of the recommendations require wholeofgovernment consideration in the near to short term in order to ensurethataustralia srelativestandinginantarcticaisprotected. Australia santarcticinterests Recommendation1TheAustralianGovernmentshouldreaffirmAustralia santarcticinterestsand putinplacemechanismstoensurewholeofgovernmentcommitmenttotheirimplementation. ResponsibilityforAustralia santarcticinterestsshouldbeexplicitlyassignedto relevantagencies. TheAustralianGovernmentshouldalsoconsideramendingtheseinterestsandaddingtheadditional interestof SupportastrongandeffectiveAntarcticTreatySystem. HIGHPRIORITY>IMMEDIATE>ONGOING Recommendation2ThereplacementforAurora&AustralisshouldbecapableofmeetingAustralia s likelyneedsforatleastthenext20yearsandbeusedtoaustralia smaximumadvantage: ItshouldbemoreicecapablethanAurora&Australis&enablingyearroundaccesstothesea icezone; ItshouldbeAustralianowned,controlled,andflagged; ItmustbeusedefficientlyforresupplyofAustralia santarcticstations; Itshouldbeusedasaplatformforaprogramoflogisticcollaborationwithother countries;and ItshouldbeengagedinconductingworldclassresearchintheSouthernOceanand AntarcticatoleadAustralia santarcticscienceefforts. WhennotengageddirectlyinAustralia santarcticprogram,thevesselshouldbeavailable,where appropriate,forotherusesbytheaustraliangovernment. HIGHPRIORITY>ONGOING Recommendation3Australiashouldbuildonitsdevelopmentofgroundbreakingintercontinental airtransportbyexploringcapabilitiesincludingthosethatwerepreviouslyunavailable,including: Options for intracontinental air transport to link with the direct flights from Hobart to WilkinsAerodrome; TheviabilityofflyingskiequippedaircraftdirectlyfromAustraliatoAntarctica,orother directflightoptions; AssessingthelongtermviabilityoftheWilkinsAerodrome;and TheoptionofregularheavyliftaircraftflightsfromtheextendedHobartAirportrunway towilkinsaerodromeorelsewhereinantarctica. HIGHPRIORITY>MEDIUMTERM>ONGOING P age 6

7 Recommendation4Australiashouldreacquireitsdeepfieldtraversecapabilitytosupporthigh priorityscience.& HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM>ONGOING Recommendation5Australia should develop a program for the modernisation of its Antarctic stationswhichincludes: Moreefficientstationoperations; Increasedflexibilityintheconfigurationanduseofassetsandpersonnel; Increased capacity to support science and high priority activities throughout the AustralianAntarcticTerritory;and IncreasedcollaborationwithothernationsactiveinEastAntarctica. HIGHPRIORITY>MEDIUMTERM>ONGOING Australia sadministrationoftheaustralianantarcticterritory Recommendation6TheAttorneyGeneral sdepartment and the Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment should undertake a review of legislation and administrative practicesapplicabletotheaustralianantarcticterritorytoensurethatitiseffectivelyadministered. HIGHPRIORITY>MEDIUMTERM>ONGOING Recommendation7Australiashouldconsideradministrativestepssuchas: AppointingexofficiotheDirectoroftheAustralianAntarcticDivisionasAdministrator totheaustralianantarcticterritoryandtheterritoryofheardislandandmcdonald Islands(thiscouldbedonethroughamendmenttotheAustralian&Antarctic&Territory& Act(1954)andtheHeard&Island&and&McDonald&Islands&Act(1953)); AdoptingflagsfortheAustralianAntarcticTerritoryandtheTerritoryofHeardIsland andmcdonaldislands(theadoptionoftheseflagscouldbedoneaspartofabroader GovernmentprogramtoadoptflagsforallofAustralia sexternalterritoriesincluding thecoralsea,andashmorereefandcartierislands); EnsuringacontinuingprogramofmappingoftheAustralianAntarcticTerritoryandits adjacentmaritimezones;and acilitating a program of visits by Senior Government figures to the Australian AntarcticTerritory. MEDIUMPRIORITY>MEDIUMTERM P age 7

8 RegionalSecurity Recommendation8 Australia should work to ensure that the Antarctic Treaty System remains strongandstable. HIGHPRIORITY>ONGOING Recommendation9 Australia should devote diplomatic resources to provide influence in the Antarctic Treaty System, and to work with Parties within it, in order to maintain Antarctic Treaty SystemnormsandpracticeswhichkeeptheAntarcticfreefromdiscord,conflictandmilitarisation. HIGHPRIORITY>ONGOING Recommendation10AustraliashouldengagewithotherAntarcticTreatyPartiesoperatinginthe AustralianAntarcticTerritory. HIGHPRIORITY>ONGOING Recommendation 11 Australia should specifically engage with countries now emerging as significantplayersinantarctica,especiallyintheaustralianantarcticterritory. HIGHPRIORITY>IMMEDIATE>ONGOING Recommendation12Australiashouldensurethatimportantexistingbilateralarrangementsithas with other countries (for example its Treaty with rance, and bilateral agreements with rance, China, Russia, and New Zealand) are adequately serviced and supported. Australia should give furtherconsiderationtoitsuseofthesekindsofarrangements. MEDIUMPRIORITY>ONGOING Recommendation13AustraliashouldengagewithnaturalgroupingsintheAntarcticTreatySystem topursuecommonobjectivesinensuringthestabilityandstrengthoftheantarctictreatysystem. HIGHPRIORITY>ONGOING P age 8

9 AntarcticScience Recommendation14TheAustralianAntarcticDivisionChiefScientistshouldmeet annually with the Heads of the Integrated Marine Observing System; the Marine National acility Steering Committee;andtheAustralianResearchCouncil,andothersasrequired,toensurecoordinationof researcheffortinantarcticaandthesouthernocean. HIGHPRIORITY>IMMEDIATE Recommendation15Australiashouldretainthe hybrid systemofsupportingantarcticscience, withtheaustralianantarcticdivisionofthedepartmentoftheenvironmentprovidingthecoreof researchers focussed on delivering priority scientific advice to government, and national and international research institutions and universities providing competitivebased research against Australia santarcticsciencestrategicplan. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM>ONGOING Recommendation 16 unding for Australian Antarctic Science grants should be increased substantiallyto: acilitatenationalandinternationalcollaborationinpriorityscienceintheantarctic andsouthernocean; acilitate the planning and conduct of logistically complex priority research programsthatmayextendoveranumberofyears; EncouragegreatercollaborationamongnationsinEastAntarctica;and DemonstrateAustralianleadershipinAntarcticscience. undingforcollaborativeresearchshouldnotbeallocatedattheexpenseofothercorefunctionsof theaustralianantarcticprogram. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM Recommendation17 In conjunction with an increase in Australian Antarctic Science grants, the Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment should budget sufficient appropriationtosupporttheplanningandconductofmajorcampaigns,particularlythosethatrely oncomplexlogisticsandwhichmayextendoveranumberofyears. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM>ONGOING Recommendation18Australiashouldcontinuetoengagein,promoteandfacilitateinternational collaborationinantarcticscienceandgovernance. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM>ONGOING P age 9

10 Recommendation 19 Australiashouldprioritiselargefieldbased researchcampaignsinareasof highpriorityscientificresearch,andpromote,encourageandfacilitateinternationalcollaborations inthesecampaigns. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM>ONGOING Recommendation 20 Australia should engage with other Antarctic nations in their research programstoprovideassistanceandresearchcollaborationsconsistentwiththeaustralianantarctic ScienceStrategicPlan. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM>ONGOING Recommendation 21 The Australian Antarctic Science Strategic Plan should be renamed the AustralianAntarcticSciencePlan andshouldbereviewedregularly(every5years). The process for reviewing the Australian Antarctic Science Plan should be led by the Australian AntarcticDivisionoftheDepartmentoftheEnvironmentandinclude: External,independentreview BroadconsultationwiththeAustraliansciencecommunityandprofessionalbodies BroadconsultationacrossGovernment. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM>ONGOING Recommendation22AwholeofGovernmentpositionshouldbereachedonongoingfundingfor nationalandinternationalcollaborationsinantarcticsciencetocoverthecessationoftheantarctic Gateway Partnership funding in 2017 and the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystem Cooperative ResearchCentrefundingin2019. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM P age 10

11 EconomicBenefitsforTasmaniaasanAntarcticGateway Recommendation23TheAustralianandTasmanianGovernmentsshouldworktogethertobuild Tasmania scapacitytobealeadingglobalgatewaytoeastantarctica. HIGHPRIORITY>IMMEDIATE>ONGOING Recommendation24AjointTasmanianCommonwealthGovernmentagreementshouldprioritise infrastructureinvestmentdecisionstosupporttheeastantarcticgateway,including: InvestmentinHobart srundownportfacilitiestoensuretheyareabletocapitaliseon growingmarineresearchandresupplyshippingineastantarctica; EnsuringthatHobarthastheabilitytohold,andefficientlysupply,shipandaircraft fuel;and Ensuringthatefficientportaccess,quarantine,storageandresupplyfacilitiesarein placeinordertoservicethepotentialgrowthineastantarcticseaandairtraffic. HIGHPRIORITY>IMMEDIATE>ONGOING Recommendation25 The Australian and Tasmanian Governments should jointly commission a reportonthefutureshippingfuelfacilityrequirementsfortheportofhobart,including: OptionsfordeliveryoffueltovesselsinthePort; OptionsforthesupplyoffueltoandfromSelfsPoint; ThecostandopportunitycostofshiptransittoandfromthePorttoSelfsPoint;and The risks associated with the current ship refuelling arrangements, compared with viablealternatives. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM Recommendation26 The Commonwealth should actively engage with the Tasmanian business communitytofacilitateopportunitiesforbusinessestoparticipateintheantarcticsector. The Commonwealth should explore ways to engage business early in procurement processes in ordertofosterinnovation,efficiencyandprovidebettervalueformoney. HIGHPRIORITY>IMMEDIATE>ONGOING Recommendation27TheAustralianAntarcticDivisionoftheDepartmentoftheEnvironment,in consultation with other agencies, should explore opportunities to establish partnerships with the State,otherorganisations,andindustryinAntarcticrelatedactivities,including: Theprovisionoftrainingandservicesinmedicalandalliedhealthservices; Maritimeskillstraining(includingoperationsinseaice); Antarcticmeteorologicalservices,weatherforecasting,andprovisionof seaiceassessmentsforshipping; P age 11

12 Scientificinstrumentandtechnologydevelopment; Antarcticfieldtrainingandsupport; TraininginAntarcticrelatedtrades; Theprovisionofgoodsandservices;and Polarinfrastructureresearchanddevelopment. HIGHPRIORITY>ONGOING DirectSupportforAustralia santarcticprogram Recommendation28 The Department of the Environment and the Department of inance, in consultationwithotherrelevantdepartmentsandagencies,shouldjointlyundertakeareviewofthe budgetoftheaustralianantarcticdivision(departmentoftheenvironment,outcome3). Thisreviewshouldinclude: ThefixedcostsofrunningtheAustralianAntarcticProgram,including: TheoperationofAustralia santarcticstations; The operation of logistics to support Australia s sovereign and strategic interestsinantarcticaandthesouthernocean;and The operation of the Australian Antarctic Division s station on Macquarie Island. The core functions undertaken by the Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment in operational support, science, policy, and the administrationoftheaustralianantarcticterritoryandtheterritoryofheardisland andmcdonaldislands; ThefundingrequiredtomeetAustralia sobligationsintheantarctictreatysystem including environmental management; sustainable management of marine living resources and conservation in the Antarctic, Southern Ocean and the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands; and scientific, practical and diplomatic engagement; The funding required to advance Australia s Antarctic interests through the initiation, conduct and support of priority science in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean; TheprovisionsrequiredtomeetAustralia sobligationtoremediateenvironmental damageandabandonedsitesinantarctica; The future requirements for capital investment and/or renewal in logistics and infrastructure; Opportunities to diversify the funding base to support some Antarctic activities includingfrombusinessandphilanthropicsources;and ThefutureoperationalsupportrequiredtosustainacredibleAntarcticprogramthat matchesaustralia snationalinterestsintheantarctic. The review should call on the expertise of external experts in polar operations and science. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM P age 12

13 TheProtocolonEnvironmentalProtectiontotheAntarcticTreaty Recommendation29Australiashouldundertakediplomaticandpracticalactivitiestosupportthe provisions of the Madrid Protocol, including the prohibition on Antarctic mineral activities. These activities should include capacity building efforts and education on Parties obligations under the MadridProtocolanditsprovisionswithrespecttomining. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM AntarcticaandWorldHeritageListing Recommendation30AustraliashouldapproachwithextremecautioncallstohaveAntarcticalisted on the World Heritage List and should not pursue World Heritage nomination for the Australian AntarcticTerritoryorAntarcticaasawhole. MEDIUMPRIORITY>ONGOING Recommendation31AustraliashouldconsideranyassessmentofproposalstoplaceAntarcticaon theworldheritagelistagainstthecomprehensiveprotectionsalreadyprovidedwithintheantarctic TreatySystem,includingtheProtocolonEnvironmentalProtectiontotheAntarcticTreaty,andthe impactsthatpursuingsuchaproposalmayhaveontheantarctictreatysystemitself. MEDIUMPRIORITY>MEDIUMTERM Recommendation 32 Australia should identify opportunities to actively promote the natural, scientific,andculturalvaluesoftheantarcticandtheenvironmentalprotectionoutcomesachieved bythemadridprotocol,especiallyintheleaduptoits25 th anniversaryin2016. HIGHPRIORITY>SHORTTERM P age 13

14 TheTerritoryofHeardIslandandtheMcDonaldIslands Recommendation33Australiashouldsupportfisheriessurveillanceandenforcementoperationsin therenchandaustralianexclusiveeconomiczonesintheheardislandkerguelenislandregion,and inthesurroundingareasoftheconventionontheconservationofantarcticmarinelivingresources inaccordancewiththetreatywithrance. HIGHPRIORITY>ONGOING Recommendation34 The Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment shouldprovidethegovernmentwithacarefullyconsideredbudgetforconductingpriorityresearch atheardislandandmcdonaldislandsandsurroundingwatersandsupportingaustralia spresence intheterritory. Priority research in this region should be considered part of the core responsibilities of the Australian Antarctic Division as the region is strategically important for Australia, has important fisheriesresources,andisimportantforwildlifeconservation. MEDIUMPRIORITY>SHORTTERM MacquarieIsland Recommendation 35 The operation of the research station on Macquarie Island should be reviewedaspartoftheaustralianantarcticdivision smodernisationproject. MEDIUMPRIORITY>MEDIUMTERM P age 14

15 1>Australia senduringantarcticpresence Australia slong,proudandenduringpresenceinantarcticaspansmorethanacentury.indeed,2014 marksthecentenary of theendsirdouglasmawson s epic AustralasianAntarcticExpedition(see AttachmentA keydatesinaustralianantarctichistory). Mawson s heroic efforts laid the foundation for Australia s Antarctic engagement in discovery, explorationandscience.mawsonrecognisedthegeographicimportanceofantarcticatoaustraliaas well as its scientific and resource potential. Mawson returned to East Antarctica in , formalisingaterritorialclaimforthecommonwealthandfurtheringaustralia sscientificinterestsin the region. The acquisition of territory was completed by the Australian& Antarctic& Territory& Acceptance& Act (1933), which was formally proclaimed in 1936 (see Attachment B for a list of legislationrelevanttoaustralia santarcticgovernance). TheAustralianAntarcticTerritoryispartofAustralia,andAustraliaassertssovereigntytoover42 percentofantarctica. igure2>australianantarcticterritory(mapcourtesyoftheaustralianantarcticdivisionofthedepartmentoftheenvironment) P age 15

16 AustraliahasmaintainedapermanentpresenceinAntarcticasincetheestablishmentofMawson Stationin1954.MawsonStationwasthefirstAntarcticstationestablishedsouthof60⁰Southandis theoldestcontinuallyoccupiedstationsouthoftheantarcticcircle. Australia has been engaged continuously in Antarctic and Southern Ocean science since the establishmentoftheaustralianantarcticdivisionin1948.australiawasoneof twelve nationsto participateinantarcticresearchduringtheinternationalgeophysicalyearin Australia is one of the twelve original signatories to the Antarctic Treaty (1961). Australia s Lord Casey played a significant role in the negotiation of the Treaty, and in the protection the Treaty providestoaustralia ssovereigntyovertheaustralianantarcticterritory. AustraliahasplayedasignificantroleinthedevelopmentoftheAntarcticTreatySystem,especially thenegotiationofthe1982conventionontheconservationofantarcticmarinelivingresources andthe1991protocolonenvironmentalprotectiontotheantarctictreaty(themadridprotocol). Today Australia s presence is focused on its three coastal Antarctic stations, Mawson, Davis and Casey. Australia has no permanent presence or reliable capability to access inland regions of the Australian Antarctic Territory. Each year some 550 expeditioners participate in the Australian AntarcticprograminAntarcticaandonTasmania smacquarieisland. Australia s limited physical presence has led some to comment on the defensibility of Australia s sovereigntyovertheaustralianantarcticterritory.whileargumentoversovereigntyiseffectively setasidebytheprovisionsofarticleivoftheantarctictreaty,itdoesnotdiminishthevalidityof Australia ssovereigntyovertheaustralianantarcticterritory. P age 16

17 igure3>antarcticterritorialclaims(notingthatthesouthernlimitsofthenorwegianterritoryareundefined). (mapcourtesyoftheaustralianantarcticdivisionofthedepartmentoftheenvironment) AntarcticClaimants UnitedKingdom(1908),NewZealand(1923),rance(1924),Australia(1933),Norway(1939), Chile(1940),Argentina(1943) P age 17

18 2>Australia santarcticinterests Antarctica, a region of international peace and cooperation, is of great strategic importance to Australia.TheAntarcticTreatysetsasideallthatpartoftheglobesouthofAustraliabelow60⁰South asazonewheremilitaryactivityisprohibitedandwherecooperationinscienceisparamount. Australia santarcticinterestswerefirstarticulatedbygovernmentmorethan30yearsagoandhave been reaffirmed by successive Governments since that time. They are based on the Antarctic region sstrategic,scientific,environmentalandpotentialeconomicimportanceforaustralia. Australia santarcticnationalinterestsareto: PreserveoursovereigntyovertheAustralianAntarcticTerritory,includingoursovereign rightsovertheadjacentoffshoreareas TakeadvantageofthespecialopportunitiesAntarcticaoffersforscientificresearch ProtecttheAntarcticenvironment,havingregardtoitsspecialqualitiesandeffectsonour region MaintainAntarctica sfreedomfromstrategicand/orpoliticalconfrontation Be informed about and able to influence developments in a region geographically proximatetoaustralia,and Derive any reasonable economic benefits from living and non>living resources of the Antarctic(excludingderivingsuchbenefitsfromminingandoildrilling). Australia s assertion of sovereignty to the Australian Antarctic Territory underpins the strategic importanceoftheantarctic foraustralia.maintainingthe Antarctic TreatySystem andaustralia s activeengagementinitservestoprotectitssuiteofnationalantarcticinterests. WhiletheMadridProtocolprohibitsminingintheAntarcticTreatyarea,thereismuchspeculation thatsomecountriesareengagedinantarcticactivitiesinordertopositionthemselvesforatimein thefuturewheninternationalattitudestominingintheantarcticmightchange. ToaffirmitsAntarcticinterests,Australiamusthaveboththeintentionandthecapabilitytolead activities in the Australian Antarctic Territory leadership in science, leadership in logistics, and leadershipindiplomacyandlawmaking. In accordance with the above recommendations, the following Australian Government agencies couldbeallocatedresponsibilityforeachofthesestrategicinterests: PreserveoursovereigntyovertheAustralianAntarcticTerritory,includingoursovereign rights over the adjacent offshore areas [Lead:& Attorney& General s& Department;& significant& responsibility:& Australian& Antarctic& Division& of& the& Department& of& the& Environment;& Department&of&oreign&Affairs&and&Trade] TakeadvantageofthespecialopportunitiesAntarcticaoffersforscientificresearch[Lead:& Australian&Antarctic&Division&of&the&Department&of&the&Environment;&significant&responsibility:& Department&of&Industry;&Department&of&Education] ProtecttheAntarcticenvironment,havingregardtoitsspecialqualitiesandeffectsonour region[lead:&australian&antarctic&division&of&the&department&of&the&environment;&significant& responsibility:&bureau&of&meteorology;&other&divisions&of&the&department&of&the&environment] P age 19

19 Maintain Antarctica s freedom from strategic and/or political confrontation [Lead:& Department&of&oreign&Affairs;&&significant&responsibility:&Australian&Antarctic&Division&of&the& Department&of&the&Environment;&Department&of&Prime&Minister&and&Cabinet;&Department&of& Defence] Be informed about and able to influence developments in a region geographically proximate to Australia [Lead:& Australian& Antarctic& Division& of& the& Department& of& the& Environment;& significant& responsibility& Department& of& Prime& Minister& and& Cabinet;& Department&of&oreign&Affairs],and Derive any reasonable economic benefits from living and non>living resources of the Antarctic(excludingderivingsuchbenefitsfromminingandoildrilling)&[Lead:&Australian& Antarctic& Division& of& the& Department& of& the& Environment;& significant& responsibility& Department&of&Agriculture]. ThisreportrecommendsaddinganadditionalAustralianAntarcticinteresttoreflecttheimportance oftheantarctictreatysystemtoaustralia sstrategicantarcticinterestsandamendingoneinterest tobetterreflectaustralia spositiononthepotentialeconomicbenefitsoftheregion: Preserve our sovereignty over the Australian Antarctic Territory, including our sovereign rightsovertheadjacentoffshoreareas TakeadvantageofthespecialopportunitiesAntarcticaoffersforscientificresearch ProtecttheAntarcticenvironment,havingregardtoitsspecialqualitiesandeffectsonour region MaintainAntarctica sfreedomfromstrategicand/orpoliticalconfrontation Beinformedaboutandabletoinfluencedevelopmentsinaregiongeographicallyproximate toaustraliaand Deriveanyosterreasonableeconomicbenefitsfromlivingandnonlivingresourcesofthe Antarctic(excludingderivingsuchbenefitsfromminingandoildrilling),and Support a strong and effective Antarctic Treaty System. [Lead:& Department& of& oreign& Affairs;& significant& responsibility:& Australian& Antarctic& Division& of& the& Department& of& the& Environment;&Department&of&Prime&Minister&and&Cabinet]& Recommendation1TheAustralianGovernmentshouldreaffirmAustralia santarcticinterestsand putinplacemechanismstoensurewholeofgovernmentcommitmenttotheirimplementation. Responsibility for Australia s Antarctic interests should be explicitly assigned to relevant agencies. The Australian Government should also consider amending these interests and adding the additionalinterestof SupportastrongandeffectiveAntarcticTreatySystem. P age 20

20 AustralianAntarcticLeadership Australian leadership in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean is eroding. As Australia s logistic and scientific capabilities stagnate through historical erosion of funding and the aging of its assets, other countries are rampinguptheirinvestmentsinantarcticscience,logisticsandinfrastructure. In Australia s area of direct interest China, Republic of Korea and India have expanded their Antarctic investments in recent years. China in particular is expanding its efforts ineast AntarcticaandtheSouthern Ocean,includingintheAustralianAntarcticTerritory.Since1996ChinahasexpandeditsZhongshanstation nearaustralia sdavisstation,andbuiltkunlun,aninlandstationatdomea,thehighestplaceintheaustralian AntarcticTerritory.ChinahasbuiltanewsummerstationbetweenZhongshanandKunlun;anewicebreaker; andafifthantarcticstationisgoingtobebuiltintherossseatotheeastoftheaustralianantarcticterritory. AsAustralia saurora&australisrapidlyapproachestheendofitsusefullife,othercountriesoperatinginthe EastAntarcticarebuildingicebreakingandmarineresearchcapabilitieswhichfaroutstripAustralia s.japan s Shirase wascommissionedin2009,andisoneofthebiggesticebreakersinantarctica; Republic of Korea s icebreakingresearchvesselaraon&waslaunchedin2009;andchinaisbuildinganewicebreaker,duetobe commissioned before China has also recently commissioned marine research vessels capable of undertakingresearchinthesouthernoceanandwillkeepthecurrentxue&longinserviceforpolarresearch activities(attachmentcgivesdetailsofshipsthathaveinrecentyearsoperatedintheeastantarcticsectorof thesouthernocean,includingresearch,resupplyandtouristvessels). Australia sscientificstandingisunderthreat.in2004australiawasrankedthirdintermsofantarcticscientific output 2. But Australia s leadership is being eroded by the diminishing capacity to undertake highpowered researchinantarcticaandthesouthernocean;byaustralia slossofdeepfieldtraversecapability;bylimited intra and intercontinental air transport capability; and by historical underinvestment in Antarctic science andsciencesupport. The single biggest point of failure in Australia s Antarctic efforts is its icebreaker. Resupply of Australia s Antarcticstations,supportforAustralianactivities,andcrediblesciencerequiresAustraliatohaveaccessto icebreakingcapabilityforresupply,supportandscience.thisrequiresanicebreakerwithsufficientcapability to access Australia s Antarctic stations regularly; the ability to carry sufficient cargo and fuel efficiently to supportthestationsandlandandairlogistics;andtheabilitytosupportmarineandseaiceresearchefforts. The Australian Government recently announced that a replacement for the aging Aurora& Australis will be constructed. The new icebreaker is planned to have greater icebreaking, resupply, and research capability thanaurora&australis.thenewvesselisduetocomeintoservicein2019.thisincreasedcapabilitywillhelp restoreaustralia sleadershipinmarinescienceandlogisticsinantarcticaandthesouthernocean;itwillalso provideaplatformfromwhichtoincreaseaustralia scollaborationwithotherantarcticnations. ItisappropriateforAustraliatoleadcollaborationinEastAntarctica.Beinga collaboratorofchoice underpins Australia s efforts in East Antarctica and its position as a leader in Antarctic affairs, and the replacement icebreakershouldbeasignificantcomponentofthisleadership. Butthecapabilitiesofthenewicebreakermustbematchedwiththecapacitytoconductbothscientificand logistic operations. In recent years the ability to conduct significant marine science in Antarctica and the SouthernOceanhasdiminishedduetobudgetconstraints(seeigure MarineScienceDays andsection7directsupportforaustralia santarcticprogram). 2 Dastidar,P.G,Ramchandran,S.2008,IntellectualstructureofAntarcticscience:A25yearsanalysis.Scientometrics, 77(3): P age 21

21 120 AAPMarineScience /96 BROKE 2003/04)Antarctic)Remote)Ice) Sensing)Experiment)(ARISE) 2003/04)Heard)Is 2007/08 IPY;) SIPEX A319 1st)flight /00 Midwinter)voyage (Mertz Glacier) 2012/13)ACECRC) contributedto)) SIPEX)2) /90)AA) commenced) trials 1991)AA) enters)operation 2005/06 BROKEUWEST 2006/07 SAZUSENSE /99)AA V1) fire,)prop)damage) V4)towed)home 2008/09 Resupply of)japanese) Syowa)Staton)by)AA 2013/14)no marine) science)days) allocated igure >MarineScienceDays1987>2014 TheinternationallysignificantSeaIcePhysicsandEcosystemsExperiments(SIPEX)IIvoyagein (casestudy atsection12) wasonlyabletoproceedwithadditionalfundingprovidedbytheantarctic ClimateandEcosystemsCooperativeResearchCentre,andfutureplannedmarinesciencevoyageswill only be possible with significant external contributions. Science, in this case shipbased science, is an integralcomponentofaustralia sactivitiesinantarcticaandthesouthernocean.australiarequiresthe capacity to plan and support both resupply and marine science as part of its core activities in the Antarctic,andthisshouldbereflectedinthecoreoperationalbudgetoftheAustralianAntarcticDivision. Recommendation2>ThereplacementforAurora&Australis shouldbecapableofmeetingaustralia s likelyneedsforatleastthenext20yearsandbeusedtoaustralia smaximumadvantage: It should be more icecapable than Aurora& Australis& enabling yearround access to the seaice zone; ItshouldbeAustralianowned,controlled,andflagged; ItmustbeusedefficientlyforresupplyofAustralia santarcticstations. Itshouldbeusedasaplatformforaprogramoflogisticcollaborationwithother countries;and ItshouldbeengagedinconductingworldclassresearchintheSouthernOceanand AntarcticatoleadAustralia santarcticscienceefforts; When not engaged directly in Australia s Antarctic program, the vessel should be available, where appropriate,forotherusesbytheaustraliangovernment. P age 22

22 APartnerofChoice Australia is the longestestablished nation in East Antarctica for science and logistics. It has been seen as an innovator and a country that is easy to do business with. This relative standing is seriously under threat due to the aging icebreaker and chronic underinvestment in logistic and sciencecapability,asothernationsinvestheavilyintheseareas. Being a partner of choice in Antarctic science and logistics underlines Australia s standing as a leadingantarcticnation.todothiswemustbeleadersonthewater,ontheiceandintheair.the announcement of a replacement to Aurora& Australis with a 21st century research and resupply icebreakeriscentraltomaintainingaustraliaasthepartnerofchoiceineastantarctica. But there must also be a vision for, and commitment to, long term investment in the range of logistics, infrastructure and science that underpin Australia s Antarctic interests. This requires integrated decisions to be made now about future capability, including future inter and intra continentalairtransportcapability,deepfieldtraversecapability,stationinfrastructureandscience.&& Airtransportcapabilitiesshouldbedevelopedtocomplementthenewcapabilitiesprovidedbythe replacementforaurora&australisaswellastheextensionofthehobartairportrunway. The air transport system must support Australia s logistic and scientific capability, and form an integralpartofaustralia ssupportforothernationsintheaustralianantarcticterritory. TheAustralianAntarcticTerritoryholdsauniquerecordofpastclimateinitsice.Australiamustbein apositiontorealisticallyleadgrowinginternationaleffortstofindandrecovertheworld soldestice, deepwithintheaustralianantarcticterritory.australiamustalsohavetheabilitytoreachallparts oftheaustralianantarcticterritoryandbeyond. Recommendation 3 Australia should build on its development of groundbreaking inter continentalairtransportbyexploringcapabilitiesincludingthosethatwerepreviouslyunavailable, including: & Options for intracontinental air transport to link with the direct flights from Hobart to WilkinsAerodrome; The viability of flying skiequipped aircraft directly from Australia to Antarctica, or other directflightoptions; AssessingthelongtermviabilityoftheWilkinsAerodrome;and TheoptionofregularheavyliftaircraftflightsfromtheextendedHobartAirportrunwayto WilkinsAerodromeorelsewhereinAntarctica.& Recommendation4Australiashouldreacquireitsdeepfieldtraversecapabilitytosupporthigh priorityscience. Recommendation5 Australia should develop a program for the modernisation of its Antarctic stationswhichincludes: Moreefficientstationoperations; Increasedflexibilityintheconfigurationanduseofassetsandpersonnel; IncreasedcapacitytosupportscienceandhighpriorityactivitiesthroughouttheAustralian AntarcticTerritory;and IncreasedcollaborationwithothernationsactiveinEastAntarctica. P age 23

23 AntarcticSovereignty under the treaty we have agreed to set aside the argument about territorial claims. Nobody abandons his own. We have made territorial claims in the Antarctic quite extensive ones. I dare say that there are nations represented here today who would not agree with some of our claims... There are some nations who do not think that anybody has a territorialclaimatalland,byasinglestrokeofwisdom,ithink,whenthis treatywasbeingnegotiateditwasagreednottoabandonclaimsbuttoput ononesidetheargumentaboutthem && & Sir& Robert& Menzies& addressing& the& first& Antarctic& Treaty& Consultative& Meeting&in&Canberra&(1961).& ThematterofAntarcticsovereigntywasattheforefrontofdeliberationsduringthenegotiation oftheantarctictreatyinthelate1950 s,andaustraliawasextremelycautioustoensurethatits sovereigntyovertheaustralianantarcticterritorywasnotcededordiminishedbythetreaty.in the end, Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty was agreed among the twelve original signatories, effectivelyputtingasideanychallengeordisputeconcerningantarcticsovereignclaims.article IV effectively protects Australia s position on its sovereignty over the Australian Antarctic Territory. Since the negotiation of the Antarctic Treaty, which came into effect in 1961, Australia has conducteditsantarcticactivitiesasbothanantarcticclaimantstateandapartytotheantarctic Treaty.In2004,forexample,whenAustraliasubmitteddatatotheCommissionontheLimitsof the Continental Shelf, it included data from Antarctica but requested the Commission not to consider the Antarctic data for the time being. Australia s actions carefully protected our sovereigninterests,butmaintainedthestabilityoftheantarctictreatysystem. In an earlier period, Australia and the other Antarctic claimant States had negotiated implicit recognitionoftheiruniquepositioninthenegotiationsoverpotentialmineralexplorationinthe Antarctic.TheprovisionsofArticleIVoftheAntarcticTreatyarereflectedintheConventionon theconservationofantarcticmarinelivingresources(1982)andtheprotocolonenvironmental ProtectiontotheAntarcticTreaty(1991)(MadridProtocol). AntarcticTreatyArticleIV 1.NothingcontainedinthepresentTreatyshallbeinterpretedas: (a) a renunciation by any Contracting Party of previously asserted rights of or claims to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica; (b)arenunciationordiminutionbyanycontractingpartyofanybasisofclaimtoterritorialsovereigntyinantarctica whichitmayhavewhetherasaresultofitsactivitiesorthoseofitsnationalsinantarctica,orotherwise; (c)prejudicingthepositionofanycontractingpartyasregardsitsrecognitionornonrecognitionofanyotherstate s rightoforclaimorbasisofclaimtoterritorialsovereigntyinantarctica. 2.NoactsoractivitiestakingpacewhilethepresentTreatyisinforceshallconstituteabasisforasserting,supporting ordenyingaclaimtoterritorialsovereigntyinantarcticaorcreateanyrightsofsovereigntyinantarctica.nonew claim,orenlargementofanexistingclaim,toterritorialsovereigntyinantarcticashallbeassertedwhilethepresent Treatyisinforce. P age 24

24 3>Australia sadministrationoftheaustralianantarcticterritory ItisappropriateforAustraliatoundertakeadministrationoftheAustralianAntarcticTerritoryina mannerconsistentwithitsobligationsintheantarctictreatysystem. It is in Australia s national interest to conduct effective administration of its Antarctic affairs and Australia should undertake a review of the provisions of legislation applicable to the Australian AntarcticTerritorytoensurethiseffectiveadministration. MapcourtesyAustralianAntarcticDivision AsadministratoroftheAustralianAntarcticTerritoryandinaccordancewithitsobligationsinthe Antarctic Treaty System, it is appropriate for Australia s operational and scientific presence to include: Permanent presence, including through maintaining its key Antarctic stations (Mawson, Casey and Davis), and continued association with Australia s key historic site at CommonwealthBay. AccesstoalloftheAustralianAntarcticTerritorybylandandsea.TodosoAustraliamust ensuretheoperationalbenefitsofitsnewicebreakerarefullyutilizedinresupply,science, andthesupportofothernationsineastantarctica.australiamustensurethattheworld class intercontinental air link it has established is also used effectively to transport Australian personnel to and from Antarctica, support science and support other Antarctic nationsintheaustralianantarcticterritory. P age 25

25 Australia must explore future options for both inter and intra continental air transport optionsthatwerenotavailablewhenaustralia santarcticairlinkwasintroduced.thismust be done in order to maximize the benefits of Australia s intercontinental air transport capability, and to maximize Australia s reach and presence in the Australian Antarctic Territory. Australiashouldensurethatitrebuildsits deep field traverse capability to support multi nationallogisticandscienceeffortsintheantarctic,anddemonstrateaustralianleadership. AustraliashouldalsouseitslogisticinfrastructuretofacilitateitsrightsundertheAntarctic Treaty System such as Treaty and environmental inspections and compliance inspections underthecommissionfortheconservationofantarcticmarinelivingresources. Australiashouldbeasignificantplayerorleaderinlarge,multinationalresearcheffortsin theaustralianantarcticterritory.becauseoftheimportantstatusthatscienceisaffordedin theantarctictreaty,australia sabilitytoparticipateinandleadkeyscienceprogramsinthe AustralianAntarcticTerritoryisnotonlyasignalofAustralia scommitmenttothetreaty, butisalsoademonstrationofaustralia sengagementintheregion. AustraliashouldreviewitsmappingcoverageoftheAustralianAntarcticTerritoryandtheadjacent marinezones,andembarkonaprogramofsurveyandmappingfortheentireaustralianantarctic Territory for scientific, navigational and safety reasons. Australia should also appoint an AdministratorfortheAustralianAntarcticTerritoryandtheTerritoryofHeardislandandMcDonald Islands. Recommendation6TheAttorneyGeneral sdepartmentandtheaustralianantarcticdivisionof thedepartmentoftheenvironmentshouldundertakeareviewoflegislationandadministrative practicesapplicabletotheaustralianantarcticterritorytoensurethatitiseffectivelyadministered. Recommendation7Australiashouldconsideradministrativestepssuchas: AppointingexofficiotheDirectoroftheAustralianAntarcticDivisionasAdministratortothe AustralianAntarcticTerritoryandtheTerritoryofHeardIslandandMcDonaldIslands(this couldbedonethroughamendmenttotheaustralian&antarctic&territory&act(1954)andthe Heard&Island&and&McDonald&Islands&Act(1953)); AdoptingflagsfortheAustralianAntarcticTerritoryandtheTerritoryofHeardIslandand McDonaldIslands(theadoptionoftheseflagscouldbedoneaspartofabroader GovernmentprogramtoadoptflagsforallofAustralia sexternalterritoriesincludingthe CoralSea,andAshmoreReefandCartierIslands); EnsuringacontinuingprogramofmappingoftheAustralianAntarcticTerritoryandits adjacentmaritimezones;and acilitatingaprogramofvisitsbyseniorgovernmentfigurestotheaustralianantarctic Territory. P age 26

26 4>RegionalSecurity TheAntarcticTreatysetsasidetheentireregionoftheglobesouthof60 0 Southasaregionofpeace andcooperation. AntarcticTreatyArticle1 1.Antarcticashallbeusedforpeacefulpurposesonly.Thereshallbe prohibited,interalia,anymeasuresofamilitarynature,suchasthe establishmentofmilitarybasesandfortifications,thecarryingoutof militarymanoeuvres,aswellasthetestingofanytypeofweapons. 2.ThepresentTreatyshallnotpreventtheuseofmilitarypersonnelor equipmentforscientificresearchorforanyotherpeacefulpurpose. ThishassignificantandpositiveramificationsforAustralia.ItensuresthatwhiletheTreatyisinforce Australiadoesnotneedtobeconcernedaboutmilitarisationandconflictintheregiondirectlysouth ofaustralia. TheAntarcticTreatySystemalsoprovidesaforuminwhichPartiesthatareinconflictinotherparts oftheglobeareabletocollaborateandworktoacommongoal. MaintainingthestabilityoftheAntarcticTreatySystem,andprotectingandshapingitsnorms,isin Australia s national interest: it ensures the region s harmony and security as well as protects AustralianintereststhroughtheadherenceofPartiestoArticleIVoftheAntarcticTreaty. It is in Australia s national interest, along with likeminded Parties, to significantly influence the geopolitical environment of the Antarctic Treaty System. This requires both good standing in AntarcticscienceandinAntarcticdiplomacy.AustraliashouldensurethatitsAntarcticaspirations arematched by its ability to engage with and influence decisions in Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings,theCommitteeforEnvironmentalProtection,andtheCommissionfortheConservationof AntarcticMarineLivingResourcesanditsScientificCommittee. Australiashould ensure thatitisableto engage strategically bilaterally (and multilaterally) with otherantarctictreatyparties.australiahasstronghistoricconnectionsinantarcticawithrance, Japan,theUnitedStates,theUnitedKingdom,China,NewZealand,Russia,andtoalesserextent Germany,India,ItalyandRepublicofKoreaandwithotherAntarcticTreatyParties.Australiaalso hasstrongpoliticalties,andcommoninterestswiththeotheroriginalsignatoriestotheantarctic Treaty.Therearealsootherbilateralandmultilateralinterestsinscience,policyandgovernance that arise from time to time (for example the interests of Antarctic Gateway States 3 ; Southern Hemispherecountries;the Valdivia group,etc). 3 AntarcticGatewayStatesinclude:NewZealand,SouthAfrica,Chile,ArgentinaandAustralia P age 27

27 Australiashouldbepreparedandhavetheabilitytoengageactivelyandconstructivelyinthesebi lateral and multilateral discussions and activities in order to influence decisions in policy and scienceandtoprotectandshapeantarctictreatysystemnorms.constructiveengagementthrough scienceandlogistics,aswellascapacitybuilding,shouldbepursuedbyaustralia. Recommendation8AustraliashouldworktoensurethattheAntarcticTreatySystemremains strongandstable. Recommendation 9 Australia should devote diplomatic resources to provide influence in the Antarctic Treaty System, and to work with Parties within it, in order to maintain the Antarctic Treaty System norms and practices which keep the Antarctic free from discord, conflict and militarisation. Recommendation10AustraliashouldengagewithotherAntarcticTreatyPartiesoperatinginthe AustralianAntarcticTerritory. Recommendation 11 Australia should specifically engage with countries now emerging as significantplayersinantarctica,especiallyintheaustralianantarcticterritory. Recommendation12Australiashouldensurethatimportantexistingbilateralarrangementsit has with other countries (for example its Treaty with rance, and bilateral agreements with rance,china,russia,andnewzealand)areadequatelyservicedandsupported.australiashould givefurtherconsiderationtoitsuseofthesekindsofarrangements. Recommendation 13 Australia should engage with natural groupings in the Antarctic Treaty SystemtopursuecommonobjectivesinensuringthestabilityandstrengthoftheAntarcticTreaty System. P age 28

28 AntarcticandSouthernOceanSearchandRescue Australia ssearchandrescueregionlookingsouthisvast.itextendseastandwestofaustralia slandmassandsouthto theaustralianantarcticterritory.intheantarcticregionaustralia ssearchandrescueregionadjoinsthoseofnewzealand andsouthafrica.australianandothernationalantarcticprogramsareactiveintheaustraliansearchandrescueregionas arebothlegalandillegalfishers,andagrowingnumberoftourists,independentvisitorsandsailors. AtpresenttheAustralianAntarcticDivisionhastheonlyairmedivaccapabilityformuchofEastAntarcticaandAustraliahas beencalledonbyanumberofnationalantarcticprogramstoevacuateinjuredpersonnel.australiahasagoodtrackrecord forsearchandrescueresponse,butthereisundoubtedlyadirectimpactonprogrammedseasonactivities,assetutilisation andresearchinaustralia santarcticprogram.inanoperatingenvironmentalreadychallengedbyarelativelyshortsummer operatingseason,limitedassetavailability,andphysicalconstraintssuchasweatherandiceconditions,thedisruptiontoa season sprogrambyasearchandrescueresponsecanbeconsiderable. Despitetheongoingdevelopmentoftechnologiesandtechniquestoenhancesafeworkingandoperatingpractices,the Antarctic and Southern Ocean remains a hostile and unpredictable environment in which to live, work and travel. The safety of life in Antarctica must always be paramount. While any Search and Rescue response will likely require the collaborationofmultipleagencies,thesheerdistanceandlogisticchallengesposedbyaresponseinthesouthernoceanor Antarcticarequiresahighlysophisticatedandcoordinatedapproach. Notonlyissearchandrescueaninternationalobligation,butitalsoofferscertainopportunitiesfor soft diplomacythat areinherentlyvaluableinbuildingrelationships,collaborativecapacity,andsharedoperationalunderstandings. Australia ssearchandrescuecapabilityplanningisinextricablyassociatedwiththedeliveryofaustralia sstrategicnational Antarcticinterests.InordertobeanactiveandinfluentialplayerintheEastAntarcticandSouthernOcean,Australiamust havetheoperationalcapabilitytodemonstrateleadership,includinginthecoordinationandconductofsearchandrescue activities. SearchandRescueIncidentsto2014(mapcourtesyofAMSA) P age 29

29 5>AntarcticScience ScienceisanimportantAntarcticactivity.ScienceisthecurrencyofinfluenceintheAntarcticTreaty System. The Antarctic Treaty acknowledges the substantial contributions to scientific knowledge resulting from international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica and provides for freedomofscientificinvestigation.tobecomeaconsultativepartytotheantarctictreaty,aparty must demonstrate its interest in Antarctica by conducting substantial scientific research activity there. TheConventionontheConservationofAntarcticMarineLivingResources(CCAMLR)recognisesthat itis essentialtoincreaseknowledgeoftheantarcticmarineecosystemanditscomponentssoasto beabletobasedecisionsonharvestingonsoundscientificinformation and,amongotherthings, agrees to facilitate research into and comprehensive studies of marine living resources. The Convention specifically establishes a Scientific Committee which is required to...encourage and promotecooperationinthefieldofscientificresearchinordertoextendknowledgeofthemarine livingresourcesoftheantarcticmarineecosystem. ThecentralroleofscienceinAntarcticaffairsisfurtherunderlinedintheProtocolonEnvironmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Madrid Protocol), which designates Antarctica as a natural reserve,devotedtopeaceandscience. ScienceisanessentialcomponentoftheAntarcticTreatySystem. AustraliahasbeenactiveinAntarcticscienceforoveronehundredyears,andinthepostSecond World War period, one of the leading countries in Antarctic scientific research. Australia s pre eminence in Antarctic research capability and output is now declining due to historical under funding and the emergence of other countries as big players in Antarctic and Southern Ocean research. SirDouglasMawsonforeshadowedthatAntarcticresearchwouldbeimportantforunderstanding weatherinaustralia.contemporaryresearchcarriedoutinaustralia santarcticprogramshowsthe profound influence of Antarctic weather and climate on rainfall in some of Australia s most productive agricultural regions southwest Western Australia and eastern Australia [see box AntarcticIceCoreRecordsandAustralianClimate]. Recent research has also shown that the Southern Ocean is changing quite dramatically with significantimplicationsforregionalandglobalclimate.beingabletoundertakescientificresearchin Antarctica is important for Australia regardless of our sovereignty over the Australian Antarctic Territory: it provides Australia with essential knowledge about our own climate and weather, the sustainability of our adjacent oceans and the impacts that changes in the Antarctic may have on Australia sprosperity. P age 30

30 The Australian Antarctic Program has a well developed science planning process, with a rolling science plan, reviewed periodically, that establishes the research framework for the out years (Australian AntarcticScienceStrategicPlan201112to ).Themidcyclereviewoftheplan is expected to take place in 2014/15. Development of the plan involves extensive stakeholder consultation, the oversight of an advisory committee 4 and approval by the Minister for the Environment.Thecurrentplanestablishes five research themes: Climate Processes and Change; Terrestrial and Nearshore Ecosystems; Environmental Change and Conservation;SouthernOceanEcosystems; androntierscience. The Australian Antarctic Division initiates, conducts and supports research in Antarctica against this framework for Antarctic science and runs a modest AustralianAntarcticScienceGrantscheme. Applications from scientists and institutions to conduct research are assessed against the science plan and supportisprovidedbasedontheplanand logisticfeasibility. The Australian Antarctic Science Grant schemeissmallincashterms.in $1.2 million will be available in grants to researchers and institutions. The 2005 report, Antarctica:& Australia s& Pristine& rontier(jointstandingcommitteeonthe National Capital and External Territories), recommended that the appropriation for the Australian Antarctic Science grants scheme... be doubled from its current levelof$700,000fortheremainderofthe sciencestrategy2004/ /09andbe reassessedafterthatperiod. AntarcticIceCoreRecords andaustralianweatherandclimate The shortness of the Australian instrumental climate record limits ability to understand longterm variability and poses challenges for policy makers. Two recent findings from Australian ice core research shed light on the longterm variability in Australian rainfall and promise to improve understanding of Australian weather and climate more generally. The work uses ice cores drilled at Law Dome, near CaseyStation,inAntarctica. The first result comes from studying snowfall changes seen in the ice core. Researchers identified a significant increase in snowfall since around 1970 that coincided with drought in southwest Western Australia. This pattern of increased Law Dome snowfall coinciding with reduced southwest Western Australia rainfall was seen throughout the century or so of southwestwesternaustraliameteorologicalrecords. The study found that atmospheric circulation associated with high snowfall at Law Dome coincided with cold, relatively dry airflowtosouthwestwesternaustraliainwinter,insteadofthe more usual rainbearing westerly or northwesterly weather. The long ice core record shows that the recent multidecadal periodofhighsnowfallisthemostextremesucheventin750 years,suggestingthatthedroughtmaybesimilarlyunusual. The reasons for the recent dominance of the drought/high snowfall regime remain uncertain, although impacts of ozone depletioninrecentdecadeshavebeenimplicated.urtherstudy will help explore this issue and probe the mechanisms underlyingthesouthwestwesternaustralialink. A second study connects the Law Dome ice core with eastern Australianrainfall.Itreliesonarecordofwindblownseasaltsin the ice. Summerseason sea salt at Law Dome is significantly correlated with rainfall in eastern Australia. The immediate driver of the sea salts is largescale changes in winds over the Southern Ocean. These winds are influenced by larger scale influences in the Pacific, including El Niño and also likely influences in the Indian Ocean. The connection itself is modulated by multidecadal changes in the Pacific Ocean and the mechanisms are the subject of ongoing research. Work to date suggests that eastern Australian rainfall through the last century has been below the longterm, multicentennial average. References vanommen,t.d.,morgan,v.snowfallincreaseincoastaleastantarcticalinkedwithsouthwestwesternaustralian drought. (2010)NatureGeoscience,3(4),pp Vance, T.R., van Ommen, T.D., Curran, M.A.J., Plummer, C.T., Moy, A.D. A millennial proxy record of ENSO and easternaustralianrainfallfromthelawdomeicecore,eastantarctica.(2013)journalofclimate,26(3),pp TheAntarcticScienceAdvisoryCommittee. P age 31

31 The current level of funding available through the Australian Antarctic Science Grant scheme is inadequatetoeitherservicethecurrentdemandforresearchintheantarctic,ortofacilitateand supportlarge,collaborativeresearchprogramsinhighpriorityscience.coupledwiththefinancial pressuresontheoperationalandlogisticsupportactivitiesoftheaustralianantarcticdivision(see Section7DirectSupportforAustralia santarcticprogram),theoutlookforsupportforhighprofile, priority,collaborativescienceintheantarcticisverylimited. While Australian researchers are able to access Australian Research Council grants for Antarctic research, coordination with the Australian Antarctic Program is required in order for Australian Research Councilfunded research in the Antarctic to be supported. This is also the case for researchersfundedthroughothercountrieswishingtoaccessaustralianantarcticprogramsupport. TheexpensiveandcomplexnatureofAntarcticlogisticsandsciencesupportnecessitatescentralised coordination through the Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment in orderthatresearchprogramsarecarriedoutefficientlyandsafely,andhavesufficientresourcesfor successful completion. Therefore access to support for science in Antarctica in the Australian AntarcticProgramrequiresassessmentagainsttheAustralianAntarcticScienceStrategicPlanand approval. While this process appears cumbersome to researchers who have received research grants elsewhere (for example through the Australian Research Council) it is necessary to ensure that resourcesareplannedandavailabletosupporttheresearchactivity. AssetsusedforAntarcticresearchareinhighdemandandareexpensivetooperate.Itistherefore importantthatthereiscoordinationbetweentheaustralianantarcticdivisionastheleadagencyfor the Australian Antarctic Program, and other funding bodies and facilities such as the Australian Research Council, the Integrated Marine Observing System, and the Marine National acility. Processes and systems need to be developed which ensure that investment in Antarctic and SouthernOceanscienceiscoordinated;thatthereisefficientuseofresources;thatresourcessuch asshipsandmooringsareusedtobestadvantage;andthatlimitedresourcesarefocussedinpriority areas. Other Australian agencies have an ongoing and important presence in Antarctica, including the Bureau of Meteorology, Geosciences Australia, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear SafetyAuthority,andCSIRO.SomeoftheworkoftheseagenciesrelatestoAustralia sinternational obligationssuchasthecomprehensivenucleartestbantreaty,or,asinthecaseofthebureauof Meteorology,theprovisionofweatherservicesinAntarcticaandthecollectionofobservationsfor weatherforecastingforallofaustralia.theaustralianhydrographicserviceofthedepartmentof DefenceconductsbathymetricmappingsurveysinAntarctica. TheseagenciesallprovideessentialservicesfortheconductofAustralia santarcticprogram,and carryoutactivitiesimportanttoaustralia santarcticorothernationalinterests.supportfromthe AustralianAntarcticDivisionoftheDepartmentoftheEnvironmentiscentraltotheseorganisations abilitytomeettheirobligationsintheantarctic. P age 32

32 Australia shybridsystemofdeliveringpriorityantarcticscience The& hybrid & system& of& delivery& of& science& in& Australia s& Antarctic& Program& allows& for& the& effective& delivery& of& priority& science& to& government& while& also& providing& a& competitive& environment& for& innovative&research.& The hybridsystem *ofscienceisbotheffectiveandefficientindeliveringantarcticscienceagainst Government priorities and in providing high quality science outputs. A purely bottom up competitivefundingenvironmentwouldnotprovideeffectiveinputforpriorityresearchrequiredby Government to support its Antarctic interests. But the combination of Government sponsored researchandcompetitiveresearchgrantsdeliveredagainsttheresearchprioritiesinanaustralian Antarcticscienceplanprovidesarobustresearchframeworkwhichproduceshighqualitysciencein Australia sinterests. AtpresentaroundtwothirdsofAustraliansciencecarriedoutinAntarcticaandtheSouthernOcean isundertakenbynongovernmentscientists. * The hybrid system refers to the delivery of science in the Australian Antarctic Program through a combination of science directly supported by government agencies (for example the Australian Antarctic Division,CSIRO)andresearchcompetitivegrantssuchastheAustralianAntarcticScienceGrants,theAustralian ResearchCouncil,theCooperativeResearchCentresProgram,theMarineNationalacility,andtheIntegrated MarineObservingSystemorthroughUniversitiesandotherresearchbodies. In 1998 the Australian Government endorsed the delivery of Antarctic science through the hybrid system,...whilerecognisingthatthisisdependentonuniversitiescontinuingtogivesupporttosuchresearch. (Our Antarcticuture:Australia santarcticprogrambeyond2000.thehowardgovernmentresponsetoaustralia s Antarctic Program Beyond 2000: A ramework for the uture (A report to the ederal Government by the AntarcticScienceAdvisoryCommittee)May1998). P age 33

33 Recommendation14TheAustralianAntarcticDivisionChiefScientistshouldmeetannuallywith the Heads of the Integrated Marine Observing System; the Marine National acility Steering Committee;andtheAustralianResearchCouncil,andothersasrequired,toensurecoordination ofresearcheffortinantarcticaandthesouthernocean. Recommendation15Australiashouldretainthe hybrid systemofsupportingantarcticscience, withtheaustralianantarcticdivisionofthedepartmentoftheenvironmentprovidingthecoreof researchers focussed on delivering priority scientific advice to government, and national and internationalresearchinstitutionsanduniversitiesprovidingcompetitivebasedresearchagainst Australia santarcticsciencestrategicplan. Recommendation 16 unding for Australian Antarctic Science grants should be increased substantiallyto: acilitatenationalandinternationalcollaborationinpriorityscienceintheantarctic andsouthernocean; acilitatetheplanningandconductoflogisticallycomplexpriorityresearchprograms thatmayextendoveranumberofyears; EncouragegreatercollaborationamongnationsinEastAntarctica;and DemonstrateAustralianleadershipinAntarcticscience. unding for collaborative research should not be allocated at the expense of other core functionsoftheaustralianantarcticprogram. Recommendation17InconjunctionwithanincreaseinAustralianAntarcticSciencegrants,the Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment should budget sufficient appropriation to support the planning and conduct of major campaigns, particularly those that relyoncomplexlogisticsandwhichmayextendoveranumberofyears. Recommendation18Australiashouldcontinuetoengagein,promoteandfacilitateinternational collaborationinantarcticscienceandgovernance. Recommendation19Australiashouldprioritiselargefieldbasedresearchcampaignsinareasof high priority scientific research, and promote, encourage and facilitate international collaborationsinthesecampaigns. Recommendation 20 Australia should engage with other Antarctic nations in their research programs to provide assistance and research collaborations consistent with the Australian AntarcticScienceStrategicPlan. Recommendation 21 The Australian Antarctic Science Strategic Plan should be renamed the AustralianAntarcticSciencePlan andshouldbereviewedregularly(every5years). TheprocessforreviewingtheAustralianAntarcticSciencePlanshouldbeledbytheAustralian AntarcticDivisionoftheDepartmentoftheEnvironmentandinclude: External,independentreview BroadconsultationwiththeAustraliansciencecommunityandprofessionalbodies BroadconsultationacrossGovernment. P age 34

34 AntarcticandSouthernOceanResearchCapabilityinTasmania Hobartisoneoftheworld sleadingcentresforantarcticandsouthernoceanscienceandresearch. ThepresenceoftheAustralianAntarcticDivision,theCSIROWealthfromOceansflagship,andthe University of Tasmania 5, as well as the presence of the Secretariats for the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the Agreement on the Conservation of AlbatrossesandPetrels,makesHobartunique:nowhereelseintheworldhasthiscombinationof worldclassresearchers,policymakers,logisticians,andantarcticserviceprovidersinoneplace. HobartisanattractiveplaceforinternationalresearchersandAustraliahasdevelopedanadmirable reputationforfacilitatinginternationalcollaborationthroughhobartbasedorganisations. In the Budget the Australian Government confirmed commitments to fund the Antarctic ClimateandEcosystemsCooperativeResearchCentrefromJuly2014toJune2019,andapply $24 million of funds from the Australian Research Council program for the Antarctic Gateway Partnership betweentheaustralianantarcticdivision,csiro,andtheuniversityoftasmania. TheAntarcticClimateandEcosystemsCooperativeResearchCentreisacollaborationbetweenkey Australian and international Antarctic research organisations: the Australian Antarctic Division, CSIRO,theDepartmentoftheEnvironment,theBureauofMeteorology,theUniversityofTasmania, theinstituteforwaterandatmosphericresearch(newzealand),andthealfredwegenerinstitute (Germany) as well as 17 other national or international bodies. The Antarctic Climate and EcosystemsCooperativeResearchCentrehasbeenfunded(invariousforms)since1991throughthe AustralianGovernment scooperativeresearchcentresprogram. TheAntarcticClimateandEcosystemsCooperativeResearchCentreisthemechanismthroughwhich AustraliaachievesoneofitskeygoalsfortheAustralianAntarcticProgram: Understandingtherole of Antarctica in the global climate system. 6 The Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative ResearchCentrehasahighnationalandinternationalprofileandisakeyorganisationforfacilitating internationalcollaborationinresearchinthesouthernoceanandantarctica(seesection12case Studies SeaIcePhysicsandEcosystemExperiment(SIPEX)IandII). After almost a quarter of a century of funding it is now appropriate to consider whether the AntarcticClimateandEcosystemsCooperativeResearchCentreshouldbeestablishedasanongoing (reviewable) partnership in its own right, as a component of Australia s strategic involvement in Antarcticscience. The Antarctic Gateway Partnership has been established to support increased collaboration in Antarcticscience.Atthetimeofwritingthisreporttheguidelinesontheuseofthesefundsarenot available.asthegatewaypartnershipfundsareonlyavailableforthreeyears(tojune2017),itis importanttoconsidernowthefutureofthisinitiative. 5 The University of Tasmania includes its Hobartbased Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies and its Launcestonbased Australian MaritimeCollege. 6 OurAntarcticuture Australia santarcticprogrambeyond2000.thehowardgovernmentresponsetoaustralia santarcticprogram Beyond2000(AreporttotheederalGovernmentbytheAntarcticScienceAdvisoryCommittee).May P age 35

35 ItwillbecriticalforAustralia sabilitytopromoteandfacilitatelongterminternationalandnational collaborationinantarcticandsouthernoceanscience,thatfuturefundingforscienceisrationalised and coordinated. This requires ensuring now that planning for the cessation of the Antarctic Gateway Partnership in 2017 and the current funding period for the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre in 2019 are adequately planned on a wholeof Governmentbasis. TheseconsiderationsareimperativeinordertomaximisetheopportunitiesprovidedtoAustraliaby the replacement of Aurora& Australis, and to maintain Australia s strategic position as a leader in science,especiallyineastantarctica. Recommendation22AwholeofGovernmentpositionshouldbereachedonongoingfunding fornationalandinternationalcollaborationsinantarcticsciencetocoverthecessationofthe AntarcticGatewayPartnershipfundingin2017andtheAntarcticClimateandEcosystem CooperativeresearchCentrefundingin2019. P age 36

36 6>EconomicBenefitsforTasmaniaasanAntarcticGateway TheAntarcticandSouthernOceansectorinTasmaniaismadeupof17statebased,publicgoodand private institutions including government agencies (Australian Antarctic Division, CSIRO), the UniversityofTasmania(includingtheInstituteforMarineandAntarcticStudies,andtheAustralian Maritime College), and the Commonwealth funded Antarctic Climate and Ecosystem Cooperative ResearchCentre.HobarthoststheinternationalSecretariatsoftheCommissionfortheConservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the Agreement for the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels.Therearealsoapproximately50businesses(manywhichareclassifiedas smalltomedium enterprises )directlyassociatedwiththesector. The Antarctic and Southern Ocean sector sdirect,indirectandinduced contribution to the Tasmanian GrossStateProductin2011/12,as reported by the Tasmanian Government(thethenDepartment ofeconomicdevelopment,tourism andthearts)was$444millionwith nearly $45 million of this a direct contribution to the Tasmanian Gross State Product by locally basedbusinesses. AccordingtotheTasmanianDepartmentofEconomicDevelopment,TourismandtheArts, in2011/12theantarcticandsouthernoceansector: Directlyemployed1185Tasmaniansandindirectlyanother1606 Directly contributed $187.4 million (or 0.8%) to Tasmanian Gross State Product and indirectlyanother$256.9million; Including flowon effects, generated 4663 jobs and contributed $687.4 million to AustralianGrossDomesticProduct. Everydollarinvestedinthesectorgeneratesmultiplierstoextendthetotaleconomic benefittotasmania. Hobart port visits by Antarctic vessels are on average estimated to average yield between$1millionand1.5millionpervisit. Aurora&AustralispassingbeneaththeTasmanBridge,Hobart Photo HannahTaylor/AustralianAntarcticDivision P age 37

37 The Antarctic and Southern Ocean sector is an important economic contributor to southern Tasmania with opportunity for further growth. Hobart is one of five internationally recognised Antarcticgatewayportsthathavebothmaritimeandairtransportfacilities 7.Ithaslocallyavailable expertise in Antarctic, sub Antarctic and marine research, Antarctic administration and environmentalprotection,logisticsfacilitiesandknowhow,supportservices,andeducationaland researchinstitutions.tasmaniaalsohasanactiveprivatesectorinterestinantarcticbusinesswith establishedcommercialoperatorswithexpertiseindesign,manufacture,supplyandmaintenanceof arangeofantarcticrelatedequipmentandservices. The importance of this sector to economic development in Tasmania was recognised in the TasmanianGovernment s2011tasmanian&economic&development&planthroughthedevelopmentof theantarcticandsouthernoceansectorstrategy.thedevelopmentofthissectorisalsoconsistent with the objectives of the Joint& Commonwealth& and& Tasmanian& Economic& Council that was established by the Abbott government to drive competitive reforms in Tasmania to achieve long termeconomicgrowth. However,theabilitytosustainthissectorandcapitaliseonopportunitiesforgrowth(particularlyby attractingothernationalantarcticprogramstoaccessthissectorinhobart)dependsonreliableand sustainable investment in infrastructure; in developing effective and productive business partnerships;andinaligningstateandcommonwealthprioritiesandfundingcommitments. LogisticsinfrastructureinHobartisofcriticalimportancetoTasmaniainthisregard.Theeffective modernisation of Australia s Antarctic program and Tasmania s ability to attract new Antarctic businessiscontingentuponthedevelopmentandmaintenanceofefficient,adaptableaviationand shipping facilities. The existing port facilities in Hobart require maintenance, upgrading and extensioninordertoadequatelyservicetheexistingandpotentiallyexpandingmarketinantarctic shipping. uel delivery and storage capabilities require enhancement. At present there is a sole operator in Hobart for regular marine fuel handling resulting in limited supply and facilities for refuelling.thissignificantlyaffectsboththeefficiencyandattractivenessofhobartforbunkering. TheAustralianGovernment sannouncementoftheextensionofthehobartairportrunwayopens upnewpossibilitiestoenhanceaustralia sintercontinentalairtransportsystem.itwillalsomake the prospect of Hobart as an air transport hub a more attractive proposition to other national Antarcticprogramsoperatingaircraftthat,atpresent,areunabletoaccesstheHobartAirport(for example,directflightsfromasia).itislikelythatnewinterestinthehobartairportrunwaywillbring with it flowon business to other parts of the Tasmanian Antarctic and Southern Ocean sector includingshipping. The 2013 Memorandum& of& Understanding& on& Antarctic& Gateway& Cooperation& between& the& Government& of& Tasmania& and& the& State& Oceanic& Administration& of& China offers an example of a gatewaycooperativeagreementdevelopedcollaborativelybetweentheaustralianantarcticdivision ofthedepartmentoftheenvironmentandantarctictasmaniaandscienceresearchdevelopment (Tasmanian government) to foster future cooperation between Tasmania and other Antarctic nations.howeverthecapacitytodevelopandtodeliveronsuchagreementsiscontingentonthe availabilityofreliableandcosteffectivegoodsandservicesthatcanonlybeachievedwithdedicated sectorplanninganddevelopment. 7 Othergatewayportsinclude:Christchurch,CapeTown,UshuaiaandPuntaArenas P age 38

38 Tasmaniaalreadyhaswelldevelopedacademic,researchandindustrylinksthatsupportinnovation andinvestment.however,thepotentialofexpandingthissectorthroughinternationalengagement is substantial. The emergence of other countries in the Antarctic sector, particularly in East Antarctica,bringsopportunitiestooffereducationandhighleveltrainingtointernationalstudents and Antarctic operators across a broad range of subjects and specialities. These could include: Antarctic and Southern Ocean operations and logistics; meteorology; Antarctic law, policy and governance; maritime education, research and training (for example, through the Australian Maritime College); marine and terrestrial science (including post doctoral opportunities); field training;andantarcticrelatedtradestraining. TasmaniahasthecapacitytobecomeamarketleaderinAntarcticsupportandlogisticsservices,and themarketleaderinthissectorineastantarctica.promotionoftasmanianservicesandsuppliers willbringdirectbenefitstothetasmanianeconomybutwillalsoinextricablylinkaustraliansupplied productsandservicestotheoperationsofothernationalprogramsacrosseastantarctica.thiswill also invite opportunities for collaboration and knowledge sharing on product innovation and development. Thecapacitytoexpandthissectorwithoutinvestmentincriticalinfrastructureisextremelylimited. ThegrowthofsomenationalprogramsinEastAntarcticasuggeststhatifTasmaniaisunpreparedto delivergoodsandservicestotheselargescaleandwellfinancedprograms,thispotentialwillbelost toothergatewaycities. ThemainimpedimentstogrowthinmarineresearchandlogisticsinTasmaniaarecentredonthe Port of Hobart. The key potential constraints are available quay line (i.e. the space available for shipstodockandresupply);fuelavailability,access,andsecurity;andadjacentand/orcompeting landuseaffectingtheportofhobart. DecisionsonlanduseadjacenttothePortofHobarthavethepotentialtoimpacttheAntarcticand SouthernOceanshippingsector.ThePortofHobartisa workingport.inordertobeabletoservice expandedshippingactivity,accessto,andindustrialactivityin,theportisrequiredfor24hoursa day.theportwillalsorequirethepossibilityofrefuellingfacilitiesalongsidetheportratherthanat SelfsPoint(seesection uelavailability ). Thesinglebiggestchangeinlandusein theportdistrictwillbethedevelopment of Macquarie Point, which is directly adjacent to the Port. It is imperative that, if the Port of Hobart is to expand its Antarctic (and other) shipping activities, decisions made in relation to MacquariePointdonotimpingeonthe future of the Port of Hobart as a workingport. igure >MacquariePointwithboundaryofworkingPortasindicated P age 39

39 Variousoptionsforfutureshiprefuellingfacilitieshavebeensuggestedinconsultationsonthe20 Year Australian Antarctic Strategic Plan. These include a pipeline from Selfs Point to the Port of Hobart,eitheralongtheexisting(nowunused)railcorridor,orontheriverfloor(therebyallowing fueltobepumpedbothtoandfromselfspoint);orthetransferoffuelfromselfspointtotheport bybarge.itisbeyondthescopeofthisreporttoadviseonthepracticalandeconomicaspectsof these (or other) options. But it is important that the future availability of fuelling services are considered now so that long term investments can be planned, and competing and incompatible landusedecisionsavoided.thecurrentbunkeringarrangementsincuradditionalcoststoantarctic operators thatarenotpresentinother ports such as Christchurchor remantle (in terms of real costs associated with tugs and pilotage fees as well as additional time and administrative requirementstonavigatetheportforshipmovementandrefuelling). AnotherobstacletothedevelopmentofHobartasanAntarcticGatewayistheabsenceofasuitable wastemanagementfacilityintasmania.remediationofmacquariepointandthereturntoaustralia (through the Port of Hobart) of Antarctic legacy waste requires a facility that can accommodate waste material to a high standard. At present certain categories of waste cannot be treated in TasmaniaandrequiretransportbyseaorroadelsewhereinAustraliafortreatment.Thisstateof affairsisamajorimpedimenttoaustraliameetingitsinternationalobligationstocleanuppastsites inantarctica,aswellasbeinganimpedimenttothefuturedevelopmentofmacquariepoint. There are opportunities for business and governments to better work together in delivering Australia santarcticprogram.changestocommonwealthprocurementproceduresshouldallowfor morepragmaticapproachestocontractingandthedeliveryofgoodsandservices.inconsultations for this report, some Tasmanian business said that they found Australian government tendering procedurescumbersomeand,insomecases,prohibitivelycostly.somecompaniessupplyinggoods andservicestoothernationalantarcticprogramsreportedthattheyfounddealingwiththemmuch easierthandealingwiththeaustraliangovernmentonprocurementmatters. WhileitisimperativethattheCommonwealth sinterestsareprotectedinpurchasingdecisions,and thatthecommonwealthgets valueformoney,someworkshouldbeundertakentoprovideeasier accesstocommonwealthandstateprocurementtohelpgrowtheantarcticsectorinthetasmanian economy. TheAustralianAntarcticDivisionoftheDepartmentoftheEnvironmentshouldregularlyreviewits serviceprovisionandactivelyseekoutopportunitiestoinvolvetheprivatesectorintheprovisionof goodsandserviceswherethereisanexisting,costeffectivemarket,andwherethereisnoriskto Australia santarcticprogram. TheTasmanianAntarcticandSouthernOceanresearchcommunityisinvolvedinthedevelopmentof specialised equipment and instrumentation custombuilt for Antarctic and Southern Ocean conditions.opportunitiesshouldbesoughttofacilitatecollaborationinthesespecialistfieldsamong existingbodies(forexampletheaustralianantarcticdivisionofthedepartmentoftheenvironment, CSIROandtheUniversityofTasmania)andwithprivateindustry. The Australian Antarctic Division is currently exploring opportunities to build on the specialised knowledge that its Polar Medicine Unit has in extreme and remote medicine. One initiative, in conjunctionwiththetasmaniangovernmentandtheuniversityoftasmania,istoestablishanot forprofit body, the Centre for Antarctic, Rural, Remote, and Maritime Medicine to provide P age 41

40 professional training for health practitioners and specialist health services. Such an initiative will provideenhancedservicesnotonlyintheantarcticsector,butalsotothetasmaniancommunityby providing training to medical practitioners, and services to Tasmanian regional and remote communities. Recommendation23TheAustralianandTasmanianGovernmentsshouldworktogethertobuild Tasmania scapacitytobealeadingglobalgatewaytoeastantarctica. Recommendation 24 A joint TasmanianCommonwealth Government agreement should prioritiseinfrastructureinvestmentdecisionstosupporttheeastantarcticgateway,including: Investment in Hobart s rundown port facilities to ensure they are able to capitalise on growingmarineresearchandresupplyshippingineastantarctica; EnsuringthatHobarthastheabilitytohold,andefficientlysupply,shipandaircraftfuel; and Ensuringthatefficientportaccess,quarantine,storageandresupplyfacilitiesareinplace inordertoservicethepotentialgrowthineastantarcticseaandairtraffic. Recommendation 25 TheAustralianandTasmanianGovernmentsshouldjointly commissiona reportonthefutureshippingfuelfacilityrequirementsfortheportofhobart,including: OptionsfordeliveryoffueltovesselsinthePort; OptionsforthesupplyoffueltoandfromSelfsPoint; ThecostandopportunitycostofshiptransittoandfromthePorttoSelfsPoint;and Therisksassociatedwiththecurrentshiprefuellingarrangementscomparedwithviable alternatives. Recommendation26TheCommonwealthshouldactivelyengagewiththeTasmanianbusiness communitytofacilitateopportunitiesforbusinessestoparticipateintheantarcticsector. The Commonwealth should explore ways to engage business early in procurement processes in ordertofosterinnovation,efficiencyandprovidebettervalueformoney. P age 42

41 Recommendation27TheAustralianAntarcticDivisionoftheDepartmentoftheEnvironment,in consultationwithotheragencies,shouldexploreopportunitiestoestablishpartnershipswiththe State,otherorganisations,andindustryinAntarcticrelatedactivities,including: Theprovisionoftrainingandservicesinmedicalandalliedhealthservices; Maritimeskillstraining(includingoperationsinseaice); Antarcticmeteorologicalservices,weatherforecasting,andprovision ofseaiceassessmentsforshipping; Scientificinstrumentandtechnologydevelopment; Antarcticfieldtrainingandsupport; TraininginAntarcticrelatedtrades; Theprovisionofgoodsandservices;and Polarinfrastructureresearchanddevelopment. P age 43

42 7>DirectSupportforAustralia santarcticprogram The Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment is the agency, which has responsibilityfortheaustralianantarcticprogram.in1998theaustraliangovernmentagreedthat thegoalsoftheaustralianantarcticprogramshouldbe: TomaintaintheAntarcticTreatySystemandenhanceAustralia sinfluencewithinit ProtecttheAntarcticenvironment UnderstandtheroleofAntarcticaintheglobalclimatesystem,and Undertakeworkofpractical,economic,andnationalsignificance. These goals for the Antarctic program reflect Australia s Antarctic interests (see Section 2 Australia s Antarctic Interests). This report does not recommend changing the goals of the AustralianAntarcticProgram. CorefundingfortheAustralianAntarcticProgramisappropriatedtoOutcome3oftheDepartment oftheenvironment, Antarctica:Science,PolicyandPresence. In its submission to the 20 Year Australian Antarctic Strategic Plan, the Department of the Environmentpointedtothe ageingofkeyaustralianoperationalassetsandcompetingdemands for funding [which has led to] a gradual decline in the efficacy of our Antarctic logistics and operationswithconsequentimpactonourscientificandstrategicinterests. TherecentdecisionoftheAustralianGovernmenttofundthereplacementofAustralia sicebreaker Aurora& Australis is an important step in rectifying historic deficiencies in Australia s Antarctic infrastructure. But,therearealsootherstrategicallyimportantassetsandactivitiesinAustralia santarcticprogram that are under pressure from a combination of historical underinvestment, rising costs, and structural imbalances in the budget provisions for the Australian Antarctic Division of the DepartmentoftheEnvironment.ThemostsignificantimpactofthesefactorsonAustralia sstrategic Antarcticinterestsisdiminishingcapabilityinlogisticsandpriorityscience. TheproportionoftheAustralianAntarcticDivision sbudget,whichisconstrainedbyfixedcosts,isat least70percentofthetotalappropriation(excludingcapital)in201314(seeappendix1 Budget igures). As outlined previously (Section 5 Antarctic Science) the current budget position is having an immediate effect on Australia s ability to undertake priority and strategic science projects in Antarctica.AcontinuingadversebudgetpositionwillalsoseverelylimitAustralia sabilitytoengage withemergingantarctictreatypartiesintheaustralianantarcticterritory. The Department of the Environment s submission points to the high proportion of fixed costs necessarytosustainouroperationsinantarctica,risingprices,thelongtermimpactofefficiency dividendsandthecostsassociatedwiththeaustralianantarcticdivision ssubstantialassetbase,as allcontributingtotheveryconstrainedfinancialpositionforaustralia santarcticprogram.in2001 the Australian Antarctic Division undertook, in collaboration with the Department of inance, an OutputPricingReview.TheoutcomeoftheOutputPricingReviewwas Theprimaryconclusionof thereviewisthatthepriceofoutputfortheantarcticoutcomewasreasonable. 8 Sincethattime, 8 Antarctica:Australia spristinerontier.reportontheadequacyoffundingforaustralia santarcticprogram.jointstandingcommittee onthenationalcapitalandexternalterritories.june2005.page17 P age 44

43 rising costs, eroding budgets, and increased compliance costs have weakened the ability of the AustralianAntarcticDivisiontodelivertheAustralianAntarcticProgram. TheDepartmentoftheEnvironment ssubmissionsuggests earmarkingadedicatedbudgetforthe delivery of the Australian Antarctic program and seeks exemption...from future efficiency dividends,asisthecasewithdefenceandotherstrategicoperations.thedepartment ssubmission alsopointstothesignificantassetbaserequiredfortheaustralianantarcticprogramandsuggest thatthese...couldberegardedasstrategicassetsandcapitalandmaintenancefundingforthem couldbepartofanationalstrategiccapitalmanagementplan. The Department of the Environment also raised in its submission the potential to broaden and diversify the funding base of Australia s Antarctic activities beyond onbudget funding to own sourcesofrevenuesuchasresearch,commercial,philanthropicandcrowdsourcedfunding noting alsothat officialfundingremainsessentialfortheprogram....theaustralianantarcticdivisionof thedepartmentoftheenvironmentshouldexploretheseoptions. This report acknowledges the impact that the current budget position of the Australian Antarctic DivisionishavingonAustralia santarcticprogramandthesignificantimpactthatcontinuationof thispositionwillhaveonaustralia sstrategicantarcticinterests. P age 45

44 Recommendation28TheDepartmentoftheEnvironmentandtheDepartmentofinance,in consultationwithotherrelevantdepartmentsandagencies,shouldjointlyundertakeareviewof thebudgetoftheaustralianantarcticdivision(departmentoftheenvironment,outcome3). Thisreviewshouldinclude: ThefixedcostsofrunningtheAustralianAntarcticProgram,including: TheoperationofAustralia santarcticstations; TheoperationoflogisticstosupportAustralia ssovereignandstrategicinterestsin AntarcticaandtheSouthernOcean;and TheoperationoftheAustralianAntarcticDivision sstationonmacquarieisland. ThecorefunctionsundertakenbytheAustralianAntarcticDivisionoftheDepartmentof the Environment in operational support, science, policy, and the administration of the AustralianAntarcticTerritoryandtheTerritoryofHeardIslandandMcDonaldIslands; The funding required to meet Australia s obligations in the Antarctic Treaty System including environmental management; sustainable management of marine living resourcesandconservationintheantarctic,southernoceanandtheterritoryofheard IslandandMcDonaldIslands;andscientific,practicalanddiplomaticengagement; The funding required to advance Australia s Antarctic strategic interests through the initiation,conductandsupportofpriorityscienceinantarcticaandthesouthernocean; The provisions required to meet Australia s obligation to remediate environmental damageandabandonedsitesinantarctica; The future requirements for capital investment and/or renewal in logistics and infrastructure; OpportunitiestodiversifythefundingbasetosupportsomeAntarcticactivitiesincluding frombusinessandphilanthropicsources;and The future operational support required to sustain a credible Antarctic program that matchesaustralia snationalinterestsintheantarctic. Thereviewshouldcallontheexpertiseofexternalexpertsinpolaroperationsandscience. P age 46

45 8>TheProtocolonEnvironmentalProtectiontotheAntarcticTreaty Successive Australian governments have supported the ban on Antarctic mining contained in the 1991ProtocolonEnvironmentalProtectiontotheAntarcticTreaty(MadridProtocol).Indeed,during deliberations over ratification of the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities, the then leader of the opposition, John Howard MP, spoke in Parliament against the signing of the minerals convention. Even though negotiators had agreed the text of the minerals conventionayearearlierin1989,theaustraliangovernmentdecidedthatitwould notsignthe conventionandinsteaditwouldsupportthenegotiationofacomprehensiveenvironmentalregime whichwouldprohibitminingintheantarctic thusensuring(alongwithrance)thattheminerals conventionwouldneverenterintoforce. SubsequentlyAustraliaandrancespearheadednegotiationsforanAntarcticenvironmentalregime, whichculminatedinthe1991madridprotocol. TheMythoftheExpirationoftheBanonAntarcticMining It is a commonly held belief that the ban on mining contained in the Madrid Protocol expires in Thisisnotthecase.Article7oftheMadridProtocolsimplystatesthat: Any&activity&relating&to&mineral&resources,&other&than&scientific&research,&shall&be&prohibited.& Thus,theprohibitiononmineralresourceactivities(otherthanscientificresearch)isindefinite.The confusionregardingitarisesfromarticle25ofthemadridprotocol. Article25( ModificationorAmendment )givestheprovisionsforamendingthemadridprotocol, including: HowaPartycancallforaconferencetoreviewtheoperationoftheProtocolafter50years fromitsentryintoforce(i.e.2048)(article25(2)), The formula to be used to modify or amend the Protocol (Article 25 (3),(4)); and, with respecttotheprohibitiononantarcticmineralresourceactivities, The provisions for the continuation of the prohibition in the absence of a binding legal regimeonmineralactivities(article25,5(a)). 9 Alternatively,thattheAntarcticTreatyis upfornegotiation in2048. P age 47

46 PROTOCOLONENVIROMENTALPROTECTIONTOTHEANTARCTICTREATY ARTICLE25 MODIICATIONORAMENDMENT & 1. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 9, this Protocol may be modified or amended at any time in accordance with the proceduressetforthinarticlexii(1)(a)and(b)oftheantarctictreaty*. 2.If,aftertheexpirationof50yearsfromthedateofentryintoforceofthisProtocol,anyoftheAntarcticTreatyConsultativePartiesso requestsbyacommunicationaddressedtothedepositary,aconferenceshallbeheldassoonaspracticabletoreviewtheoperationof thisprotocol. 3.AmodificationoramendmentproposedatanyReviewConferencecalledpursuanttoparagraph2aboveshallbeadoptedbyamajority oftheparties,including¾ofthestateswhichareantarctictreatyconsultativepartiesatthetimeofadoptionofthisprotocol. 4.Amodificationoramendmentadoptedpursuanttoparagraph3aboveshallenterintoforceuponratification,acceptance,approvalor accessionby¾oftheantarctictreatyconsultativeparties,includingratification,acceptance,approvaloraccessionbyallstateswhichare AntarcticTreatyConsultativePartiesatthetimeofadoptionofthisProtocol. 5.(a)WithrespecttoArticle7,theprohibitiononAntarcticmineralresourceactivitiescontainedthereinshallcontinueunlessthereisin forceabindinglegalregimeonantarcticmineralresourceactivitiesthatincludesanagreedmeansfordeterminingwhether,and,ifso, underwhichconditions,anysuchactivitieswouldbeacceptable.thisregimeshallfullysafeguardtheinterestsofallstatesreferredtoin ArticleIVoftheAntarcticTreatyandapplytheprinciplesthereof.Therefore,ifamodificationoramendmenttoArticle7isproposedata ReviewConferencereferredtoinparagraph2above,itshallincludesuchabindinglegalregime. (b)ifanysuchmodificationoramendmenthasnotenteredintoforcewithin3yearsofthedateofitsadoption,anypartymayatanytime thereafternotifytothedepositaryofitswithdrawalfromthisprotocol,andsuchwithdrawalshalltakeeffect2yearsafterreceiptofthe notificationbythedepositary. *ArticleXII(1)(a)and(b)oftheAntarcticTreaty: 1. (a) The present Treaty may be modified or amended at any time by unanimous agreement of the Contracting Parties whose representativesareentitledtoparticipateinthemeetingsprovidedforunderarticleix.anysuchmodificationoramendmentshallenter intoforcewhenthedepositorygovernmenthasreceivednoticefromallsuchcontractingpartiesthattheyhaveratifiedit. (b)suchmodificationoramendmentshallthereafterenterintoforceastoanyothercontractingpartywhennoticeofratificationbyit hasbeenreceivedbythedepositarygovernment.anysuchcontractingpartyfromwhichnotnoticeofratificationisreceivedwithina period of two years from the date of entry into force of the modification or amendment in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph1(a)ofthisarticleshallbedeemedtohavewithdrawnfromthepresenttreatyonthedateoftheexpirationofsuchperiod. Inpracticalterms,itisdifficulttoenvisagethebanonminingintheAntarcticbeingliftedin,orafter, 2048 in the absence of a significant change of policy or perspective from key Antarctic Treaty Parties.Thenumbersrequiredtooverturntheprohibitiononmineralresourceactivitiesruleagainst anindividualparty,orsmallgroupofparties,callingforaconferenceunderarticle25(2)andhaving theprohibitionoverturned(seebox). Therearecurrently29AntarcticTreatyConsultativeParties(seeAttachmentD). Article25(1)UnderArticleXIIoftheAntarcticTreaty,theTreaty(orinthiscasetheMadridProtocol)canbeamendedby theunanimousagreementofall29parties,andenterintoforcewhenall29partieshaveratifiedtheamendedprotocol. Article25(2)Inorafter2048anyAntarcticTreatyConsultativePartycancallaconferencetoreviewtheoperationofthe Protocol. Article25(3)ProposalstomodifyoramendtheMadridProtocolatareviewconferencerequireamajority(i.e.15outof 29)oftheAntarcticTreatyConsultativeParties,whichmustincludethreequartersofthePartieswhichwereAntarctic TreatyPartiesatthetimeoftheadoptionoftheMadridProtocol(i.e.20outofthe26PartiessoindicatedinAttachment D). Article25(4)Theproposedmodificationoramendmentwillnotenterintoforceuntilratified(orequivalent)bythree quarters of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (i.e. 22 of the current 29 Parties) including by all of the Antarctic TreatyPartiesatthetimeoftheadoptionoftheMadridProtocol(all26PartiesasshowninAttachmentD). P age 48

47 Article25,5(a)oftheMadridProtocolprovidesthattheprohibitiononmineralactivitiescontinues unlessalegallybindingregimeformineralresourceactivitiesisinforce.themadridprotocolstates specificallythatsucharegime shallfullysafeguardtheinterestsofallstatesreferredtoinarticleiv oftheantarctictreaty.... ThepracticaleffectofArticle25isthat,evenintheunlikelyeventofamodificationoramendment tolifttheprohibitiononmineralresourceactivitybeingagreedbythreequartersofthosepartiesat the time of Protocol adoption, agreement to such a regime would also be subject to the aforementionedarticlesandthedecisionrulestheyestablish.oneormoreoftheantarctictreaty ConsultativePartiesthatwereConsultativePartiesatthetimeoftheadoptionofMadridProtocol, couldeffectivelypreventtheentryintoforceofsuchanamendmentormodification. Suchastepshouldnotbetakenlightly,although,asArticle25(5)(b)providesthemechanismfora PartytowithdrawfromtheProtocolshouldaproposedamendmentnotenterintoforce. ItisinAustralia snationalinteresttoensurethatallparties(andprospectiveparties)totheantarctic Treaty understand the nature and significance of the prohibition on mineral resource activities containedinthemadridprotocolandthefactthattheprohibitiondoesnotautomaticallyexpirein 2048.ThisisespeciallyimportantasnewPartiesjointheAntarcticTreatySystemandnewgroupings formwithinit. ThereisspeculationthatsomePartiesmaybeinterestedintheirrelativestandingintheAntarctic Treaty System as 2048 approaches; and that others may have more than an academic eye on scientificknowledgeregardingantarcticmineralsandresources. Recommendation29Australiashouldundertakediplomaticandpracticalactivitiestosupportthe provisionsofthemadridprotocol,includingtheprohibitiononantarcticmineralactivities.these activitiesshouldincludecapacitybuildingeffortsandeducationonparties obligations under the MadridProtocolanditsprovisionswithrespecttomining. P age 49

48 RemediationofAbandonedSitesinAntarctica Australia has obligations under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty(MadridProtocol)tocleanup pastandpresentwastedisposalsites...andabandoned worksites exceptwhere...theremovalbyanypracticaloptionwouldresultingreateradverse environmentalimpactthanleavingthestructureorwastematerialinitsexistinglocation.* AustraliahasdemonstratedleadershipinAntarcticwastesitecleanup,andinthescienceand technologyofcoldclimateremediation.australiahasbeenattheforefrontofprovidingadvice andguidancetootherantarctictreatypartiesinremediatingtheirlegacysites. Australia has an unfunded liability of at least $136 million** for the remediation of its abandonedantarcticsites.someofthisunfundedliabilitymaybejointlyheldwithothers(for examplewilkesstationwhichtheunitedstatesallowedaustraliatooccupyin1959). Significant resources would be required, over and above existing resources, to begin to remediatethosesites. There may be opportunities for Australia to work with other nations in East Antarctica to remediateabandonedsites. *AnnexIIoftheProtocolonEnvironmentalProtectiontotheAntarcticTreaty **BaseRestitutionLiability AntarcticSolidWasteCleanUp.ReportbyRangeConsultingEngineers P age 50

49 9>AntarcticaandWorldHeritageListing romtimetotimetheissueofwhetherantarcticashouldbe putontheworldheritagelist arises inpublicdiscussion.thissectionlooksatthelegal,practicalanddiplomaticaspectsofantarcticaand theworldheritagelist. Successive Australian Governments have elected to not pursue the listing of Antarctica or the AustralianAntarcticTerritoryontheUNESCOWorldHeritageList.Thispositionhasbeenbasedon careful analysis of the political, diplomatic, legal, and environmental protection issues associated witheitherinitiatingorparticipatinginanapplicationforworldheritagelistingofantarcticaasa whole or in part. Reconsideration of these issues reveals no compelling argument to revisit this policyposition. Background The Antarctic Treaty covers all that region of the globe below 60 o South, including all of the continentofantarctica.theantarcticatreatyanditsassociatedagreementsandinstrumentsare knowncollectivelyastheantarctictreatysystem 10.TheProtocolonEnvironmentalProtectiontothe AntarcticTreaty(MadridProtocol)setsAntarcticaasideasa naturalreservedevotedtopeaceand science. TheAntarcticTreatySystemisnotpartoftheUnitedNationssystem,althoughtheAntarcticTreaty anditsassociatedinstrumentsareopentoaccessionbyallmembersoftheunitednations. TheWorldHeritageConventionisaUnitedNationsinstrument.Itspurposeistoidentify,protect and preserve areas of...cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity 11. A Party to the World Heritage Convention is able nominate a property...situatedinitsterritory forentryontheworldheritagelist 12.Suchanominationisthen consideredbytheconvention sworldheritagecommittee. TheaspirationtoprovideWorldHeritagestatustoAntarcticais,insomeways,understandablebut the legal, practical and diplomatic impediments of doing so are great and most likely insurmountable. There appears little to no additional practical benefit of doing so given the protectionsalreadyprovidedbytheantarctictreatysystemanditsmadridprotocol.thereisalso the real possibility that a nomination of Antarctica for World Heritage listing would challenge or evenunderminetheexistingeffectivegovernanceofantarctica. ApplicationoftheWorldHeritageConvention The World Heritage Convention describes candidate natural heritage areas for inclusion on the World Heritage List as those with Outstanding Universal Value 13. Undoubtedly the natural, scientific and cultural significance of Antarctica would constitute outstanding universal value. The question of including Antarctica on UNESCO s World Heritage list is not, therefore, whether the Antarcticenvironmentisoneworthyofprotection,butratheraquestionofwhethersuchanaction woulddeliverenhancedenvironmentalprotectionoutcomesfortheantarctic. 10 Inthiscase,theAntarcticTreaty,theProtocolonEnvironmentalProtectiontotheAntarcticTreaty,andtheConventiononthe ConservationofAntarcticMarineLivingResources Article11oftheConventionConcerningtheprotectionoftheworldculturalandnaturalheritage 13 OutstandingUniversalValueisdefinedas culturaland/ornaturalsignificance,whichissoexceptionalastotranscendnational boundariesandtobeofcommonimportanceforpresentandfuturegenerationsofallhumanity.assuch,thepermanentprotectionof thisheritageisofthehighestimportancetotheinternationalcommunityasawhole (OperationalGuidelinesfortheImplementationof theworldheritageconvention,paragraph49,2013). P age 51

50 oraustralia,thisquestionextendstowhetherthestatusofworldheritagelistingisofsufficient value and importance to risk the status quo in the Antarctic Treaty System that so effectively protectstheantarcticenvironment. The arguments in favour of seeking World Heritage listing for Antarctica appear to rest on an assumptionthatsuchalistingwouldaffordnotonlya higherlevelofenvironmentalprotection but alsoalevelofglobalcommitmenttoprotectingtheantarcticenvironmentthatisnotobtainablein theantarctictreatysystem.thisisanunfoundedassumption. Parties to the Antarctic Treaty represent the majority of the world s population and all countries with an active interest in Antarctica and Antarctic affairs. To suggest that World Heritage listing wouldservetoengagedisenfranchisednationsinantarcticaffairsismisleading,asisthenotionthat havingagreaternumberofnationswithoutsubstantialantarcticinterestsdirectlyengagedinthe futureandmanagementoftheregionwillnecessarilystrengthentheprotectionandenvironmental managementofantarctica. Anycountry withaninterestinantarctica,includingthosethatareparties totheworldheritage Convention,isfreetojointheAntarcticTreatySystem.ThattheAntarcticTreatySystemisnotan exclusive regime is highlighted by the recent accessions to the Antarctic Treaty of Malaysia and Pakistan,bothofwhomwere,inthelatterdecadesofthe20 th century,openlycriticalintheunited NationsGeneralAssemblyoftheAntarcticTreatySystemonthegroundsofits exclusivity. AnAntarcticEnvironmentalProtectionRegime The1991MadridProtocolnotonlyestablishesAntarcticaas'anaturalreserve,devotedtopeace and science', it provides a comprehensive environmental protection regime that is binding on all Parties to the Protocol. The World Heritage Convention does not, in itself, contain any environmentalprotectionmeasures,suchasabanonminingasisthecaseinthemadridprotocol. Insteaditprovidesrecognitionofnatural(andcultural)heritagevaluesandreliesonthenominating Party sdomesticimplementationofprotectionmeasures. Despite the symbolic value that may be offered by World Heritage listing, any environmental benefitstoantarcticathatcouldarisefromworldheritagestatushavealreadybeenachieved,and arguablysurpassed,bytheinstrumentsoftheantarctictreatysystemincludingtheantarctictreaty, themadridprotocolandtheconventionontheconservationofantarcticmarinelivingresources. The framework delivered by the World Heritage Convention therefore offers no real additional benefitsforantarcticprotection.undoubtedlytheenvironmentalprotectionmeasuresprovidedfor in the Madrid Protocol, purposebuilt for the Antarctic region and cognisant of the principles of international collaboration and cooperation embedded in the Antarctic Treaty, and Antarctica s status as a natural reserve, devoted to peace and science, provide a superior regime for environmentalprotectionoutcomesinantarctica. Thepractical,diplomaticandgeo>politicalimplicationsofattemptingtoplaceAntarcticaonthe WorldHeritageList AnapplicationtolistallorpartofAntarcticawouldrequiresubstantialinvestmentininternational negotiations within the Antarctic Treaty System and among Parties to the World Heritage Convention.AnyprocesstoeffectivelyplaceAntarcticaontheWorldHeritageListwouldalsomost likely require amendment to the World Heritage Convention or at least significant political accommodation among the Convention Parties. Agreement from the Antarctic Treaty Parties to nominate Antarctica to the World Heritage List would also require mechanisms to allow a nominationtoproceed,andthenbeputintoeffect.partiestotheantarctictreatywouldlikelysee thenegotiationofsuchmechanismsaseffectivelyamendingtheantarctictreatyand/orthemadrid Protocol,orrequiringamendmentofeitherorboth. P age 52

51 TogodownthepathofattemptingtolistanyorallofAntarcticawouldbeaprotractedexercise likely to reignite debate on highly sensitive and politically charged issues such as sovereignty, governance, the exercise of jurisdiction and has the potential to significantly undermine the Antarcticgovernanceframework. Australia sstrategicantarcticinterestsarebestservedwithintheantarctictreatysystem.australia isaninfluentialplayerintheantarctictreatysystemandishighlyregarded.anyactionbyaustralia that substantially destabilises the Antarctic Treaty System will have consequential effects on Australia sstandinganditscapacitytoprotectandpursueitsnationalinterests. SeriousandovertpursuitofWorldHeritagelistingwilllikelyseeAustraliaisolatedinternationally andourwellregardedpositiononantarcticaffairssignificantlydiminished. Recommendation30>AustraliashouldapproachwithextremecautioncallstohaveAntarcticalisted on the World Heritage List and should not pursue World Heritage nomination for the Australian AntarcticTerritoryorAntarcticaasawhole. Recommendation31>AustraliashouldconsideranyassessmentofproposalstoplaceAntarcticaon theworldheritagelistagainstthecomprehensiveprotectionsalreadyprovidedwithintheantarctic TreatySystem,includingtheProtocolonEnvironmentalProtectiontotheAntarcticTreaty,andthe impactsthatpursuingsuchaproposalmayhaveontheantarctictreatysystemitself. Recommendation 32 Australia should identify opportunities to actively promote the natural, scientific,andculturalvaluesoftheantarcticandtheenvironmentalprotectionoutcomesachieved bythemadridprotocol,especiallyintheleaduptoits25 th anniversaryin2016. P age 53

52 10>HeardIslandandMcDonaldIslands The Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment is responsible for the administrationoftheterritoryofheardislandandmcdonaldislands 14.HeardIslandandMcDonald Islands are situated in the Indian Ocean and within the boundaries of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. The islands generate an extended continental shelf,whichextendsintotheantarctictreatyareabelow60 0 South. 14 &Heard&Island&and&McDonald&Islands&Act&1953& P age 54

53 ThefirstAustralianNationalAntarcticResearchExpeditionlandedonHeardIslandon11December 1947.ThismarkedthebeginningofAustralia spostworldwartwoactivitiesintheantarcticregion. HeardIslandandMcDonaldIslandsweretransferredtoAustraliabytheUnitedKingdomon 26 December At that time it was considered strategically important that the islands came under Australian administration and control. In the mid 1990 s and into the 2000 s, Australia s ExclusiveEconomicZonewassubjecttoincursionsanddepredationfromillegaltoothfishoperators operatingintheregion. Australia has a profitable domestic toothfish fishery in the Heard Island and McDonald Islands ExclusiveEconomicZone.In2005Australiaandrancesignedthe TreatyBetweentheGovernment of Australia and the Government of the rench Republic on Cooperation in the Maritime Areas Adjacent to the rench Southern and Antarctic Territories (TAA), Heard Island and McDonald Islands, which facilitates collaboration in fisheries surveillance and enforcement, and scientific cooperation in the adjoining rench and Australian Exclusive Economic Zones. There has been no AustraliancontributionofafisheriessurveillanceplatformundertheAustraliaranceTreatysince January2012. WhileAustralia sexclusiveeconomiczoneisnolongerthetargetofsustainedincursionsbyillegal fishers,theregionadjacenttoitisregularlyfishedbyillegal,unreportedandunregulatedoperators. Thelackofregularpatrolsintheregionmeansthatthosefishersareabletocontinuetodepletefish stocks in the Convention Area of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resourceswithoutsanction.Thisillegal,unreportedandunregulatedfishinghashadadirectimpact onthesustainabilityofaustralia stoothfishfishery. Heard Island is an important place for scientific research, being a glaciated island in the sub Antarctic,animportantregionforAntarcticandsubAntarcticwildlife,andasignificantcommercial fishery. Budget constraints have meant that Heard Island has not had a research program since 2003/04.isheriesresearchdata,necessaryforfisheriesmanagementpurposesandforAustralia s engagementinthecommissionfortheconservationofantarcticmarinelivingresources,hasbeen provided by the two Australia fishing operators participating in the Heard Island and McDonald Islandfishery,AustralisheriesandAustralianLongliningPtyLtd. The Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment is responsible for the management of the Heard Island and McDonald Islands World Heritage Area and the adjacent MarineReserve. Recommendation33>Australiashouldsupportfisheriessurveillanceandenforcementoperationsin therenchandaustralianexclusiveeconomiczonesintheheardislandkerguelenislandregion,and inthesurroundingareasoftheconventionontheconservationofantarcticmarinelivingresources inaccordancewiththetreatywithrance. Recommendation34TheAustralianAntarcticDivisionoftheDepartmentoftheEnvironmentshould providethegovernmentwithacarefullyconsideredbudgetforconductingpriorityresearchatheard Island and McDonald Islands and surrounding waters and supporting Australia s presence in the Territory. PriorityresearchinthisregionshouldbeconsideredpartofthecoreresponsibilitiesoftheAustralian Antarctic Division as the region is strategically important for Australia, has important fisheries resources,andisimportantforwildlifeconservation. P age 55

54 11>MacquarieIsland TheAustralianAntarcticDivisionoftheDepartmentoftheEnvironmentmaintainsaresearchstation onmacquarieislandinthesubantarcticsouthoftasmania.macquarieislandispartofthestateof Tasmania (not an Australian External Territory), is declared a nature reserve under Tasmanian legislation 15,andisontheWorldHeritageList 16.ThereisaCommonwealthmarineprotectedareain CommonwealthwaterssurroundingMacquarieIsland. The Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment has maintained a permanent base on Macquarie Island since Macquarie Island and its surrounding Exclusive EconomicZonearenotwithintheAntarcticTreatyarea,northeareacoveredbytheConventionon theconservationofantarcticmarinelivingresources.itsits,therefore,asanoddityinaustralia s Antarcticprogram.ItisnotdirectlyaCommonwealthresponsibility(asaretheAustralianAntarctic TerritoryandtheTerritoryofHeardIslandandMcDonaldIslands);itisdirectlyadministeredaspart ofthestateoftasmaniaandmanagedbythetasmanianparksandwildlifeservice,buttheresearch facilitiesarerunandmaintainedbythecommonwealth. ThereareanumberofresearchprojectscarriedoutonMacquarieIsland,whicharefundedthrough the Australian Antarctic Science Grants scheme, and the Commonwealth has in recent years invested heavily in feral pest eradication programs on Macquarie Island ($12.3 million). Most importantly,thecommonwealthmaintainsinternationallysignificantfacilitiesonmacquarieisland forthebureauofmeteorology,theaustralianradiationprotectionandnuclearsafetyagencyand GeosciencesAustralia. 15 Nature&Conservation&Act, MacquarieIslandWorldHeritageArea P age 56

55 Itisdifficulttoargue,otherthanonhistoricalgrounds,thattheMacquarieIslandresearchstation, asitisnowconfiguredandmaintained,iseitherfullyacommonwealthresponsibilityorpartofthe corefunctionsoftheaustralianantarcticdivision. Recommendation 35 The operation of the research station on Macquarie Island should be reviewedaspartoftheaustralianantarcticdivision smodernisationproject. ThisreviewshouldbedonebeforesignificantCommonwealthinvestmentsaremadetorenewor rebuild infrastructure on Macquarie Island. The review should explicitly address the Commonwealth s responsibilities at Macquarie Island, as well as those of the State of Tasmania, including meteorology and other Commonwealth responsibilities, research and protected area management. Until this review is completed, funding for operations at, or in support of the Macquarie Island research station should be separately accounted for by the Australian Antarctic Division of the DepartmentoftheEnvironment. P age 57

56 12>CaseStudies Australia s Successful Role in the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic MarineLivingResources:CounteringIllegal,UnreportedandUnregulatedishing In the late 1990s the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources had to take decisiveactiontocountersubstantialillegal,unreportedandunregulatedfishingthatwasdepletingfishstocks andunderminingtheconventionontheconservationofantarcticmarinelivingresources. Australia as a Member that was significantly affected by illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (specifically, illegal fishing inside the Heard Island and McDonald Islands Exclusive Economic Zone) took a leading role in seeking international endorsement of key measures to combat illegal, unreported and unregulatedfishing. ThroughAustralianeffortstheCommissionhasadoptedacomprehensivesuiteofmeasurestocombatillegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. These include: licensing and inspection of fishing vessels; port inspections; automated satellitelinked Vessel Monitoring Systems; the Catch Documentation Scheme; the scheme to promote compliance by Contracting Party vessels; the scheme to promote compliance by Contracting Party nationals; the notification system for transhipment; and the procedures for compliance evaluation. In 1997, noting the urgency of stopping the high level of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, the Commissionadoptedanonbindingresolutiononvesselmonitoring.In1998,followingfurthernegotiations,a bindingconservationmeasureonanautomatedsatellitelinkedvesselmonitoringsystemwasadopted.inthe subsequentyearsthroughaustralia sleadershipthecommissionwasabletomakesignificantimprovements tothevesselmonitoringsystemincludingcentralisingthesystem,and,insomeinstances,voluntarilyapplying itoutsidetheconventionarea. AustraliaalsoprovidedleadershipindevelopingaCatchDocumentationSchemetotracktradeintoothfish and in 1999 the scheme was adopted through a binding Conservation Measure, together with a policy to enhance cooperation between Members and noncontracting Parties to the Convention. The Catch DocumentationSchemeallowedforMemberstotracklegallycaughttoothfishproductfromtimeofcapture, through to entry into the market, thus also allowing Members to clearly identify for the first time illegal, unreportedandunregulatedcaughtproductenteringdomesticandinternationalmarkets. Throughoutthe2000 sthecommissioncontinuedtoimproveitsmanagementoffisheriesandmeasuresto combatiuufishing,includingmeasuressuchastheintroductionofvesselblacklists.manyoftheseinitiatives wereintroducedbyaustralia. The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources is a world leader in combating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. However some problems still persist, albeit at a much reduced level than during its peak in the late 1990 s and early 2000 s. Measures such as the centralisedvessel MonitoringSystemandtheCatchDocumentationSchemehavesignificantlyreducedillegal,unreportedand unregulatedfishingintheconventionarea. ContinuedactionbytheCommissionasacollectivevoiceagainstillegal,unreportedandunregulatedfishing will need to continue to avoid any resurgence as global market demand for fish increase. Australia s continuingroleasachampionincombatingillegal,unreportedandunregulatedfishingwillbecriticalforthe CommissionandthesustainablemanagementofmarinelivingresourcesoftheAntarctic. P age 58

57 InternationalCollaborationsonBoardAurora&Australis: SeaIcePhysicsandEcosystemsExperiments TheSeaIcePhysicsandEcosystemsExperiment1(SIPEXI)wasalandmarkprojectledbyAustralia during the International Polar Year ( ). It involved some 45 scientists from 12 different countriesandincludeda55dayseaicevoyageaboardaurora&australis.theprojectwasjointlyled by the Australian Antarctic Division and the Antarctic Climate a Ecosystem Cooperative Research Centreandfocussedonunderstandingtherelationshipbetweenseaicephysicalprocessesandthe biologicalenvironmentwithinandundertheice. Seaicethicknessisakeyclimatevariableandunderstandinghowseaiceischangingcontributesto ourknowledgeoftheimpactsofclimatechangeontheantarcticenvironment.inaddition,changes totheamountofseaiceproducedeachyearmayaffecttheformationofthecold,saltywaterthat helps drives global ocean circulation, and may also impact on animals and organisms that are dependentontheseaicehabitat. SIPEXIalsohadanimportantoutreachandeducationfunctionwith12PhDstudentsparticipating andworkingwithotherscientistsandstudentsinrelateddisciplines.twosecondaryschoolteachers participated in the SIPEX I project as part of the Teachers Experiencing Antarctica program and provided a direct link between scientific research in Antarctica and classrooms in Australia and around the world. A website, which was updated daily from the ship, enabled students and the generalpublictofollowtheprogressofthevoyageandtolearnaboutantarcticresearchfirsthand. Anumberofnewtechnologieswereused,adaptedanddeployedaspartoftheprogram,including thesurfaceandundericetrawl,usedtosamplelivekrillimmediatelyundertheice;airbornelaser andradaraltimetryformeasuringseaice freeboard (heightoficeabovethewater)andsnowcover over tens to hundreds of kilometres; and instrumentation on a Remotely Operated Vehicle for exploring the presence of algae and krill immediately under the ice. These technologies demonstratedtheaustralianantarcticprogram scapabilityforconductinghighquality,innovative fieldworkintheantarcticseaicezone. This work was continued and extended in 2012 with a two month SIPEX II voyage during which AutonomousUnderwaterVehiclesweredeployedtomapthesurfacebeneathaseaicefloetolearn moreaboutitsthicknessandvolume.sipexiibroughttogetherscientistsfromaustralia,japan,new Zealand,UnitedStates,rance,Germany,BelgiumandCanada. Bothprojectsinvolvedthecomplexcoordinationofshipping,airtransport,helicoptersupportand scientific measures and techniques (including satellite technology) to gather some of the most detailedandsignificantdataonthedynamicsofseaiceineastantarctica.australia scapacityto leadthesipexiandiiprojectsnotonlydemonstrateditsscientificcredentialsbutalsoitscapacityto leadmultidisciplinaryinternationalcollaborationswithcoordinatedcomplexscienceandlogistics. P age 60

58 2013/14AuroraBasinNorthIceCoreDrillingProject: Australialeadsanimportantinternationalresearchproject A major science project of the 2013/14 season was the ice core drilling project at Aurora Basin North. The aim of the project was to drill an ice core that would give a 2000 year climate history from the atmospheric gases, particles and other chemical elements that were trappedinsnowasitfellandcompacted toformice.aswellasobtainingcritical information about the temperature under which the ice formed, storm events, solar and volcanic activity, sea ice extent, and the concentration of different atmospheric gases over time, the project represented a particularly complex and ambitious logistical challenge. Thelocationofthedrillsite,some500kilometresinlandfromCaseyStationsrequiredatraverseconvoyof vehicles hauling heavy equipment, fuel, camp set up, and supplies to transit from the rench station at Durmont D Ville in order to make camp and clear a suitable runway site before air transport could be established to the site. The logistical project was an Australianrench collaboration, with Australia utilising renchexpertiseandequipmenttomakethetraverseasuccess.aswellasthecollaborationwiththerench projectforlogisticalsupport,theaurorabasinprojectinvolved15partnerorganisationscontributingfromsix nations:australia,china,denmark,rance,germanyandtheunitedstatesofamerica. The success of the five week field project at AuroraBasinandtheinternationallogisticaland scientific collaboration provided an excellent basisformoreambitiousicecoredrillingproject inthefutureincludingobtaininga1millionyear old ice core that would provide critical climate informationincludingthefrequencyoficeages, andregionalandglobalclimaterecords. P age 61

59 KrillAquariumattheAustralianAntarcticDivision: WorldclassresearchtosupportAntarcticfisheriesandconservation ThemarineresearchaquariumandlaboratoryattheAustralianAntarcticDivisionisaworldleadingfacilityfor thestudyofantarcticmarineorganismsandinparticularthephysiology,behaviourandreproductionofkrill. KrillareacriticalpartoftheSouthernOceanecosystem,providingthestapledietofmanyanimalsincluding seals, whales, fish, squid, penguins and other seabirds. There is also a significant although as yet underexploited krill fishery in the Southern Ocean, regulated by the Commission for the Conservation of AntarcticMarineLivingResources. UnderstandinghowmuchkrillisintheSouthernOcean,howitrespondstochangingoceanconditions,and howthepopulationfluctuatesareimportantquestionsforthesustainabilityofthekrillpopulationandforthe broader ecosystem. Research at the aquarium focuses on understanding biology and physiology of krill, includingtheirgrowth,ageingandproduction,andforassessingimpactsofoceanchangesonthisorganism. Theresearchprovidesimportantinputstothemathematicalmodelsusedtomanagethekrillfishery,andhas a direct impact on the quality of the scientific advice available to the Commission for the Conservation of AntarcticMarineLivingResources.ThisinformationhelpstheCommissiondecideharvestingcatchlimitsand conservationmeasures. TheresearchundertakenatthekrillresearchaquariumattheAustralianAntarcticDivisioncomplementsat seastudiesundertakenonboardaurora&australis.thecombinationofsurveywork,experimentalresearchand theoretical analysis provides a comprehensive and worldleading approach to the study of krill and is an importantcontributiontoprotectingtheantarcticenvironment.australiaisattheforefrontofkrillresearch andisgloballyrecognisedforitsexpertiseinthisfield. P age 62

60 P age 63 AttachmentA>KeydatesinAustralianAntarcticHistory SealingCaptain,RichardSiddons,makesfirstAustralianvisittotheAntarctic 24January1895 Australians,HenrikBullandCarstenBorchgrevinkclaimthefirstlandingon continentalantarctica(atcapeadare) 1899 LouisBernacchi,Tasmanianscientist,becomesthefirstAustralianto overwinterinantarctica 10March1908 irstascentofmterebusmadebymawsonandothersduringthe Shackletonexpedition 16January1909 SouthMagneticPolefirstreachedbyDouglasMawson(Shackleton expedition) 2December1911 Mawson saustralasianantarcticexpedition(aae)sailsfromhobarton Aurora December1911 AAEestablishesastationandwirelessmastsonMacquarieIsland 8January1912 MawsonlandsatCapeDenisoninAntarcticatoestablishawinterstation Nov1912 eb1913 Mawson sfamoussledgingjourneyandremarkablesolosurvival ebruary1913 Mawson saaemakesworld sfirstradiocommunicationfromantarctica 26ebruary1914 AAEreturnstoHobart 29June1914 MawsonknightedinLondonforhisachievementsontheAAE 16November1928 AustralianSirHubertWilkinsmakesfirstaircraftflightinAntarctica British,AustralianandNewZealandAntarcticExpedition(BANZARE) led bymawson 13January1930 DouglasMawson sproclamationofantarcticterritoryonproclamation Island 7ebruary1933 OrderinCounciltransferringAntarcticTerritorytoAustralia 24August1936 ProclamationoftheAustralianAntarcticTerritorythroughtheentryinto forceoftheantarctic&territory&acceptance&act November1947 DeparturefromMelbourneoffirstAustralianNationalAntarcticResearch Expedition(ANARE)voyage landedatheardisland11december December1947 HeardIslandandMcDonaldIslands(thathadpreviouslybeenclaimedby theunitedkingdomin1910)wastransferredfrombritaintoaustralian government,administrationandcontrol,attheopeningoftheanare stationonheardisland.thiswaslaterconfirmedinanexchangeofnotesin ebruary1948 DepartureoffirstANAREvoyagetotheAntarcticcontinent 7March1948 ANARElandingonMacquarieIslandtoestablishapermanentstation May1948 AntarcticDivisionoftheDepartmentofExternalAffairsestablished 13ebruary1954 Mawsonstationopened theantarcticcontinent sfirstpermanentstation 13January1957 OpeningofDavisstation,Australia ssecondpermanentstationin Antarctica InternationalGeophysicalYear 3January1958 Departureoffirst(andonly)ANAREvoyagetoexploreentirecoastofthe AustralianAntarcticTerritory 4ebruary1959 AustraliatakesovercontrolofWilkesBase,establishedbytheUSin1957 1December1959 SigningoftheAntarcticTreatyby12nationsincludingAustralia 23June1961 AntarcticTreatyentersintoforce 10July1961 irstmeetingoftheantarctictreatyconsultativemeetingheldincanberra. OpeningofthemeetingaddressedbyPrimeMinisterR.G.Menzies 19ebruary1969 Caseystationopened,toreplaceWilkeswhichhadbecomeburiedbysnow

61 27January1971 irstrecordedlandingonthemcdonaldislands 13ebruary1977 irstaustraliantouristchartersightseeingflighttotheaustralianantarctic Territory 20May1980 ConventionontheConservationofAntarcticMarineLivingResources adopted 1980/81 irstinternationalbiologicalinvestigationsofmarineantarcticsystemsand Stocks(BIOMASS)ExperimentfirstmajorAustralianAntarcticmarine researchvoyagesincebanzare(1929) 22April1981 TheAustralianAntarcticDivisionmovesfromMelbournetoTasmaniaand thenewheadquartersfortheaustralianantarcticdivisionisopened. 18January1987 LawBaseopenedintheLarsemannHills 1January1988 irstlivetelevisionbroadcastfromtheaustralianantarcticterritory 20December1988 NewCaseystationopened 22May1989 AustraliaannouncesthatitwillnotsigntheAntarcticmineralsconvention 18September1989 Aurora&Australislaunched Australia sfirsticebreaker 4October1991 AntarcticTreatypartiesadopttheProtocolonEnvironmentProtectionto theantarctictreaty(themadridprotocol)whichbansmining 1997 AustraliacommencesfisheriespatrolsoffHeardIsland 6December1997 HeardIslandinscribedontheWorldHeritageList 16January1998 EntryintoforceoftheAntarcticTreaty senvironmentalprotocol 16October2002 HeardIslandandMcDonaldIslandsMarineReserveproclaimed 22June2004 MawsonStationlistedontheCommonwealthHeritageRegister 15November2004 AntarcticdatalodgedwithCommissionontheLimitsoftheContinental Shelf(alongwiththerestofAustralia sextendedcontinentalshelfdata) 10January2005 Mawson shutshistoricsiteenteredonthenationalheritagelist 11May2005 PrimeMinisterannouncesthedevelopmentofanairlinkbetweenHobart andcasey 24January2008 OfficialopeningofWilkinsRunway 7ebruary th anniversaryoftheorderincouncilestablishingtheaustralian AntarcticTerritory 16January th anniversaryofattainmentofsouthmagneticpolebydouglasmawson 17ebruary th anniversaryoffirstlandingbyanaustralianinantarctica(bernacchi) 1December th anniversaryofthesigningoftheantarctictreaty 23June th anniversaryofentryintoforceoftheantarctictreaty 24August th anniversaryoftheproclamationoftheaustralianantarcticterritory 1120June2012 AustraliahostsAntarcticTreatyConsultativeMeeting(Hobart) Various100 th anniversariesofmawson saustralasianantarcticexpedition 26ebruary th anniversaryofthereturntoaustraliaofmawson saustralasian AntarcticExpedition P age 64

62 AttachmentB>LegislationRelevanttoAustralia santarcticgovernance (nonexhaustive) AustralianAntarcticTerritorylegislationandOrdinances(forthegoodgovernanceoftheAAT) AustralianAntarcticTerritoryAcceptanceAct1933 AustralianAntarcticTerritoryAct1954 WeaponsOrdinance2001(AAT) AATCriminalProcedureOrdinance1993(AAT) Antarctic/EnvironmentSpecificCommonwealthLegislation (implementingaustralia sinternationalobligations) AntarcticTreatyAct1960 AntarcticTreaty(EnvironmentProtection)Act1980 AntarcticTreaty(EnvironmentalProtection)(EnvironmentalImpactAssessment)Regulations 1993 AntarcticTreaty(EnvironmentalProtection)(WasteManagement)Regulations1994 AntarcticTreaty(EnvironmentProtection)Proclamation2007 AntarcticTreaty(EnvironmentProtection)(HistoricSitesandMonuments)Proclamation 2007 AntarcticMarineLivingResourcesConservationAct1981 AntarcticMarineLivingResourcesConservationRegulations1994 EnvironmentProtectionandBiodiversityConservationAct1999 EnvironmentProtectionandBiodiversityConservationRegulations2000 ProtectionoftheSea(PreventionofPollutionromShips)Act1983 HeardIslandandMcDonaldIslandsLegislationandOrdinances HeardIslandandMcDonaldIslandsAct1953 EnvironmentProtectionandManagementOrdinance1987(HIMI) WeaponsOrdinance2001(HIMI) CriminalProcedureOrdinance1993(HIMI) P age 65

63 AttachmentC VesselsRecentlyActiveintheEastAntarcticSector ofthesouthernocean 17 lag Vessel VesselType Details Australia Aurora&Australis& & ResearchandResupply Launched1989. Length94.9m Weight3911tonnes Cruisingspeed13knots PAX116 Icebreakingcapacity 1.23m 59voyagesfromHobartsinceMay2007 Investigator& ScienceResearch Length:94metres Daysatsea:Upto300 Scientificberths:40 Endurance:60days Cruisingspeed:12knots Range:10,000nm Extentofoperatingarea:Iceedge China Xue&Long& ScienceSupport&Resupply Built1993 Grosstonnage Length 167m MaxSpeed 18knots Range 20000nm PAX128+34crew PortvisitHobart2013,remantle2010,2012,2013 rance L Astrolabe& ScienceSupport&Resupply MultipurposeOffshoreVessel Japan Shirase&II& ScienceSupport&Resupply Icebreaker Umitaka&Maru& & South Korea New Zealand Russia RV&Araon& Built1973 Length 93m GrossTonn 1828 Power3320HP,Auxpower480HP Range5000nm Endurance 35days Cruisespeed15kt PAX79 PortvisitHobart2014 ScienceSupport&Resupply Icebreaker Length MaxSpeed 14.2knots PAX 62 IceClass1 61voyagesfromHobartsinceOctober2007 Commissioned ,650ton 138meters Capacity3knots,breakingupice1.5metersthick.Thenewshipusesseawater toclearthesnowontheice,allowingittomovesmoothlyforbetterfuel efficiency,andhasadoublewalledfueltanktopreventleaks. Commissioned2009 KRPL10(DAT30)graderesearchicebreaker(identicalwithDnVPolar10grade) capableofcontinuousbreakingof1mthickflaticeatthespeedof3knot GrossTonnage7487t ServiceSpeed12knots PAX85 Endurance20000nm Generator3400KWX4ki Span110m Tangaroa& ScienceResearchVessel Built 1991 ClassificationIceIC(lightice) Length70m Hull icestrengthened GrossTonnage2291t Crusingspeed 10.5knots Mainengines2xCumminsQSK601800kW(1,440kWe) PAX40 Endurance 60days Akademik& Shokalskiy& & Akademik& eodorov& & Passengership ScienceSupport&Resupply 17 Notincludingfisheriesvessels Built1982 GrossTonnage1764 Length71m Speed14kt Passengers68 Built1987 GrossTonnage 12660international Length P age 66

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