1 Vol. 5(5), pp , June, 2013 DOI: /IJLIS ISSN Academic Journals hp://www.academicjournals.org/ijlis Inernaional Journal of Library and Informaion Science Full Lengh Research Paper Managemen problems of elecronic informaion resources: A case sudy of UNN Library Cyprian I. Ugwu* and D. C. Onyegiri Nnamdi Azikiwe Library, Universiy of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Acceped 28 Augus, 2012 This sudy eamined he problems encounered in managing elecronic informaion resources (EIRs) in he Universiy of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) Library Sysem. Case sudy design was employed o achieve he research objecives. The populaion of he sudy consised of 151 saff of he Universiy library. Quesionnaire was he main insrumen used for daa collecion. Ou of he 151 copies of he quesionnaire adminisered o he respondens, only 95 copies were correcly filled and used for his sudy. The daa colleced were analyzed using mean ( ) and sandard deviaion (), while -es was used o esablish he significance of he responses of he library saff on he dimensions of he problems of managing EIRs in he universiy library. The managemen problem areas idenified in his sudy consised of Universiy policies or pracices, funding, saffing and informaion echnology infrasrucure. Sraegies for enhancing effecive managemen of elecronic informaion resources were idenified, and recommendaions based on he findings of he sudy were also made. Key words: Elecronic informaion resources (EIRs), universiy library, managemen. INTRODUCTION One of he funcions of a universiy library is o provide resources and services for is users. Universiy libraries all over he world are facing he challenge of he paradigm shif from he radiional environmen o he elecronic environmen. In he elecronic environmen, hese libraries are epeced o provide informaion resources in a variey of formas and provide innovaive services o heir users. In oher words, hey are epeced o provide abundan E-resources o mee he ever increasing demands of users. An elecronic informaion resource is defined as he informaion resource ha is accessed via he inerne (Okore e al., 2009). This definiion is eended in his paper o include CD-ROMs because CD-ROM resources can be accessed online. Accessibiliy of hese resources is re-defining he vision and mission of universiy libraries oday. Okore e al. (2009) idenified specific ypes of elecronic informaion resources as consising of elecronic books (e-books), elecronic journals (e-journal), indees, collecions of journal aricles, reference works, digial collecions, daabases and websies. These elecronic informaion resources (EIRs) do no fly ino he library or find hemselves in he library by acciden. This implies ha here should be coordinaed effor o selec, acquire, caalogue and mainain hem; and his is wha managemen of elecronic resources in libraries is all abou. Yu and Breivold (2008) defined elecronic resource managemen as he pracices used by o keep rack of imporan informaion abou elecronic informaion resources, especially inerne based resources such as elecronic Journals, daabases, and elecronic books. However, lieraure has shown ha majoriy of he universiy libraries in developing counries do no have enough of elecronic informaion resources for heir users (Aguolu and Aguolu, 2002). This implies ha here may be managemen problems ha hinder he *Corresponding auhor.
2 Ugwu and Onyegiri 127 developmen and use of hese resources in universiy libraries in developing economies. Since is incepion in 1960, he library sysem of he Universiy of Nigeria, Nsukka, has a sizeable collecion of books, journals and oher specialized maerials. These specialized maerials are in he grey caegory and hey include heses, disseraions, as well as official publicaions of Unied Naions (UN) and is agencies. The universiy library has a number of CD-ROM collecions and subscribes o some online daabases such as OARE, JSTOR, AGORA, HINARI and EBSCOHOST. The library also provides an inerne -plaform for access o he library-based online daabases and for remoe access o inerne -based resources. The insiuional reposiory (IR) ha is being developed by he universiy library has over weny one housand files. Unforunaely, hese files lack global accessibiliy due primarily o he absence of managemen sofware. Furhermore, he library is parially auomaed. However, he auomaion environmen requires inegraed library sofware (ILS) for he managemen of he radiional conen and elecronic resources managemen sysems (ERMs) for he managemen of he elecronic conen. In he managemen of he radiional conen, he library has finally seled wih `KOHA sofware afer a very long rial wih failure of some library applicaions sofware such as `TINLIB, XLIB and `LIBPLUS. The apparen lack of ERMs is responsible for he slow pace of he digiizaion projec of he universiy library. Though oher conribuory facors may include human and maerial resources, any sraegic plan argeed a addressing his problem would be holisic o achieve resuls. The presen sudy is herefore an aemp o address his issue, and is inended o eamine he problems encounered in managing elecronic informaion resources (EIRs) in he library sysem of he Universiy of Nigeria, Nsukka. LITERATURE REVIEW There is a grea deal of lieraure devoed o differen ypes of elecronic resources. However, very lile is wrien abou elecronic informaion resource managemen and is problems in libraries. Effors were made in he lieraure o solve he problems of managemen of EIRs from he use of hese resources in libraries by saff, sudens and researchers. Many libraries have embraced he use of elecronic informaion resources (EIRs), including CD-ROM, he inerne, and he world wide web (www) for provision of informaion services. A number of reasons have been advanced for preference of EIRs by libraries and informaion cenres. Some of hese reasons, according o Iwehabura (2009) include he abiliy o provide faser and easier access o curren informaion by users in various places such as homes, offices and oher workplaces, hosels and dormiories; easy sorage and he possibiliy of sharing he same informaion resources among many users a a ime, saving space wih relaively easy mainenance and easy linkage o indeing and absracing daabases. The inerne for eample, provides he opporuniy o access a wide range of opics on differen subjecs. I also allows sudens, saff and oher researchers o rerieve informaion from diverse sources such as e-journals, e-books, daabases, newspapers and oher sources. Furhermore, i offers he sudens he opporuniy o conrol heir learning and helps hem o have ineracions wih informaion peraining o heir needs (Jones e al., 2002; Healey, 2003). Elecronic informaion resources are used for academic and research aciviies in higher educaional insiuions (Iwehabura, 2009). Inerne resources such as online daabases, e-books, and e-journals were among he EIRs used for academic purposes. Oher resources found o be used were CD-ROMs and OPAC (Online Public Access Caalogue). Kinengyere (2007) has shown ha he available informaion is under-uilized. The sudy also shows ha informaion availabiliy does no mean acual use because he users may no be aware of he availabiliy of such resources, do no know how o access hem or do no know wha he resources offer. Generally, lieraure has shown ha here is a posiive relaionship beween he use of elecronic informaion resources and improvemen in he qualiy and quaniy of research oupu. Manda and Nawe (2009) saed ha his relaionship is influenced by several facors such as echnology, infrasrucure, naure of he organizaion and individual aribues. Nawe and Kiondo (2005) have shown ha 21.7% of he respondens repored ha research qualiy had improved significanly wih he use of elecronic informaion resources. Resuls of he sudy also revealed ha he qualiy of eaching and learning had improved significanly as a resul of informaion and communicaion echnology (ICT) applicaion in library operaion. Meanwhile, despie he imporance of and advanages offered by EIRs, sudies have idenified a number of problems associaed wih heir use. These problems range from lack of or inadequae resources, mainly compuers, and poor inerne conneciviy, inappropriae usage o lack of appropriae skills among users. For insance, Ray and Day (1998) noed ha he main facors affecing sudens access o elecronic informaion and using hem were limied o ime and lack of effecive informaion rerieval skills. The use of EIRs in educaional insiuions is furher affeced by lack of echnical suppor saff, IT infrasrucure and raining. In addiion, Johnson and McCormack (1996) posi ha: a perceived lack of various resources such as ime, equipmen or funds,... lack of raining and insufficien echnical suppor saff and risks associaed wih implemening innovaions in eaching, paricularly hose using echnologies, are he mos significan barriers o academic saff using informaion echnology in heir eaching.
3 128 In. J. Lib. Inf. Sci Table 1. Characerisics of he respondens. Saff caegory No Percenage (%) Librarians Librarians Toal Moreover, while oher researchers have shown ha he use of he inerne and oher EIRs by sudens was limied by inadequae number of compuers and access poins (Malekani, 2006; Luambano and Nawe, 2004; Jagboro, 2003; Ojedokun, 2001), Hung (2004) argues ha lack of skills in searching he inerne is one of he limiaions ha affec is proper uilizaion (Hung, 2004). This eplains why sudens limi hemselves o searching for and reviewing informaion on enerainmen, spors and news from around he world insead of using he inerne for academic maers. The sudy of Iwehabura s (2009) shows ha lack of adequae knowledge and skills in some aspecs, including searching and evaluaion affeced he use of various EIRs in Tanzanian Universiy libraries. The sudy recommended he developmen of ICT infrasrucures, ha and eaching saff become role models and menors o sudens in using EIRs, and ha eaching saff adop an acive learning and suden-cenered approach in heir eaching as well as srenghening informaion lieracy programmes as inervenion measures for improving sudens skills in using EIRs. The only paper relaed o elecronic informaion resources managemen was Okoye and Ugwuanyi s (2012) paper. This paper eamined he managemen funcions performed by caaloguers in he managemen of EIRs in Nigerian universiy libraries. The recommendaions made were based on he challenges and sraegies idenified. Bohmann and Holmbery (2006) idenified he challenges o elecronic resources managemen in libraries as consising of planning, policies and workflow. The planning challenges were found o include saffing, budgeing, change, communicaion and managemen ools. In addiion, he barriers o policy developmen were idenified as change, decision making and communicaion. I mus be emphasized ha how each of hese facors affec he managemen of elecronic informaion resources in universiy libraries as ye o be emphaically deermined in he lieraure. The presen sudy is an aemp o address his issue. While discussing he challenges of managing EIRS in libraries, Okoye and Ugwuanyi (2012) idenified skills, acquisiion, budgeing and communicaion as major challenges. They summarized he siuaion in Nigerian universiy libraries hus: he siuaion in he presen sudy is ha here are no designaed on EIR librarian funcions, paricularly unique o elecronic resources such as licensing, access se-up, link mainenance, iner-daa- base linking are eiher non-eisen or are a heir embryonic sages of implemenaion. Few elecronic managemen services available are done by professsionals. On he sraegies for changing he siuaion, Okoye and Ugwuanyi (2012) were of he opinion ha insiuions should provided fund on ha library schools in Nigeria should provide pragmaic raining o suden, libraries o enable hem o handle e-resources. Kanyengo (2006) mainained ha for effecive managemen of digial resources in Africa, effors should be focused on funding creaing enabling policy framework and raining of saff. Purpose of he sudy The purpose of his sudy is o idenify he problems relaed o he managemen of elecronic informaion resources in Universiy of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) Library Sysem. The specific objecives of he sudy are: 1. To idenify he Universiy policies and reforms ha consiues problems o he managemen of elecronic informaion resources in UNN Library Sysem. 2. To idenify he problems associaed wih funding ha affec he managemen of elecronic informaion resources in UNN Library Sysem. 3. To ascerain he problems of saffing ha affec he managemen of elecronic informaion resources in UNN Library Sysem. 4. To ascerain he IT-relaed problems ha affec he managemen of elecronic informaion resources in UNN Library Sysem. 5. To idenify he sraegies for enhancing he managemen of elecronic informaion resources in he UNN Library Sysem. METHODOLOGY This sudy employed a case sudy design o invesigae he perceived problems of managemen of elecronic informaion resources (EIRs) in he Universiy of Nigeria, Nsukka Library Sysem. The populaion of he sudy consised of he library saff of he universiy library sysem. A oal of 151 saff of he library was sudied. The library saff consised of 45 professional and 106 nonprofessional as shown in Table 1. The insrumen used for daa collecion was a quesionnaire. The quesionnaire consised of five secions covering he research issues of he sudy. The quesionnaire was rial esed o deermine is inernal consisency using Cronbach alpha co-efficien procedures. The coefficien alpha analysis yielded reliabiliy coefficiens of 0.86, 0.74, 0.76, and 0.71 for secions B, C, D and E. These alpha values are high enough and hey show ha he insrumen is reliable. Ou of he 151 copies of he quesionnaire disribued, a oal of 95 were correcly filled and used for he sudy. This gave a response rae of 62.5%. Daa colleced were analyzed using mean ( ) and sandard deviaion (), while -es was used o esablish he significance of he responses of he library saff on he dimensions of he problems of managing EIRs in he universiy library.
4 Ugwu and Onyegiri 129 Table 2. Descripive saisical analysis and -es on adminisraive policies or pracices affecing managemen of elecronic informaion resources. Iem saemen The Universiy Librarian has no free hand in developing e- resources NS The Universiy Adminisraion has no regard for he Library NS There is no Policy for e-resources developmen in he Universiy Library Sysem The Universiy Adminisraion deermines how he Library should be run The Universiy Librarian has no free hand in aking decisions in developing library services The Universiy Adminisraion imposes is decision on he library The Universiy Library Managemen does no paricipae in decision making in maers relaing o he Library a he higher level of Universiy Adminisraion *NS = No significan; S = significan S NS NS NS NS RESULTS The findings of he sudy are summarized and presened in he following ables. Table 1 shows he disribuion of he workforce of he universiy library. This consised of Librarians (29.8%) and non-professional (70.2). The non-professional are made up of Senior Technical Saff (26.5%), Senior Adminisraive Saff (9.9%) Junior Technical Saff (29.2%) and Junior Adminisraive Saff (4.6%). Table 2 shows he adminisraive policies and pracices ha affec he managemen of elecronic informaion resources in he Universiy of Nigeria, Library Sysem. The findings revealed ha he Universiy librarian enjoys some level of freedom in he day-o-day running of he universiy library. The major managemen problem is apparen lack of policy for e-resources developmen ( = 2.15, p < 0.05). Table 3 shows he funding problems ha affec he managemen of EIRs in he Universiy of Nigeria, Nsukka Library Sysem. The resuls showed ha he funding problems include no specific budge for elecronic informaion resources ( = 3.45, p < 0.05); funds for he library are disbursed piecemeal ( = 3.26, p < 0.05) and insufficien budge allocaion o mee he needs of he library ( = 2.98, p < 0.05). These findings showed ha funding is a problem affecing he managemen of EIRs in he universiy library. Table 4 shows he personnel problems ha affec he managemen of elecronic informaion resources (EIRs) in he Universiy of Nigeria, Nsukka Library Sysem. The resuls showed ha he personnel problems included lack of ICT skills among he library saff ( = 2.45, p < 0.05) and many of he library saff do no have background raining in Library and Informaion Science ( = 2.11, p < 0.05). These facors are significan enough o hamper meaningful library developmen. This herefore implies ha he library has personnel problems ha affec he managemen of is EIRs. Table 5 shows he IT-relaed problems ha affec he managemen of EIRs in he Universiy of Nigeria, Nsukka Libraries. These problem as indicaed in he able included ha he library is no fully auomaed ( =3.70, p < 0.05), ICT infrasrucure is poorly developed ( = 3.39, p < 0.05), and here is an absolue need for requisie equipmen for library operaions ( = 3.30, p < 0.05). These resuls showed ha he universiy library has ITrelaed problems ha affec he managemen of is EIRs. Table 6 shows he sraegies for enhancing he managemen of EIRs in he universiy library. The resuls showed ha he mos effecive of he sraegies are formulaion of policies for he developmen of EIRs ( =2.75, p <0.05) and seing aside a percen of he library budge for he developmen of EIRs. These findings showed ha here is need for a sraegic plan for he managemen of EIRs
5 130 In. J. Lib. Inf. Sci Table 3. Descripive saisical analysis and -es on funding problems affecing managemen of EIRs. Iem saemen The Universiy Library board is in charge of managing library funds There is no specific budge allocaion for elecronic informaion resources NS S There is no specific budge allocaion for he library NS The library budge allocaion is no sufficien o grapple wih is needs S The library budge is spen wihou inpu from he library NS Funds for he library are disbursed piecemeal S Funds approved for projec developmen in he library are no released on ime * NS = No significan; S = significan NS Table 4. Descripive saisical analysis and -es on personnel problems affecing managemen of EIRS. Iem saemen The Universiy Library lacks he required number of saff wih which o funcion Many library saff do no have background in library and informaion science NS S Many professional saff lacks ICT skills S Promoion of Library saff is based on qualificaion NS Promoion of library is performance-based NS Library saff are graned sudy leave NS Working condiions are poor NS Work and moral ehics are no respeced NS There is a high degree of professional saff urnover because of poor working condiions *NS = No significan; S = significan NS in he Universiy library. DISCUSSION The problems of managemen of elecronic informaion resources (EIRs) have been found o be mulidimensional. These problems appear o be compounded because of he limiaions of use of elecronic informaion resources in universiy libraries. The resuls showed ha he libraries of he Universiy of Nigeria, Nsukka, do no have a policy for developmen of EIRs. This is indeed an adminisraive policy or pracice ha consiues a problem for managing he library s EIRs. Managemen of EIRs begins wih keeping rack of hem in he library, and e policy ha defines wha should be acquired and how
6 Ugwu and Onyegiri 131 Tables 5. Descripive saisical analysis and -es on IT- relaed problems affecing managemen of EIRs. Iem saemen The equipmen available is oudaed NS The Universiy Library is no fully auomaed S There is an absolue need for requisie equipmen for library operaions S The library does no have inerne faciliies NS The ICT infrasrucure is poorly developed S The work faciliies available are no suiable for library operaions O NS *NS = No significan; S = significan. Table 6. Descripive saisical analysis and -es on sraegies for enhancing he managemen of EIRs. Iem saemen Training needs of he professional saff should be idenified NS The ICT skills of saff should be enhanced NS Developmen of Informaion Lieracy Programmes NS There should be policy for he developmen of EIRs S A cerain percenage of he library budge should be se aside for he developmen of EIRs. Fund allocaion o he library for projec developmen and implemenaion should be increased and promply released S NS Fully inegraed library auomaion should be developed NS ICT infrasrucures should be developed for efficien library services and operaions NS *NS = No significan; S = significan. where h o acquire hem is lacking, he collecion or developmen of EIRs in he library will be affeced. This will resul in apparen lack of EIRs in he library. Anoher managemen problem of EIRs in he universiy library is funding. The resuls showed ha here is no specific budge allocaion for he developmen of EIRs; he library budge is no sufficien o mee he needs of he library, and he funds for library developmen are disbursed piecemeal. These facors make i even more difficul for he universiy library o have an up-o-dae prin collecion le alone EIRS ha are capial inensive and require specialized raining and reraining. This raining may no be possible because of lack of funds and i has a muliplier effec in he sense ha when he, who are o each informaion lieracy skills do no possess hese skills hemselves, he library users will suffer he same fae. This suppors he finding by Ray and Day (1998) ha sudens access o EIRS is affeced due o heir lack of effecive informaion rerieval skills. The resuls also showed ha saffing is anoher problem ha affecs he managemen of EIRS in he Universiy library. Many of he library saff do no have background raining in library and informaion science. Among he professional, many do no have ICT skills. These findings are no unepeced because of he decreasing budgeary allocaions o he universiy library. I has also been found ha here are informaion echnology facors ha affec he managemen of EIRS in
7 132 In. J. Lib. Inf. Sci he universiy Library. One of hese facors is ha he universiy library sysem is no fully auomaed. There is also an absolue need for requisie equipmen for library operaions. In addiion, he ICT infrasrucure is poorly developed. Wih he basic ICT infrasrucures lacking in he universiy library, i will be difficul o keep rack of EIRS and more difficul o organize hem in order o provide access o hem. These resuls suppor he findings by Malekani (2006), Jagboro (2003) and Ojedokun (2001) ha he use of he inerne and oher EIRS by sudens was limied by an inadequae number of compuers and access poins. Finally, he resuls showed ha he sraegic plan of he universiy library for enhancing he managemen of is elecronic informaion resources should address a lo of issues. These issues span he criical success facors for he developmen and use of EIRS in he universiy library and hey include developmen of ICT policy and fund allocaion o he library for innovaion and creaiviy wihin he cone of EIR developmen in he Universiy library. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The universiy library environmen is changing. Universiy are advised o keep pace wih changes oherwise hey will be lef behind. Providing unlimied access o elecronic informaion resources in he universiy library as well as keeping rack of hem is one way of keeping pace wih change. The success of he universiy library in elecronic resources provision depends on is abiliy o conend wih he problems associaed wih he managemen of EIRS. These problems are found o be linked wih adminisraive policies/ pracices, funding, saffing and e-resources provision using ICT. Based on he findings of his sudy, he following recommendaions are made: Budge allocaion for developmen of EIRS A cerain percenage of he library budge should be allocaed o he developmen of elecronic informaion resources in he universiy library. Funding issues may also be addressed by divering funds from he prin resource allocaions or by canceling some journal iles in order o ge enough money for new resources. Anoher opion could be o paricipae in library neworks or consoria o enjoy he benefis of discouns. Finally, he Universiy library may eplore he opion of making consan requess o he Universiy Adminisraion for sufficien funds allocaions for elecronic resource developmen and collecion. Re-skilling of Librarians and oher paraprofessionals should be rained and rerained so as o funcion effecively in an IT-driven informaion environmen. The acquisiion of requisie ICT skills will help hem o develop digial informaion resources or sraegically plan for he managemen of EIRs. ICT infrasrucural developmen There should be a policy as well a sraegic plan for ICT infrasrucural developmen in he universiy library. This will provide an enabling environmen for he organizaion and use of EIRS in he universiy Library. Commimen o digial library projecs These digial projecs ha need o be developed in he Universiy library include inegraed library auomaion, creaion of sandardized daabases, digiizaion of heses and disseraions, and creaion of various ypes of insiuional reposiories (IRS). Commimens o each of hese projecs will redefine, reposiion and reinven he universiy library for user-cenered services. REFERENCES Aguolu CC, Aguolu IA (2002). Libraries and informaion managemen in Nigeria. Maduguri: Ed-Linform Services. Bohmann BL, Holmberg M (2006). Elecronic resources planning and managemen. Unpublished elecronic survey conduced on ERIC from 27 November o I December Healey D (2003). Advanages and limiaions of compuers and he inerne for classroom eacher. Rerieved from hp://www.organsae.edu/-haleyd/upc/advdisadv.hml on 25 h June Hung T (2004). Undergraduae sudens evaluaion crieria when using web resources for class paper. J. Educ. Media Libr. sci. 4(1):1-12. Iwehabura MF (2009). Skills and Training needs for use of elecronic informaion resources (EIRS) among sudens in four Tanzanian Universiies. Hearland J. Libr. Info. sci. 2(1&2):1-21. Jagboro K (2003). A sudy of inerne usage in Nigerian Universiies: a case sudy of Obafemi Awolowo Universiy, IIe-Ife, Nigeria. Rerieved from h://www.firsmonday.org/issues 82/jogboro on 20 h June, Johnson S, McCormack C (1996). Inegraing informaion echnology ino Universiy eaching idenifying he needs and providing suppor In. J. Educ. Manag. 10(5): Jones S, Madden M. (2002). The inerne goes o college: how sudens are living in he fuure wih oday s echnology. Rerieved from hp://www.pew inerne.org/on20h June, Kanyengo KW (2006). Managing digial informaion resources in Africa: preserving he inegran of scholarship. Rerieved from confkanyengo.pdf. on 25 h June, Kinengyere AA (2007). The effec of informaion lieracy on uilizaion of elecronic informaion resources in seleced Academic and Research Insiuions in Uganda. Elecronic Libr. 25(3): Luambano I, Nawe J (2004). Inerne use by sudens of he Universiy of Dar-Es-Salaam. Libr. High Tech. New (2010), p Malekani AW (2006). A sudy of sudens inerne percepions a Sokoine Universiy of Agriculure Repulaie of Tanrania. Msc. Thesis. (informaion sudies), Universiy of Dars-Salaam. Manda P, Nawe J (2009). The impac of elecronic informaion resource use on research oupu: Eperiences from Universiies in Tanzania. Hearland J. Libr. Info. Sci. 2(1&2): Nawe J, Kiond E (2005). The impac of ICT applicaion in library services provision in he core mission of Universiy of Dares Salaam, research repor submied o he library.
8 Ugwu and Onyegiri 133 Ojedokun A (2001). Inerne access and use by sudens of he Universiy of Boswana. Afr. J. Libr. Arch. Info. Sci. 11(2): Okore AM, Asogwa CN, Eke HN (2009). Online resources and web research. In Charles. O. Onekwu; Michael O. Okoye, and Chinwe N. Ezeani (eds). Inroducion o he use of he library and sudy skills. Nsukka.: The library Deparmen, Universiy of Nigeria, Nsukka (pp ). Okoye MO, Ugwuanyi CF (2012). Managemen of elecronic resources by caaloguers in Nigeria federal universiy libraries. Rerieved from: hp://www.unlib.unl.edukpp/ on June 20, Ray K, Day J (1998). suden aiudes owards elecronic informaion resources: Rerieved from <hp://informaion.ne/ir/4-2/paper 54hml on march 20>, Yu H, Breivold S (2008). Elecronic Resource managemen in libraries and informaion managemen in Nigeria: seminal essays on hemes and problems maiduguri, Nigeria: Ed-Informaion services.