# Replicated Data Consistency Explained Through Baseball

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5 Guarantee Consistency Performance Availability Strong Consistency excellent poor poor Eventual Consistency poor excellent excellent Consistent Prefix okay good excellent Bounded Staleness good okay poor Monotonic Reads okay good good Read My Writes okay okay okay Table 2. Consistency, Performance, and Availability Trade-offs 3. Baseball as a Sample Application For those readers who are not familiar with baseball, but who love to read code, Figure 1 illustrates the basics of a 9-inning baseball game. The game starts with the score of 0-0. The visitors bat first and remain at bat until they make three outs. Then the home team bats until it makes three outs. This continues for nine innings. Granted, this leaves out many of the subtleties that are dear to baseball aficionados, like myself. But it does explain all that is needed for this paper. We assume that the score of the game is recorded in a key-value store in two objects, one for the number of runs scored by the visitors and one for the home team s runs. When a team scores a run, a read operation is performed on its current score, the returned value is incremented by one, and the new value is written back to the key-value store. Write ( visitors, 0); Write ( home, 0); for inning = outs = 0; while outs < 3 visiting player bats; for each run scored score = Read ( visitors ); Write ( visitors, score + 1); outs = 0; while outs < 3 home player bats; for each run scored score = Read ( home ); Write ( home, score + 1); end game; Figure 1. A Simplified Baseball Game 5

6 As a concrete example, consider the write log for a sample game as shown in Figure 2. In this game, the home team scored first, then the visitors tied the game, then the home team scored twice more, and so on. Write ( home, 1) Write ( visitors, 1) Write ( home, 2) Write ( home, 3) Write ( visitors, 2) Write ( home, 4) Write ( home, 5) Figure 2. Sequence of Writes for a Sample Game This sequence of writes could be from a baseball game with the inning-by-inning line score that is shown in Figure 3. This hypothetical game is currently in the middle of the seventh inning (the proverbial seventh-inning stretch), and the home team is winning RUNS Visitors Home Figure 3. The Line Score for this Sample Game Suppose the key-value store that holds the visitors and home team s run totals resides in the cloud and is replicated among a number of servers. Different read guarantees may result in clients reading different scores for this game that is in progress. Table 3 lists of the complete set of scores that could be returned by reading the visitors and home scores with each of the six consistency guarantees. Note that the visitors score is listed first, and different possible return values are separated by comas. Strong Consistency 2-5 Eventual Consistency 0-0, 0-1, 0-2, 0-3, 0-4, 0-5, 1-0, 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 2-0, 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5 Consistent Prefix 0-0, 0-1, 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5 Bounded Staleness scores that are at most one inning out-of-date: 2-3, 2-4, 2-5 Monotonic Reads after reading 1-3: 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5 Read My Writes for the writer: 2-5 for anyone other than the writer: 0-0, 0-1, 0-2, 0-3, 0-4, 0-5, 1-0, 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 2-0, 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5 Table 3. Possible Scores Read for Each Consistency Guarantee 6

14 5. H. Wada, A. Fekete, L. Zhao, K. Lee, and A. Liu. Data Consistency Properties and the Trade-offs in Commercial Cloud Storages: The Consumers Perspective. Proceedings CIDR, January Analyzes Amazon s SimpleDB and observes that the service frequently delivers stale data and fails to provide readyour-writes or monotonic read guarantees, and yet the observed performance of eventually consistent reads is not better than that of strong consistency reads to the same service. 6. E. Anderson, X. Li, M. Shah, J. Tucek, and J. Wylie. What Consistency Does Your Key-value Store Actually Provide? Proceedings Usenix Workshop on Hot Topics in Systems Dependability, Measures the frequency with which an eventually consistent key-value store actually provides strong consistency and reports that consistency violations are rare. 14

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