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1 1GeometricDataAnalysisinaSocialScienceResearch Program:TheCaseofBourdieu'sSociology. CURAPP,UniversitedePicardieJulesVerne-CNRS,UMR6054 FredericLebaron CONTENTS 1.6Conclusion:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::15 1.1Introduction::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1.2BourdieuandStatistics::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1.3FromMultidimensionalitytoGeometry:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1.4InvestigatingFields::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1.5ASociologicalResearchProgram::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Introduction ThereisanessentialaspectofPierreBourdieu'sworkthathasbeensomewhatneglected bythosewhohavewrittenabouthistheory,thatishisconstantconcernforquantifyinghis datamaterialandforputtinghisthinkinginmathematicalterms1.thischapterprovides leastfromladistinction[6]onward:namelythegeometricmodelingofdata,basedon GeometricDataAnalysis. landmarksforthisaspect,andoutlinesthesolutionthatwasretainedbybourdieu,at 1991).Bourdieu'sprogramforquanticationisnotanarbitraryresultofhistoricalcontingencies,butthelogicalconsequenceofasetofcriticalexperiencesandreectionsabout theshortcomingsofdominantquantitativeapproachesinsocialsciences,whichledhim myviewconstitutessocialreality.itisaprocedurethat`thinks'inrelations,asitryto doitwiththeconceptofeld"(forewordofthegermanissueoflemetierdesociologue, thinkthatitisessentiallyarelationalprocedurewhosephilosophyfullyexpresseswhatin AsBourdieurmlyexpressed:\IuseCorrespondenceAnalysisverymuch,becauseI conceptionofthesocialworld. toaconsciousandsystematicmovetowardageometricframe{modelmoreadaptedtohis isbothquanticationandformalization),whichleadhimtothechoiceofgeometricmodeling ofdatathroughtheuseofcorrespondenceanalysis(ca)andmultiplecorrespondence Analysis(MCA).Inasecondpart,westresstheroleofmultidimensionalityinthisprocess, withtheexampleofl'anatomiedugo^ut[13]andladistinction[6].inathirdpart,we Inarstpart,werapidlydescribeBourdieu'slife{longcommitmentintostatistics(that throughgda,withtheexampleofanarticlecalledlepatronat[14](frenchcompany showthatthenotionofeldasitisdevelopedbybourdieuisconstantlymadeoperational 2008[30]. 1AversionoftherstpartofthistexthasbeenpublishedinKarenRobsonandChrisSanders(eds) 5

2 ProgrambasedontheuseofGeometricDataAnalysis. Frenchpublishers,wetrytoinferfromBourdieu'spracticeageneralSociologicalResearch leaders).then,inalastparagraph,aftertheexaminationofhislastempiricalworkabout 6 Booktitlegoeshere cooperatedwithstatisticiansofthefrenchnationalinstituteofstatisticsandeconomic Studies(INSEE).Heparticularlydiditinlarge-scalelaborforcesurveysundertakenduringtheperiodoftheliberationwar(around1960).Bourdieuappliedhisanthropological 1.2BourdieuandStatistics Asearlyasthe\Algeriantimes"(thesecondhalfofthe1950s,Bourdieu,1958),Bourdieu employment(bourdieu,sayad,darbel&seibel1963[16];garcia2003[22];seibel2005 [35];Yassine,2008[36]). perspectivetothesociologicalinterpretationofsurveydata,especiallythestatisticsofungories.inl'amourdel'art,bourdieuanddarbel(1966[12])publishequationsofthedemandforculturalgoods,whereculturalcapitalmeasuredaccordingtothelevelofdiploma, isthemainvariableexplaininginequalitiesinaccesstomuseums.but,sincethattime, Bourdieuhasbeeninquestforamorestructuralconception. isminfrenchsocialsciencesinthe1960s,especiallywiththemodelsoflinguisticsand philosopherofscienceernstcassirer.thisneedisalsorooted,thoughnotexplicitly,in ofanthropologyaroundclaudelevi{strauss.forbourdieu,itisalsobasedontheoppositionbetween\substantialist"and\relational"conceptionsofreality,developedbythe Thisearly2needforamorestructuralconceptionrelatestotheinuenceofstructural- directedbyraymondaron),asreectedinthecontributiontolesheritiersbythestatisticianalaindarbel(bourdieu,passeron,1964[15]).darbelisassociatedwiththeepochmakingcalculationofthechancesofaccesstouniversityforthevarioussocialclasscate- Thiscollaborationcontinuedinthe1960sattheCentredeSociologieEuropeenne(then byjean-paulbenzecriandhisschoolaroundcorrespondenceanalysiswasemerging(see ferredtotheneedforscienticinstrumentswhichwouldbecapableatgraspingtherelational dimensionofsocialreality.meanwhile,thegeometricapproachofdataanalysisdeveloped thedynamicsofmathematicsundertheinuenceofbourbaki,whowasalsoanimplicit LeRoux&Rouanet2004[25];Rouanet2006[32]).Bourdieuhadbeenawareofitsincethe reference{frameforpecialistsofthehumanandsocialsciences.bourdieuhimselfoftenre- economists(darras1966[17]),bourdieuanddarbelevokethelimitsofregressiontechniques 1960s. insocialsciences.theyexplicitlyrefertoquasi{colinearityasanimportantshortcoming, buttheydevelopamoreepistemologicalcritique.socialcausalityamountstotheglobal eectsofacomplexstructureofinterrelations,whichisnotreducibletothecombinationof InachapterofLepartagedesbeneces,collectivebookwrittenwithstatisticiansand p.103):\theparticularrelationsbetweenadependentvariable(politicalopinion)andsocalledindependentvariablessuchassex,ageandreligion,tendtodissimulatethecomplete systemofrelationsthatmakeupthetrueprincipleoftheforceandformspecictothe eectsrecordedinsuchandsuchparticularcorrelation". in1960. the\pureeects"ofindependentvariables.asbourdieurmlystatesinladistinction([6] 2ArstversionofthefamoustextaboutLamaisonkabylestronglyinuencedbyLevi-Straussiswritten

3 GDAinaSocialScienceResearchProgram:TheCaseofBourdieu'sSociology 7 1.3FromMultidimensionalitytoGeometry Bourdieuverysoonreferredtowhathecallsdiversespeciesofcapital:economic,cultural,socialandsymbolic.Hisscienticobjective,withthistheoreticalapparatus,wasto counter{balanceapurelyeconomicvisionofsociety(symbolizedbymicroeconomiststrying toexpandthevalidityofeconomicmanlikegarybecker).itwasalso,atthesametime, tocontestapurelyidealisticvisionoftheculturaldomaindevelopedinculturalanthropology,structurallinguistics,literarystudiesorphilosophy,byintroducinganeconomyof symbolicgoods.hetriedtointegratedierentdimensionsofsociallifeintheperspectiveof a\generaleconomyofpractices"inlinewiththedurkheimianproject(lebaron2003[29]). Attheendofthe1960s,BourdieuturnedtoDataAnalysis,beingthemethodmostin \electiveanities"withhisowntheory(rouanetetal.2000[33]).hedevelopedtheidea thatif\quantication"istotakeplaceinsociologicalresearch,ithastobemultidimensional andtoaimasarststepatmakingoperationaleachofthebasicdimensionsofsocialspace, namelythevarioustypesofcapitals,e.g.economic,cultural,socialandsymbolic;thenext stepbeingtocombinethemsoastoprovideageometricmodelofdata. L'anatomiedugo^ut(Bourdieu&Saint-Martin1976[13])istherstpublishedapplicationofGeometricDataAnalysismethodsinBourdieu'swork,republishedin1979inLa distinction.thedatawerecollectedthroughasurveydoneontwocomplementarysamples, usingthesamebasicquestionnaire.thescienticobjectiveoftheworkwasrsttoprovide asyntheticvisionofthefrenchsocialspaceasaglobalstructure,andtostudytwosubsectorsmorein{depth:thespaceofthedominantclassesandthespaceofthemiddle{classes (\petite{bourgeoisie"),eachstudybeingbasedontheanalysisofanindividualsvariables table(takenfromtherespectivesub{population).ascanbeseenonthefigures1.1(p.8) and1.2(p.9),themainelementsofthegeometricmodelingofdatawerealreadypresent inthiswork,ashenryrouanet,wernerackermannandbrigittelerouxhaveprecisely showninanarticleofthebulletindemethodologiesociologique(rouanetetal.2000[33]). CAwasappliedtoanIndividualsVariablestable,whichwasacommonpracticeatthe time,whentheuseofmcawasnotyetdeveloped.thechoiceofactiveandsupplementary variableswassubtle:questionsonalargenumberoftastesandculturalpracticeswere takenasactivevariables;socio-demographicandoccupationalinformationwereusedas supplementaryelements;intherstpublication,theywereguredonatransparentwhich couldbesuperposedtotherstprincipalplanresultingfromtheca.thistechniqueof visualizationgivesanintuitionofthesociologicalrelationsbetweenthespaceoftastes (lifestyles)andthespaceofsocialpositions. Thecloudofindividualswaspresentinthepublishedanalysis:forspecicfractionsof thedominantclassesthedispersionofindividualswasmadeobviousthroughthecontoursof varioussubclouds(patrons,professionsliberales)drawnbyhand.thisiswhatwillbecalled later\structuringfactors":thecloudofindividualsissystematicallystructuredbyexternal factorsinlinewiththemethodologyofstructureddataanalysis(leroux&rouanet 2004[25]).Speciesofcapitalare\fundamentaldimensions"ofthespacetoinvestigate; theircombination,therstprincipaldimensionswhichareinterpreted,isaspecicresult ofeachanalysis.theresultingglobalsocialspacedescribedinladistinctionisthreedimensional:therstthreedimensionsareinterpretedintermsofthevolumeofcapital, compositionofcapital,andseniorityintheclass. Whenreferringtothespaceofthedominantclassesorthe\petite-bourgeoisie"(athen bi{dimensionalspace,the\volume"dimensionbeingcontrolled),thersttwoaxesare interpretedintermsofcapitalcomposition(axis1)andseniorityintheclass(axis2). Theanalysisresultsinastrongsociologicalstatementabouttheexistenceofastructural

4 homologybetweenthe\spaceoflifestyles"andthe\spaceofsocialpositions",bothbeing interpretedastwoaspectsofthesamesocialreality3.intherstprincipalplanoftheca ofthedominantclasses(figure1.1),onendsarstoppositionbetweenaneconomicand 8 Booktitlegoeshere theclass. anintellectualpoles(axis1)andasecondonerelatedtoageandindicatorsofseniorityin inladistinction(bourdieu1979[6]). FIGURE1.1 ThespaceoftheFrenchdominantclasses.Modalitiesandstructuringfactors(plane1-2), useofclassicalfactoranalysis,andthenotionofeld. quantitativedatainasynthesisofstatisticalinformation,whichisrelativelyclosetothe 1.4InvestigatingFields The\geometricmodelingofdata"wasapracticalwaytocombineobjecticationthrough oftheuniversalityoftheseresultsinother(nationalorhistorical)contexts.forscholarslikelennart Rosenlund(2009[31]),thiscongurationseemstobeaninvariantindevelopedcapitalistsocieties,where theoppositionbetweeneconomiccapitalandculturalcapitalhasbecomemorepronounced. 3Amongtoday'sresearchquestionsfollowingthisclassicalanalysiswecanmentionheretheproblem

5 GDAinaSocialScienceResearchProgram:TheCaseofBourdieu'sSociology 9 Saint-Martin1978[14]) FIGURE1.2 ThespaceoftheFrenchCEOs.Individuals(plane1-2),in\Lepatronat"(Bourdieu&de

6 systematicallyaddressestherelationalaspectsofsocialreality(bourdieu1966[4]).he morecompletelydevelopedhis\theoryofelds"inthebeginningofthe1970s(bourdieu 10Asearlyasinthemiddleofthe1960s,Bourdieuformulatedtheconceptof\eld",which Booktitlegoeshere 1971[5]).Aeldisasmalllocusinsidetheglobalsocialspace,whichisdenedbyits degreeofrelativeautonomyfromothereldsandtheglobalsociety,itsstructure,related toaspeciccongurationofagents,anditsdynamics.agentsinaeld,evenwithout aboutelds.biographicaldatawerecollectedinvariousbiographicalsources(directories, globalprocessofsocialdominationbetweenclasses. specicresourcesandbyacorrespondingprocessofdomination,whichisdistinctfromthe anydirectinteraction,areputintoobjectiverelations,denedbythedistributionoftheir Who'swho,etc.),inacollectiveprocessdirectlyinspiredbygrowingscienticpracticesin socialhistory(\prosopography",comingfromancientandmedievalhistory). Thenoveltyoftheseanalysesrstliesinthetypeofdatawhichwereusedinresearch helpofmca.inthisarticle,theauthorsjustifythecentraluseofmcaasawaytodiscover BourdieuanddeSaint-Martinstudiedapopulationofeconomicelites(n=216)withthe andrevealahiddenrelationalrealitywhichisnotconscious,butnevertheless\morereal" thanthepartialandpracticalperceptionsoftheagent(gdaas\ruptureinstrument"in ThesecondoccurrenceofauseofGDAbyBourdieuisawell{knownarticlewhere properties(fromdemographiccharacteristicstoeducationaltrajectory)andsomeofthem deningthevariousspeciesofcapitalatstake.themodalitiesweregroupedintodierent headings(groupsofquestions),withanimportantnumberofmodalitiesreferringtosocial forhishelpinafootnote.activemodalitieswereselectedfromasetofbiographicaldata, Bachelard'stradition).TheyusetheprogramMULTMfromL.Lebart,whoisthanked tomorespecicassetsintheeconomiceld(positionsinboards,distinctions,etc.).in particular,wereconsidered: Socialandfamilialorigin:professionofthefather,seniorityinclass,presenceinthe Demographicproperties:placeanddateofbirth,numberofchildren,placeofresidence; BottinMondain(adirectoryofsocialelites); Educationaltrajectory(i.e.\grandlyceeparisien"); Professionalcareer:(i.e.\grandcorps"); Specicpositionsintheeld:economicpowerpositions,membershiptocouncils,etc.; Indicatorsofsymboliccapital:ocialdistinctions,decorations,etc.; ofthesocialstructureoftheeld(figure1.2p.9).theinterpretedspace(figure1.3p.11) nomicelitemembers,helpingthereaderwho\knew"someagentstohaveadirectintuition Thecloudofindividualsintherstprincipalplanewaspublished,withthenamesofeco- Indicatorsofmembershiptomobilizedgroups(likeassociations). agerscomingfromecolenationaled'administrationorpolytechnique.thesecondaxis, againrelatedtotime,opposes\newcomers"and\established".thisanalysisprovidesa viewofthestructureoftheeldofeconomicelitesasbeingdenedbytherelationtothe \private"positionsandtrajectories,theeldbeingthendominatedbytechnocraticman- istwo-dimensional(athirdaxisisrapidlyevoked).therstaxisisopposing\public"to State(bureaucraticcapital)andbyaprocessofdynamiccompetitionbetweenfractions, rstdenedbytheirseniorityintheeld.thenew\generation"intheeldisforexample moreoftentrainedinprivatebusinessschools,orcertainengineerschools.anexplanatory perspectivewasalsopresentinthisanalysis,whichaimedatunderstandingthespaceof

7 GDAinaSocialScienceResearchProgram:TheCaseofBourdieu'sSociology 11 FIGURE1.3 ThespaceoftheFrenchCEOs.Cloudofmodalitiesinplane1-2,in\Lepatronat"(Bourdieu &desaint-martin1978[14]).

8 managerialstrategies(forexamplehumanresourcesstrategies)inrelationtotheirpositions intheeld,andmorelargely\reproductionstrategies"(marriage,fertility,etc.).inlanoblessed'etat[8],wherethisarticleisreproduced,thisanalysiswascombinedtoastudyof 12 Booktitlegoeshere structuralhomologiesbetweentheeldofpowerinwhichtheeconomiceliteisincluded, andtheeldof\grandesecoles"(highereducationinstitutions). TwootherusesofGDAtechniquestookplaceinaprosopographicalstudyaboutacademics infrancearound68(bourdieu1984[7])andinaneconomic{sociologicalstudyaboutthe ductedalongbourdieu'sline.ithasallowedbourdieuhimselftoexplorethemajorhy- pothesesofhistheorysuchas:\thepositions[inaeld]commandtheposition{takings". Sincethelate1970s,geometricmodelinghasbeenthebasisofallempiricalworkcon- in2001,bourdieureiterated([11]p.70):\thosewhoknowtheprinciplesofmultiplecorrespondenceanalysiswillgrasptheanitiesbetweenthismethodofmathematicalanalysis andthethinkingintermsofeld".tobecomplete,oneshouldaddthatbourdieu'scolleaguesandfollowershavemadeanintensiveuseofgdamethodssincethemiddleof eldofprivatehousing(bourdieu2000[10]).inhislastlectureatthecollegedefrance, AnnieVerger(artists),amongothers,havepublishedchaptersofbooksorarticlesbasedon MCAduringthe1980sandthersthalfofthe1990s. the1970s.lucboltanski(onmanagersand\denonciation"),remilenoir(demographers, familypolicy),patrickchampagne(frenchpeasants),moniquedesaint-martin(nobility), intensivelyusingcaandmcasincetheendofthe1980s.lennartrosenlund[31]was cleofgiselesapiroabouttheeldoffrenchwritersundergermanoccupationpublished educationarounddonaldbroadyandmikaelborjesson,inspiredbybourdieu'swork,were inactesdelarechercheensciencessocialesin1996.inparallel,swedishsociologistsof AnewgenerationofresearchbasedonGDAinthe1990swasmadevisiblebyanarti- the1990s.in1998,aconferenceincologne(germany)gavewaytoastrongnewalliance comesofthiscooperationwastheanalysespublishedinactesdelarechercheensciences betweenbourdieu,sociologistsreferringtobourdieu'ssociologicaltheoryandstatisticians interestedinbourdieu'stheorylikehenryrouanetandbrigitteleroux.amongtheout- simultaneouslyreplicatingbourdieu'sresultsaboutlifestylesinstavangerandnorwayin socialesabouttheeldofpublishersmentionedandillustratedbelow,andanarticleby Hjellbrekkeetal.(2007[23])puttingintopracticerecenttheoreticalandtechnicalinnovationsinGDA.OnecanalsoaddseveralarticlesandbooksbyLebaron(2001[28]),Duval (2004[21]),anddoctoralthesesbyDenord(2003[18]),Borjesson(2005[2]),Hovden(2008 Bourdieu'sschoolandquanticationinrecentyears).Recently,anarticleaboutlifestyles cooperationwithagroupofsociologistsincludingmikesavageandalanwarde(leroux [24])amongmanyotherapplications(whichcouldbetheobjectofanotherchapterabout intheukusingspecicmca,concentrationellipseswaspublishedbybrigittelerouxin etal.2008[27]). 1.5ASociologicalResearchProgram OnecaninferfromBourdieu'spracticeageneralprogrambasedontheuseofGDAin Cologneconferenceonthe"EmpiricalInvestigationofSocialSpaces"in1998,afterwhich lastpublicationusinggdamethodsbybourdieuhimself.theanalysiswererealizedin collaborationwithbrigittelerouxandhenryrouanet;thisworkwasjustfollowingthe 1999[9])canbeseenasthemoreup{to{dateversionofthisunderlyingprogram.Itisthe sociology.theexampleofhisarticle\unerevolutionconservatricedansl'edition"(bourdieu aco{operationbetweenbothgroupsofresearchersbegan.

9 (n=56activeindividuals).themainmethodusedwasspecicmca,atthattimeprogrammedinaddadbybrigittelerouxandjeanchiche.thistechnique,derivedfropaniespublishingliterarybooksinfrench,includingtranslationsfromforeignlanguages Thegeometricanalysiswasbasedonprosopographicaldatacollectedonasetofcom- GDAinaSocialScienceResearchProgram:TheCaseofBourdieu'sSociology 13 editorialassets,liketheimportanceofforeignliterature).asageneralrule,onecanstate (Q=16),Bourdieuchosevariousindicatorsofcapital(i.e.symbolic,economicandspecic damentalpropertiesofmca(leroux&rouanet2004[25],2010[26]).asactivequestions \junk"modalities)as\passive"modalitiesofactivequestions,withoutdestroyingthefun- MCA,allowstoputsomemodalitiesofactivequestions(forexampleno{informationor dimensionsofthesocialresourcesatstakeinthestudiedeldorspace. herethatthesociologisthastoproducethemostexhaustivelistoftheoreticallyfundamental 1:5 axe2 2=0:219(8%) 1:0 Languestraduites IndiceJurt AediteunprixNobelfrancais %detitrestraduits Aidedesministeres Datedecreation 0:5 0:0 1=0:484(18%) axe1 0:5 1: :5 0:0 0:5 1:0 LogicielsEyelid/LATEX-PsTricks 1:5 2:0 Aediteunmembredujuryd'unprix Aediteunprix(Goncourt,Femina,:::) Diuseurs Ilyaunediteurparmilesactionnaires Ventes(romans) Typedesociete Importance Nombredesalaries Localisation Ind.Jurt.:> salaries Vente:>400 Imp5>30kf pasd'anglais Etranger sarl Imp salaries Province Harm.Mundi >25% Vente:0 Vente:1-11Jury NobelEtr. PrixJury kf AutresDiff. non.editeur.act. Anglais&Eur.O ParisRG non. NobelEtr. Prix Seuil 5-10% 0-5% Imp3 sa&sadm Vente: salaries NobelFr % 0.5-4kf Interforum&Dil 8-20kf Anglaisseulaucunelangue Ang.&Eur.O+Autres ParisRD Editeur.Act salaries Hachette Paris5,6&7emes Imp4Vente:100a300 cde Ind.Jurt.: kf AediteunprixNobeletranger Ind.Jurt.:0 4-9salaries non.nobfr Imp2 FIGURE1.4 ThespaceofFrenchpublishers.Cloudofmodalitiesinplane1-2(Bourdieu1999[9]). andto\forecast"(onaqualitativebasis)thefuturedynamicsofthemarket(forexamplethe AEuclideanclusteringwasperformedinordertocharacterizesub{groupsofpublishers,

10 14 Booktitlegoeshere -1 0:5 0:0 0:5 1:0 1:5 2: :0 0:5 0:0 0:5 1:0 1:5 axe1 1=0:484(18%) axe3 3=0:177(6:5%) LogicielsEyelid/LATEX-PsTricks sa&sadm sarl salaries 4-9salaries 10-40salaries salaries salaries Imp1 Imp2 Imp3 Imp4 Imp5 0-5% 5-10% 10-25% >25% Harm.Mundi cde Seuil Hachette Interforum&Dil AutresDiff. 0kf 0.5-4kf 4-8kf 8-20kf >30kf Ind.Jurt.:0 Ind.Jurt.: Ind.Jurt.:>350 NobelFr. non.nobfr NobelEtr. NobEtr.non Prix Prix.non Jury Jury.non Vente:0 Vente:1-11 Vente: Vente:100a300Vente:>400 Editeur.Act. non.editeur.act. Anglaisseul Ang.&Eur.O+Autres Anglais&Eur.O pasd'anglais aucunelangue Paris5,6&7emes ParisRG ParisRD Province Etranger Typedesociete Importance Nombredesalaries Diuseurs Ilyaunediteurparmilesactionnaires Ventes(romans) Aediteunprix(Goncourt,Femina:::) Aediteunmembredujuryd'unprix Aidedesministeres Datedecreation IndiceJurt AediteunprixNobelfrancais Localisation %detitrestraduits Languestraduites AediteunprixNobeletranger FIGURE1.5 ThespaceoffrenchPublishers.Cloudofmodalitiesinplane1-3(Bourdieu1999[9]). concentrationprocesseswhichwouldreducethenumberofactors,thegrowingdomination oftheeconomicallyaggressivecommercialpublishers). Thesociologicalinterpretationinsistedonthe\chiasmatic"structureoftheeldofpublishers,witharstoppositionbetweenbigandsmallcompanies,andasecondonebetween acommercialpoleandaliterarylegitimatepole.thissecondaxisappearstobeinhomologywiththeclassicalcompositionaxisfoundinpreviousanalyses(theclassicaleconomy vscultureaxis).thethirdaxisrefersmoretothespecicimportanceoftranslationsand separatestwofractionsofthecommercialpole.sociologicalinterpretationsassessedthe relationsexistingbetweenpositions(relatedtothespeciccongurationofresources)and \position-takings"(editorialchoiceshere butitcouldalsobepolitical,literaryorscienticchoices,strategiesorcontents);inthisarticle,thiswasmainlybasedonqualitative commentsbasedonthecloudofindividuals. Aresearchprogrambasedonthisperspectivewouldaimat: Showingthestructureofaeldormorelargelyofaspecicsocialspaceconguration; fromastatisticalpointofview,descriptiveproceduresalwayscomerstandinference onlyinasecondtime;

11 GDAinaSocialScienceResearchProgram:TheCaseofBourdieu'sSociology 15 1:0ClassesdelaCAH classen1 classen2 classen3 classen4 axe2 2=0:219(8%) 0:5 AlbinMichel Seuil Flammarion Gallimard Chambon classen5 TempsQu'ijFait 0:0 Zulma&Picquier ClimatsComplexe PresenceAfricaine LianaLevi OmbresPlace VerdierVirag&Zoe Salvy Noir/Blanc Losfeld Aged'Homme Hamy Champvallon Nadeau DesFemmes MinuitGrasset Laont 1=0:484(18%) axe1 0:5 SerpentaPlumes Bourgois BallandMetailie Marval Autrement NilOlivier BellesLettresJulliardMercuredeFrance RamsayCarriereCorti RocherRivages ActesSud Belfond Defallois -1 TableRonde Phebus -1 0:5 0:0Lattes p.o.l. Denoel Plon 0:5StockCalmannLevy Fayard FIGURE1.6 ThespaceofFrenchpublishers.Cloudofindividualsinplane1-2(Bourdieu1999[9]). 1:0 LogicielsEyelid/LATEX-PsTricks 1:5 2:0 Showingstructuralhomologiesbetweendierenteldsorsocialspaces,whichhasto bebasedonappropriatestatisticalandsociologicalinterpretationsofaxes;dataanalysiscanbeseenhereasaninterpretativepracticewherestatisticalandsociological Determiningtherelativeautonomyofeldsorsocialspaces,whichrelatestothe tocumulateconvergingordivergingresults; useofcomparisonproceduresandof"causal"sociologicalhypotheses,e.g.aboutthe commentsmustconverge.thereisaneedformoresociologicalmeta-studiesinorder Studyingsub{spacesinsideamoreglobalspace;forthispurpose,classspecicMCA relationsbetweeneldsorspaces; Explainingsocialpractices(e.g.positiontakings);toquoteHenryRouanetquotinghimselfLudovicLebartandothers,oneshouldadmitthat\statisticsdoesn't (CSA)canbeanappropriateinstrument(LeRoux&Rouanet2010[26]); Assessingtheimportanceofvariouseects,especiallyeldeects;itcouldstillbe didates"forsociologicalexplanation); explainanything,butgivessomepossibleelementsofexplanation"(helpnding\can- Studyingthedynamicsofaeld;itcouldbeverymuchdevelopedthroughEuclidean verymuchdeveloped,giventhepossibilityofanintegrationofvarianceanalysisand RegressiontechniquesintotheframeofGDA,moreappropriatetothecontextof observationaldata; classicationand/oranappropriateuseofsupplementaryelementsor,evenbetter, structuringfactorsofthecloudofindividuals.

12 161:0 3=0:177(6:5%) axe3 Booktitlegoeshere Minuit 0:5 0:0Aged'Homme Flammarion Gallimard 0:5 Chambon Champvallon ClassesdelaCAH classen1 classen2 classen3 classen4 classen5 PresenceAfricaine Complexe DesFemmes TempsQu'ilFait LianaLevi Noir/Blanc Seuil Ombres VerdierVirag LosfeldPlace ClimatsSalvy 1=0:484(18%) axe1 Nadeau Hamy Picquier ZoeBalland BellesLettres Rocher Zulma Autrement Carriere TableRonde Lattes p.o.l. Julliard MercuredeFrance SerpentaPlumes Marval Metailie Bourgois OlivierPhebus Nil Ramsay CalmannLevy Rivages ActesSud CortiDenoel Plon AlbinMichel Grasset :5 0:0 Belfond Defallois Stock 0:5 1:0Fayard Laont FIGURE1.7 ThespaceofFrenchpublishers.Cloudofindividualsinplane1-3(Bourdieu1999[9]). LogicielsEyelid/LATEX-PsTricks 1:5 2:0 1.6Conclusion Bourdieuwasnotonlyconsciousoftheshortcomingsofthedominantquantitativemethods insocialsciences(especiallyregressionmethods),whichhediscoveredwithalaindarbel geometricmodelingofdata,whichhepractisedaround30years,fromthebeginningofthe sentedintermsofhypotheses,empiricaldataandresultsconrming orfailingtoconrm asearlyasinthe1960s.heconsciouslyfoundanalternativetothesemethodswiththe 1970suntilthelate1990s. hypotheses.neitherdidhealwaysclearlyseparatebetweensociologicalandstatisticalinterpretations,nordidhecompletelyformalizehistheoryofeldsandhissociologicalinterpretationofstatisticalanalysis.probably,thewayhisstatisticalpracticewasintegratedinto Bourdieudidnotapprovenorpracticetheusualrhetoricofscienticpublications,prethusiasticaboutthepossibilityoffutureintegrationofregressionintotheframeworkof mayndthistoregrettable. hissociologicalwritingdidnotencouragedialoguewithotherquantitativetraditionsand geometricdataanalysis. theclearunderstandingofwhathedidfromastatisticalpointofview.manyresearchers astrongempiricalsociologicalresearchprogram. ButBourdieuwasclearlyinsearchforageneralgeometricformalization;hewasen- Bourdieu'sadoptionofthegeometricmodelingofdatahasthereforeopenedaspacefor

13 Index capital,6,13 economic,7 social,7 cultural,6,7 C ClassSpecicAnalysis(CSA),15 cloudofindividuals,7,9,10,15,16 ofmodalities,11,13,14 symbolic,7 CorrespondenceAnalysis(CA),5 GeometricDataAnalysis(GDA),5,10,15 eld,5,8,10,14,15 GF MultipleCorrespondenceAnalysis(MCA), specic,12,13 5,10M regression,6s socialspace,7r structureddataanalysis,7 structure,6,10,15 17

14 18 Booktitlegoeshere

15 Bibliography [1]L`economiedelamaison.Actesdelarechercheensciencessociales,81{82,1990. [2]M.Borjesson.Transnationellautbildningsstrategiervidsvenskalrostenochbland [3]P.Bourdieu.Sociologiedel`Algerie.PUF,1958. tursociologi37,sec/ilu. avh.,disputationsupplaga,rapporterfrnforskningsgruppenfrutbildnings-ochkul- svenskastudenteriparisochnewyork.phdthesis,uppsalauniversitet,2005.ak. [4]P.Bourdieu.Champintellectueletprojetcreateur.LesTempsmodernes,(246):865{ [6]P.Bourdieu.Ladistinction.Critiquesocialedujugement.Minuit,1979. [5]P.Bourdieu.Lemarchedesbienssymboliques.L`Anneesociologique,22:49{126, ,1966. [7]P.Bourdieu.Homoacademicus.Minuit,1984. [9]P.Bourdieu.Unerevolutionconservatricedansl`edition.Actesdelarechercheen [8]P.Bourdieu.Lanoblessed`Etat.Grandesecolesetespritdecorps.Minuit,1989. [11]P.Bourdieu.Sciencedelascienceetreexivite.Raisonsd`agir,2001. [10]P.Bourdieu.Lesstructuressocialesdel`economie.Seuil,2000. sciencessociales,126{127:3{28,1999. [13]P.BourdieuandM.DeSaint-Martin.L`anatomiedugo^ut.Actesdelarechercheen [12]P.BourdieuandA.Darbel.L`amourdel`art.Minuit,1966. [14]P.BourdieuandM.DeSaint-Martin.Lepatronat.Actesdelarechercheensciences sociales,20{21:3{82,1978. sciencessociales,2(5):18{43,1976. [16]P.Bourdieu,A.Sayad,A.Darbel,andSeibelC.TravailettravailleursenAlgerie. [15]P.BourdieuandJ.-C.Passeron.Lesheritiers.Lesetudiantsetlaculture.Minuit,1964. [18]F.Denord.Geneseetinstitutionnalisationduneo-liberalismeenFrance(annees1930- [17]Darras.Lepartagedesbeneces.Minuit,1966. Minuit,1963. [19]A.Desrosieres.Unerencontreimprobableetdeuxheritages,pages209{218.Flammarion,2003.inP.EncreveetR.-M.Lagrave,TravailleravecBourdieu. 1950).PhDthesis,EHESS,2003.

16 [20]A.Desrosieres.Analysedesdonneesetscienceshumaines:commentcartographierle mondesocial?journalelectroniqued`histoiredesprobabilitesetdelastatistique, pages11{19,2008. Booktitlegoeshere [22]M.-F.Garcia-Parpet.Desoutsidersdansl`economiedemarche.PierreBourdieuetles [21]J.Duval.Critiquedelaraisonjournalistique.Lestransformationsdelapresse economiqueenfrance.seuil,2004. [23]J.Hjellbrekke,B.LeRoux,O.Korsnes,F.Lebaron,L.Rosenlund,andH.Rouanet. travauxsurl`algerie.awal,numerospecial"l`autrebourdieu",27{28:139{150,2003. [24]J.F.Hovden.ProfaneandSacred.AstudyoftheNorwegianJournalisticField.PhD thesis,universityofbergen,facultyofthesocialsciences,2008. TheNorwegianFielsOfPowerAnno2000.EuropeanSocieties,9(2):245{273,2007. [26]B.LeRouxandH.Rouanet.MultipleCorrespondenceAnalysisQASSnumber163. [25]B.LeRouxandH.Rouanet.GeometricDataAnalysis.FromCorrespondenceAnalysis SAGEpublications,2010. tostructureddataanalysis.kluwer,2004. [27]B.LeRoux,H.Rouanet,M.SavageandA.Warde.Classandculturaldivisioninthe [28]F.Lebaron.Economistsandtheeconomicorder.Theeldofeconomistsandtheeld ofpowerinfrance.europeansocieties,3(1):91{110,2001. UK.Sociology,42(6):1049{1071,2008. [29]F.Lebaron.EconomicModelsagainstEconomism.TheoryandSociety,32(5-6):551{ [31]L.Rosenlund.ExploringtheCitywithBourdieu.ApplyingPierreBourdieu`stheories [30]K.RobsonandC.Sanders.QuantifyingTheory:Bourdieu.Springer, ,2003. [32]H.Rouanet.TheGeometricAnalysisofIndividualsbyVariablestables,inGreenacre andblasius(eds):multiplecorrespondenceanalysisandrelatedmethods.chapman &Hall,2006. andmethodstostudythecommunity.vdmverlag,2009.forewordbyl.wacquant. [34]G.Sapiro.Laguerredesecrivains( ).Fayard,1999. [33]H.Rouanet,W.Ackermann,andB.LeRoux.Thegeometricanalysisofquestionnaires: thelessonofbourdieu`sladistinction.bulletindemethodologiesociologique,(65):5{ [35]C.Seibel.TravailleravecBourdieu.Awal,numerospecial"L`autreBourdieu",27{ 15,2000. [36]T.Yassine.Auxoriginesd`uneethnosociologiesinguliere,inP.Bourdieu.Seuil, :91{97,2005.

17 Index capital,6,13 economic,7 social,7 cultural,6,7 C ClassSpecicAnalysis(CSA),15 cloudofindividuals,7,9,10,15,16 ofmodalities,11,13,14 symbolic,7 CorrespondenceAnalysis(CA),5 GeometricDataAnalysis(GDA),5,10,15 eld,5,8,10,14,15 GF MultipleCorrespondenceAnalysis(MCA), specic,12,13 5,10M regression,6s socialspace,7r structureddataanalysis,7 structure,6,10,15 21

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