1 ESP Employment Status: A Nineteen-Year Survey By Vicki J. Rosser Vicki J. Rosser is a professor and higher education program coordinator in the Department of Educational Psychology and Higher Education, College of Education, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. She reviews manuscripts for more than ten refereed journals and is a consulting editor for Research in Higher Education and the Journal of Higher Education. Rosser writes extensively on administrative staff and faculty worklife, climate, morale, satisfaction, and retention. The National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES), a unit of the U.S. Department of Education, gathers human resource data on staff members at postsecondary institutions. Data accumulation is mandatory every other year; reporting between the required years is voluntary. Postsecondary staff members are defined by their primary function and occupational activity. NCES uses these position classifications: instruction/research/public service, executive/ administrative/managerial, graduate assistants, support/service, technical/paraprofessional, clerical/secretarial, skilled crafts, and service/maintenance. Five of these NCES occupational categories are classified as educational support professionals (ESPs): support/service, clerical/ secretarial, technical/paraprofessional, skilled crafts, and service/maintenance. 1 ESPs, the largest employment group among postsecondary staff members, are often the first to face our students, colleagues, and the public. 2 They are often called the backbone of the institution. 3 Workers in the other categories come and go, but ESPs work long hours, remain on the job for many years, retain institutional memory, and contribute to the efficient and effective functioning of their units and their colleges. 4 This essay provides the latest data on ESP workforce composition. It breaks down the data by institutional control (public or private), gender, race and ethnicity, and occupation. The essay then traces 19 years of ESP employment ebb and flow by position classification. CURRENT STATUS The latest available NCES data show that 1,659,102 ESPs worked in U.S. postsecondary institutions in Fall 2011 (Figure 1). 5 The breakdown by category: support/service (755,660 or 46 percent), clerical/secretarial (413,222 or 25 percent), service/maintenance (233,388 or 14 percent), technical/paraprofessional (195,726 or 12 percent), and skilled crafts (61,106 or four percent).
2 114 THE NEA 2013 ALMANAC OF HIGHER EDUCATION Figure 1. Percent of Education Support Professionals (ESP) by Occupation: Fall % (233,388) 4% (61,106) Support/Service 46% (755,660) 25% (413,222) 12% (195,726) Source: U.S. Department of Education, Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall Figure 2. Percentage Distribution of ESP Staff by Occupation, Public Institutions: Fall % (157,464) 4% (46,085) Support/Service 45% (516,224) 24% (276,276) 13% (146,035) Source: U.S. Department of Education, Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2011.
3 ESP EMPLOYMENT STATUS: A NINETEEN-YEAR SURVEY 115 In Fall 2011, 1,142,084 ESPs worked in public institutions (Figure 2). The percentage distribution by category resembles the overall breakdown: support/service (516,224 or 45 percent), clerical/secretarial (276,276 or 24 percent), service/maintenance (157,464 or 14 percent), technical/paraprofessional (146,035 or 13 percent), and skilled crafts (46,085 or four percent). Private institutions employ fewer ESPs (517,018; Figure 3), but the occupational categories follow a similar percentage distribution: support/service (239,436 or 46 percent), clerical/secretarial (136,946 or 26 percent), service/ maintenance (75,924 or 15 percent), technical/ paraprofessional (49,691 or ten percent), and skilled crafts (15,021 or three percent). NINETEEN-YEAR TRENDS Four ESP categories showed decreases in employment numbers and percentages between 2009 and 2011 (Figure 4): technical/paraprofessional (2,648 or -1.3 percent), service/ maintenance (2,182 or -0.9 percent), skilled crafts (2,129 or -3.4 percent), and clerical/secretarial (14,900 or -3.5 percent). The support/ service category showed a hiring increase of 23,407 employees or 3.2 percent. The total decrease in employees (21,859) from the four ESP categories showing a decline virtually offsets the increase gained in support/service. The ESP category overall experienced negligible growth between 2009 and Figure 4 also presents employment trends over the past 19 years, broken down by ESP occupational category ( ). 6 The trend in employment of support/service and clerical/secretarial workers diverged over these years. Support/service employees increased by 317,619 or 77.7 percent, while clerical/secretarial employees decreased by 12,097 or 5.7 percent. Relevant research suggests that hiring part-time or temporary employees, state mandated cost reductions, and merging and consolidating departments had a profound effect Figure 3. Percentage Distribution of ESP Staff by Occupation, Private Institutions: Fall % (75,924) 3% (15,021) Support/Service 46% (239,436) 26% (136,946) 10% (49,691) Source: U.S. Department of Education, Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2011.
4 116 THE NEA 2013 ALMANAC OF HIGHER EDUCATION Figure 4. Number of ESP Staff by Year: Fall 1993 through Fall 2011 Number of ESPs 800, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,222 Support/ Service 300, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,726 64,056 64,583 64,882 65,544 65,263 61,548 61,955 62,460 63,235 61, Year Sources: U.S. Department of Education, Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 data files, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, , E.D. Tab, May 2005; Johnsrud and Banaria, 2005, on clerical/secretarial staff members. 7 By contrast, increases in state and federal reporting requirements, and in human and special services resulted in an increase in support/service employees on college and university campuses. 8 Employment in the technical/paraprofessional category grew by more than any other category between 1993 and 2011 (11,739 or 6.4 percent). But the number of employees in this category decreased since 2001 (9,480 or 4.6 percent). This decrease may have resulted from the implementation of campus wide Enterprise Resource Planning systems by 2002 to reduce technology costs. 9 The number of service/maintenance employees increased slightly (4,156 or 1.8 percent) little gain in actuality. The skilled craft category showed a decrease of 2,950 or 4.6 percent over the 19-year period. The negligible growth in service/maintenance and the decline in skilled crafts over time suggests the continual outsourcing of these highly skilled professions. 10 PART-TIME STATUS The number of part-time ESP positions decreased by 2,019 (-0.7 percent; Figure 5) between 2009 and 2011: technical/paraprofessional 1,953 (-4.7 percent), clerical/secretarial 2,065 (-2.2 percent), skilled crafts 98 (-3.8 percent), and service/maintenance 1,003 (-2.6 percent). The support/service category showed a 3.1 percent increase, or 3,100 employees. These results reflect the downward trend in part-time ESP employment. The number of part-time positions decreased by 7,181 or 2.5 percent since GENDER In 2011, males continued to outnumber females in two categories: service/maintenance (men=63.7 percent, women=36.3 percent) and skilled crafts (men=94.1 percent, women=5.9 percent). Women were employed in greater proportions in the other three categories (Figure 6): clerical/secretarial (women=85.0 percent,
5 ESP EMPLOYMENT STATUS: A NINETEEN-YEAR SURVEY 117 Figure 5. Number of Part-Time ESP Staff: Fall 1999 to Fall 2011 Number of Part-Time ESP Staff 120, ,000 80,000 60,000 40, ,000 0 Support/ Service Sources: U.S. Department of Education, Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 data files, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, , E.D. Tab, May 2005; Johnsrud and Banaria, 2005, Figure 6. Percentage of ESP Staff, by Gender and Occupation: Fall 2011 Support/ Service 39.2% 60.8% 41.4% 58.6% Male Female 15.0% 85.0% 94.1% 5.9% 63.7% 36.3% Percentage of ESP Staff Source: U.S. Department of Education, Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2011.
6 118 THE NEA 2013 ALMANAC OF HIGHER EDUCATION men=15.0 percent), technical/paraprofessional (women=58.6 percent, men=41.4 percent), and support/service (women=60.8 percent, men=39.2 percent). Table 1 presents changes in ESP staffing by gender and employment category. The number of women employees in the service/maintenance category decreased by 2.8 percent between 2009 and The number of men remained the same (+0.2 percent). Three categories showed greater declines for women than for men. The skilled crafts category showed a decrease for women and men (-13.7 percent and -2.6 percent, respectively). The decreases in the clerical/secretarial category were -4.0 percent for women and -0.6 percent for men. The respective decreases for women and men in the technical/paraprofessional category were -1.8 percent and -0.7 percent. The only ESP category to show increases for women and men is support/service: 3.9 percent and 2.1 percent, respectively. NEW HIRE STATUS The number of ESP new full-time hires by degree-granting institutions in 2011 remained well below 2007 levels in all categories (Table 2). Total new full-time hires decreased by 10,936 or 13.2 percent (from 83,098 to 72,162) during this period. secretarial positions showed the largest numerical decrease (5,453 or percent), followed by service/ maintenance (2,349 or percent), skilled crafts (272 or percent), support/service (1,393 or percent), and technical/paraprofessional (1,469 or percent). Table 1. Number, and Percentage Change in Number, ESP Staff, by Gender and Occupation: Change: Change: Occupation to 2011 to , , , , , , , , , , % -0.9% Female 88,168 86,183 84,791 85,087 90,406 83,795 83,957 86,926 87,258 84, Male 141, , , , , , , , , , ,065 64,583 64,882 65,544 65,263 61,548 61,955 62,460 63,235 61, Female 4,164 4,089 4,498 4,535 4,743 4,259 3,948 3,871 4,178 3, Male 59,901 60,494 60,384 61,009 60,520 57,289 58,007 58,589 59,057 57, , , , , , , , , , , Female 387, , , , , , , , , , Male 50,898 54,706 59,154 61,449 62,123 59,301 60,030 61,860 62,299 61, , , , , , , , , , , Female 110, , , , , , , , , , Male 73,241 75,996 75,882 80,472 84,047 78,520 78,367 78,359 81,617 81, Support/ Service 425, , , , , , , , , , Female 258, , , , , , , , , , Male 166, , , , , , , , , , Sources: U.S. Department of Education, Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 data files, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, , E.D. Tab, May 2005; Johnsrud and Banaria, 2005,
7 ESP EMPLOYMENT STATUS: A NINETEEN-YEAR SURVEY 119 Table 2. New Hires by Race/Ethnicity and Employment Category: Fall 2007, 2009, and 2011 American Non- Black, Indian, Asian, White, Two or Resident Non- Alaskan Pacific Non- More Alien Hispanic Native Islander Hispanic Hispanic Unknown Races a Total Fall 2007 Number Support/Service 2,355 4, ,163 2,209 26,430 1,975 40, , , , , ,069 12, , , , , ,493 5, ,767 Totals 2,786 11, ,126 6,774 52,270 3,876 83,098 Percentage Support/Service 5.8% 10.6% 0.6% 7.8% 5.4% 65.0% 4.9% 100.0% Fall 2009 Number Support/Service 2,202 2, ,433 1,689 19,797 1, , , , , ,189 7, , , , , ,713 Totals 2,561 6, ,591 4,481 36,539 3, ,765 Percentage Support/ Service 7.1% 9.5% 0.6% 7.8% 5.4% 63.6% 5.9% 0.2% 100.0% Fall 2011 Number Support/Service 1,990 3, ,746 2,226 25,813 2, , , , , , ,418 9, , , , , ,004 4, ,418 Totals 2,317 8, ,109 5,462 46,574 3, ,162 Percentage Support/Service 5.1% 9.6% 0.5% 7.0% 5.7% 65.7% 5.4% 1.1% 100.0% Sources: U.S. Department of Education, Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2007, 2009, 2011 data files. a Category added to Race/Ethnicity options beginning in Fall 2008.
8 120 THE NEA 2013 ALMANAC OF HIGHER EDUCATION The modest increases in new ESP hires between 2009 and 2011 did not offset these declines. The total number of new ESP hires increased by 14,397 between 2009 and 2011 (from 57,765 to 72,162). All ESP classifications showed increases in new hires between 2009 and New jobs in support/service increased by 8,138 (from 31,141 to 39,279). The four remaining categories also showed increases: clerical/ secretarial=3,661 (from 11,206 to 14,629), service/maintenance=1,705 (from 6,713 to 8,418), technical/paraprofessional=768 (from 7,647 to 8,415), and skilled crafts=363 (from 1,058 to 1,421). RACE AND ETHNICITY Table 2 also reports new hires by race/ethnicity and ESP employment category. White ESPs were still the largest racial/ethnic group among the five occupational categories in 2011 (46,574, range=55.1 to 75.9 percent). The next four categories: Black ESPs (8,925, range=8.2 to 23.6 percent), Hispanics (5,462, range=5.7 to 11.9 percent), Asian and Pacific Islanders (4,109, range=1.1 to 7.9 percent), and Native Americans (476, range=0.5 to 1.1 percent). Then followed two or more races, a new category (787, range=0.6 to 1.3), non-resident aliens (2,317, range=0.4 to 5.1 percent), and unknowns (3,512, range=4.0 to 5.4 percent). All racial and ethnic categories showed decreases in the number of new full-time employees between 2007 and 2011: Blacks showed the largest percentage decrease (2,746 or 23.5 percent), followed by Asian and Pacific Islanders (1,017 or 19.8 percent), Native Americans (116 or 19.6 percent), Hispanics (1,312 or 19.4 percent), non-resident aliens (469 or 16.8 percent), Whites (5,696 or 10.9 percent), and unknowns (364 or 9.3 percent). The two or more races category, added in 2008, may have drawn its numbers from the unknown category. These reductions will affect position maintenance over the long term and continue to demoralize the remaining loyal, hard working professionals who must do much more with much less. 11 CONCLUSION Only one ESP classification support/service showed an increase in employees from 2009 to Decreases in the remaining ESP categories virtually wiped out the gain in support/service positions. paraprofessional employees showed a 6.4 percent increase from 1993 to 2011, but those increases quickly stalled as decreases began in earnest after Support/service showed a 77.7 percent increase from 1993 to The number of clerical/secretarial employees decreased by 5.7 percent over that period. Skilled crafts also showed a decrease (-4.6 percent) maintenance, the final ESP category reported little gain (1.8 percent). Needless to say, the up and down effect regarding hiring and position maintenance reflects where we stand regarding the inconsistent flow of financial support from local and state economies. NOTES 1 U.S. Department of Education, Johnsrud and Rosser, Rosser, Rosser, U.S. Department of Education, Johnsrud and Banaria, Rosser, Johnsrud and Rosser, Kvavik and Katz, 2002, Swartz and Orgill, Johnsrud, Rosser, 2010, REFERENCES Johnsrud, L.K. Higher Education Staff: Bearing the Brunt of Cost Containment. The NEA 2000 Almanac of Higher Education, Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 2000, and J. Banaria, Higher Education Support Professionals: Trends in Demographics and Worklife Perceptions. The NEA 2005 Almanac of Higher Education, Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 2005,
9 ESP EMPLOYMENT STATUS: A NINETEEN-YEAR SURVEY 121 and V.J. Rosser, eds. Understanding the Work and Career Paths of Midlevel Administrators. New Directions for Higher Education, Series No. 111, 28 (3). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Kvavik, R.B. and R.N. Katz, The Promise and Performance of Enterprise Systems. Research Study from the EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research (ID ERS0204). Retrieved March 15, 2011, from PerformanceofEnte/1, 2002, Rosser, V.J. How Did You Hear That You Might Lose Your Job? The NEA 2012 Almanac of Higher Education, Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 2012, Education Support Professionals: Employment Status and Financial Exigency. The NEA 2011 Almanac of Higher Education, Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 2011, ESPs: Job Protection Issues. The NEA 2010 Almanac of Higher Education, Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 2010, ESPs: Professional Development Opportunities. The NEA 2006 Almanac of Higher Education, Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, Swartz, D. and K. Orgill, Higher Education ERP: Lessons Learned. Educause Quarterly, 20 (2), 2001, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Staff in Postsecondary Institutions: Fall 2011 and Student Financial Aid, Academic Year NCES Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, August, 2012.
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