Transducer Mounting and Test Setup Configurations. Rick Bono The Modal Shop

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1 Transducer Mounting and Test Setup Configurations Rick Bono The Modal Shop 1

2 Transducer Mounting Mechanical connection method Stud mount Adhesive mount Magnetic mount Press-fit friction mount Test parameter considerations Frequency range Mass loading 2

3 Mechanical Mounting: Impact on Frequency Range Hand Probe Dual Rail Magnet Flat Magnet Mounting Pad Adhesive Mount Stud Mount Sensitivity Deviation (db) ~ Ref. 100 Hz Log Frequency (Hz) 3

4 Stud Mount Transducers Best frequency response characteristics just like the manufacturer s cal labs Apply silicon grease at mating surface Requires surface preparation Proper torque recommended 4

5 Adhesive Mounting Supplies 5

6 Adhesive Mount Transducers Cyanoacrylate (superglue) Instant adhesive; strong, but still removable Gel vs liquid depends upon surface flatness Excellent frequency response characteristics 6

7 Adhesive Mount Transducers Petro wax (bees wax) Ultra convenient and simple Good for short term testing only Frequency response characteristics highly dependent upon surface prep and amount 7

8 Adhesive Mount Transducers Hot glue Allows attachment to poorly-mated surfaces Good for short term to mid term testing Frequency response characteristics poor, but generally good enough for modal apps 8

9 Adhesive Mount Transducers Dental cement / fast-cure epoxy Allows attachment to poorly-mated surfaces Pseudo-permanent attachment for reference transducer at shaker input location Use disposable mounting pad with stud 9

10 Magnetic Mount Transducers Extremely convenient High attraction forces allow for reasonable high frequency characteristics Available in dual-rail style for attachment to curved surfaces 10

11 Press-fit Mount Transducers Extremely convenient and efficient Designed specifically for low frequency (<1000 Hz) laboratory modal applications Cable base mounts adhesively, modal sensor mechanically attaches using electrical pins 11

12 Mounted Accelerometer Frequency Response Calibration Mounted Accelerometer Frequency Response Cyanoacrylate Sensitivity (mv/g) Hot Glue Putty Petrowax Stud (handtight w/out grease) Stud (w/ grease) Frequency (Hz) 12

13 Mass Loading Considerations Acquire FRF with a single accelerometer Mount a second accelerometer next to the first and re-acquire FRF Compare for measurable differences 13

14 Test Setup Considerations Understand goals/reasons for performing experimental modal analysis Troubleshooting or failure analysis Finite element model verification Finite element model correction Component substructure / system modeling 14

15 Test Setup Considerations Recognize the 4 primary assumptions of experimental modal analysis Observability Time Invariance (Stationarity) Linearity Maxwell s Reciprocity 15

16 Observability Assumption Response DOF must have adequate spatial resolution to represent the modes of interest Graphics from Agilent Application Note

17 Observability Assumption First bending beam with seven accelerometer measurement points 17

18 Observability Assumption If data acquired only at endpoints bending is not observable 18

19 Observability Assumption 19

20 Observability Assumption Forcing function(s) applied at input location(s) must adequately excite the modes of interest AVOID NODES! Graphic from Agilent Application Note

21 Modally-Tuned Impact Hammers as Pre- Test Tool for Evaluating Structures... 21

22 for Optimizing Reference Locations and Ensuring Observability Good Input Location Freq Resp 2:1 Freq Resp 2:1 40 dbg/lb DAT DAT Mag (db) Bad Input Location Hz 1 khz 22

23 for Determining Optimal Frequency Range Assure adequate spatial resolution to observe: - Important, dominant modes - Necessary modal density Empty Freq Resp 2:1 40 dbg/lb Mag (db) Hz 1.6 khz 23

24 for Testing Boundary Conditions Rule of Thumb: 5-10x separation between rigid body and flexible modes Graphic from Agilent Application Note

25 Time Invariance Assumption Test article (and its boundary conditions) must exhibit stationarity Parameter estimation algorithms assume consistent global modal properties throughout data set Environmental changes during data acquisition cause shifts in stiffness/damping properties resulting in measurable shifts in resonant frequencies Roving accelerometers to acquire data set results in variable mass loading on test article 25

26 Time Invariance Assumption DATA CONSISTENCY DATA CONSISTENCY DATA CONSISTENCY i.e. acquire entire data set simultaneously (single snapshot ) or at least as fast as possible 26

27 Time Invariance Assumption Test methodology to achieve best data consistency Simultaneous MIMO/SIMO testing Automated bankswitching Manual bankswitching Roving accelerometers Impact testing 27

28 Benefits of Bank-Switching No. of Test Configurations No. of Test Configurations No. of Test Configurations Simultaneous, 288 ch PreSetup Time Roving, 112 ch PreSetup Time Bank-switch, 288 to 112 ch PreSetup Time Acquisition Time Acquisition Time Acquisition Time Cost Estimate 1 9 hrs 17 min 60% 2 17 min 3 17 min 4 17 min Total Time Allotted Cost Estimate 1 3 hrs 6 hrs 17 min 40% 2 6 hrs 17 min 3 6 hrs 17 min 4 6 hrs 17 min Total Time Allotted Cost Estimate 1 9 hrs 5 min 100% 2 5 min 3 5 min 4 5 min Total Time Allotted 9 hrs 20 min 28 hrs 8 min 10 hrs 8 min 28

29 Bank-Switching Example Inputs: 2 vertical, 1 lateral, 1 skewed 29

30 Bank-Switching Example Response points: 17 patch panels, each bank of 16 accelerometers 30

31 Bank-Switching Example Bank-switch patches of data (3 x 96 ch) into smaller data acquisition system 31

32 Modular Cabling / Patch Panel System for Clean Setup Eases setup troubleshooting Eliminates messy rat s nest of cables Economical multi-conductor cabling 32

33 Time Invariance Assumption Roving accelerometers results in inconsistent global resonant frequencies due to variable mass loading on test structure Graphic from Agilent Application Note

34 Linearity Assumption Input and output characteristics remain proportional within measurement range Confirm using precisely controlled inputs from shaker(s) across a range force levels Impact testing technique poorly suited when dealing with nonlinear test structures 34

35 Electrodynamic Modal Shakers as Excitation Source for MIMO Allows best control of input forcing function to optimize frequency content and signal-tonoise ratio Through-hole armature greatly simplifies setup attachment to test structure 35

36 Through-Hole Armature Eases Setup Traditional shakers with tapped armature connection leave little tolerance since setup has tapped connection at both ends 36

37 Reciprocity Assumption Maxwell s Theory of Reciprocity states that FRF matrix is symmetric FRF between input A and output B is the same as output A and input B Confirm using multiple shaker locations and impedance heads for driving point measurement 37

38 Impedance Heads for Verifying Reciprocity Assumption Accelerometer built into preload stud of force transducer Freq Resp 2:1 Freq Resp 2:1 30 dbg/lb Mag (db) Hz 500 Hz 38

39 Other Pre-Test Considerations Free Boundary Conditions Shock Cord Foam Rubber Air Suspension 39

40 Other Pre-Test Considerations Fixed Boundary Conditions Realistic Boundary Conditions Match Impedance(s) at Boundaries Mass Loaded Boundary Conditions 40

41 Other Pre-Test Considerations Transducer selection Single axis vs triaxial package Sensitivity, measurement range & resolution Frequency range & mass 41

42 Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS, IEEE ) Identifies transducer (type, serial number, location) Stores calibration data Automates book keeping, reducing errors To ICP Supply TEDS Memory 4ma -5 V Uses reverse bias scheme to access digital memory 42

43 Other Transducer Setup Considerations Use PDA scanner with bar-coded TEDS transducers to ease bookkeeping 43

44 Final Channel Setup Definition Combine Data From Geometry, PDA, and TEDS Complete Test Set-up Information Defined in Universal Files Virtual Channel Table (1807) Channel Table (1808) Geometry (15) Parameter Stored In TEDS Stored In PDA Stored On Host (PC) Calibration X Model / Serial No. X X Direction X Node No. X X Meas. Ch. X Geometry X 44

45 Thank you for your time Any questions? 45

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