TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENTS IN ARGENTINA IMPACTS ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

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1 TRANSPORTATION INVESTMENTS IN ARGENTINA IMPACTS ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT I-TED 2014 INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTATION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE April 9-11, 2014 Dallas. Texas Haydée A. Lordi WORLD ROAD ASSOTIATON NACIONAL COMMITTEE- ARGENTINA ASOCIACIÓN ARGENTINA DE CARRETERAS

2 Contents Introduction Study Area Socioeconomic characterisation Demographic analysis Transport Infrastructure Diagnostic of Mobility Case Study : BRT La Matanza (Nacional Road Nº 3 Avda. Brig. General Juan Manuel de Rosas) Conclusions and recommendations

3 INTRODUCTION This presentation aims to show the scope of the research that I undertook in 2010, together with other professionals: Study of technological measures and applications to maximize the installed capacity of the transport system (Lordi, Ortiz, Russomanno and Bortolín), awarded first prize by the World Engineering Congress 2010 corresponding to the Chapter Large metropolis and its infrastructures. The main objective of the study was to provide a detailed analysis of the transport infrastructure in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (AMBA) in Argentina, and to propose solutions to optimize the existing system capacity, without resorting to strategies focused on expanding capacity, especially road capacity. The study bases its justification on the need to moderate transport s impacts to ensure sustainable transport in the AMBA. The research designates areas that warrant greater development and formulates the recommendation of encouraging development measures for the local context. Finally, it illustrates the application of the mentioned recommendations to a particular regional case study: Development of a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) on National Route Nº 3 La Matanza to Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Outcome of this study: The government of Argentina has recently received a loan from the World Bank to implement a 26 km modern bus passenger transport prioritization system in the Municipality of La Matanza, the largest BRT ever built so far in Argentina.

4 MOTIVATION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study assumes that urban mobility: - Is a basic necessity of individual. It is currently the fourth condition of social integration, after housing, health and education. - It is a collective right that all citizens are guaranteed equal conditions: without discrimination for gender, physical condition, mental state, age, social class or any other cause. (Article 13 of the Universal Declaration for Human Rights), therefore the state has the responsibility and obligation to guarantee reasonable levels of mobility for its citizens. The study aims to understand if urban transport is fulfilling its role as a vehicle of social inclusion in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (AMBA) and also to contribute towards correcting the imperfections in the transport supply market, that inevitably concentrates situations of social inequality, with the purpose of improving the quality of life of the population. For this a diagnostic of people s mobility was performed in the area of influence of the AMBA, beginning with defining the corridors, zones and the infrastructures linked to current transport services, identifying the population sectors that do not have equal access opportunities.

5 STUDY FOCUS AND JUSTIFICATION The approach is based on two thematic areas of intervention: a) the adoption of Transportation Demand Management (TDM, also called Mobility Management) that is a general term for strategies that result in more efficient use of transportation resources(victoria Transport Policy Institute, Todd Litman) b) the implementation of transport systems technologies ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) (Both without resorting to increased capacity as a mechanism to reduce congestion) There exists a professional academic consensus about the severity of the impacts of traffic congestion on the competitiveness, social and economic development, and environmental health of cities and about the inappropriate adoption of solutions that focus on expanding capacity, in environments that have reached a determined degree of maturity in infrastructure development of the transport system, due to the tendency to drift into what is known as the Mogridge Paradox, that postulates that increasing the capacity of access motorways triggers a regressive cycle that generates intensified congestion problems compared to the previous situation, which leads to disinvestment in public transport infrastructure) Justification: The study bases its justification in the current mobility crisis in the AMBA area, the scarcity of economic resources and the lack of available land for a substantial expansion of the regional transport system infrastructure.

6 STUDY AREA Surface Area: km² ARGENTINA Population: inhabitants (Urban Population: 87%) Political Organization: Federal Republic with 24 autonomous Provinces. Average Density: 10,7 inhab/km² Fleet: 11,5 Million (Increment 85% 2010/2001). Road Fatalities: annual/ decade average

7 STUDY AREA To avoid any confusion, given that different terminology exists to define the urban area that delineates the City of Buenos Aires, we have taken into account the definitions formulated by the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INDEC). Autonomous City of Buenos Aires or Buenos Aires City (CABA), federal district traditionally referred to as Capital Federal. Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (AMBA) : Buenos Aires City plus the 24 Municipalities of the Province of Buenos Aires(Gran Buenos Aires -GBA). Metropolitan Region of Buenos Aires (MRBA) : The strong interrelations that the agglomerations have with the metropolis, shown by the daily movement of the population, constitutes what is known as the Metropolitan Region of Buenos Aires (RMBA). The work carried out looks at the RMBA made up of the City of Buenos Aires and 41 municipalities, which extend towards the northeast to Zarate and towards the west, south and southeast, to Provincial Route Nº6. Sectors (Coronas) : The RMBA is divided into sectors 1, 2 y 3 to reflect the different socio economic characteristics of the area as we move away from the center of the City of Buenos Aires.

8

9 AUTONOMOUS CITY OF BUENOS AIRES OR BUENOS AIRES CITY (CABA), FEDERAL DISTRICT

10

11 METROPOLITAN REGION OF BUENOS AIRES (MRBA) SECTORS (CORONAS) 1, 2 AND 3

12 To understand mobility in the Study Area it has been necessary to define transport corridors, which would allow an evaluation of the degree of the functional and structural relation as much between each other and Capital Federal, as between corridors. These have been defined according to the information obtained from INTRUPUBA surveys. CORREDORES DE TRANSPORTE POR CORONA MOVILIDAD URBANA EN EL AMBA LA MATANZA FORMS PART OF THE SOUTHWEST CORRIDOR IN SECTORS 1 & 2 (LA MATANZA I Y LA MATANZA II)

13

14 RESEARCH INTO URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF BUENOS AIRES (INTRUPUBA) The INTRUPUBA research looks exclusively at public transport modes, prioritized by socioeconomic levels (suburban rail services, and public passenger transport). It encompasses the territory made up of the City of Buenos Aires and 27 Municipalities of the Province of Buenos Aires. In the INTRUPUBA three type of studies were performed: Passenger count: a quantitive sample that yielded information about the number of users. Surveys: qualititive analysis of over 300 thousand passenger surveys. Investigation of transport service: description of transport service supply

15 Fuente: INTRUPUBA Secret.de Transporte de la Nación

16 STUDY AREA: TRANSPORT ZONES & CORRIDORS AREA DE ESTUDIO TIGRE SAN FERNANDO JOSE C PAZ MORENO MALVINAS ARGENTINAS SAN MIGUEL HURLINGHAM ITUZAINGÓ MORON GRAL SAN MARTIN 3 DE FEBRERO SAN ISIDRO VICENTE LOPEZ CORREDORES MACROCENTRO-CBA NOROESTE NORTE OESTE SUDESTE MERLO LA MATANZA 1 21 LANUS AVELLANEDA SUDOESTE SUR LOMAS DE ZAMORA QUILMES LA MATANZA 2 BERAZATEGUI EZEIZA ESTEBAN ECHEVERRIA ALMIRANTE BROWN PRESIDENTE PERON FLORENCIO VARELA Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA) plus 25 Municipalities, which make up the 26 classified transport zones, in 2 Sectors (1 & 2) & in 7 Corridors

17 STUDY AREA - SOCIO ECONOMIC CHARACTERISATION The Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, is the most important urban region in Argentina, no only due to the population concentration but also because of the high quality services and equipment. The economic importance of the Study Area exceeds its geographic extension, as its economy represents approximately 40% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country, and Industrial GDP 1% of the surface of the country. Its territory is home to around more than 14 million inhabitants, approximately 34% of the total Argentine population (41 million) and has an average density of 2,390 inhabitants per Km². AMBA extends over 3,627 Km² which represents approximately 0.15% of the total surface area of the country. 45% of all manufacturing activities, 38% of commercial establishments, 44% of service establishments and 34% of financial institutions are concentrated within the AMBA.

18 STUDY AREA - SOCIO ECONOMIC CHARACTERISATION The transformations that AMBA is experiencing are principally caused by the following factors: Urban population growth Globalization of the economy New approaches to productive processes Greater investment demands in infrastructure Changes in corporate culture and workforce organization Trends towards a more fragmented social model Marked institutional changes.

19 SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE STUDY AREA Integrantes del hogar que poseen cobertura de salud-colectivo Todos Alguno Ninguno Sudeste 59,7% 20,9% 19,4% Sur 57,8% 21,8% 20,4% Sudoeste 54,6% 23,1% 22,3% Oeste 62,8% 19,7% 17,4% Noroeste 60,5% 21,4% 18,1% Norte 69,3% 18,0% 12,6% Macrocentro 72,2% 16,1% 11,7% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

20 SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE STUDY AREA Cantidad de vehículos particulares por hogar-colectivo Ninguno 1 vehículo 2 vehículos o más Sudeste 80,7% 18,4% 0,9% Sur 81,8% 17,4% 0,9% Sudoeste 84,2% 15,1% 0,8% Oeste 79,4% 19,4% 1,1% Noroeste 80,1% 18,7% 1,2% Norte 74,8% 23,1% 2,1% Macrocentro 74,1% 23,8% 2,1% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

21 SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE STUDY AREA 7 Alto 2,6% INDICEDE NIVEL SOCIOECONOMICO (INSE) 1,7% 8,2% 6 Medio Superior 7,9% 6,2% 17,0% 5 Medio Típico 25,7% 20,7% 32,2% 4 Medio Inferior 34,9% 43,4% 30,9% Ferrocarril Colectivo 3 Bajo Superior 17,4% 19,7% 8,5% Subterráneo 2 Bajo Medio 8,7% 7,8% 2,6% 1 Bajo Inferior 2,7% 0,5% 0,6% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

22 SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE STUDY AREA MOTIVO DE VIAJE Otros 7,1% 9,8% 7,1% Amigos, Familia, Social y Culto 5,5% 6,4% 2,5% Deportes, Recreación y Gastronomía 2,5% 3,2% 2,6% Compras Salud 3,0% 4,0% 4,6% 4,1% 2,5% 3,0% Ferrocarril Colectivo Subterráneo Estudio 7,3% 6,9% 9,8% Trabajo 70,3% 64,9% 72,5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

23 DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

24 APPROXIMATELY 15 MILLON INHABITANT IN THE STUDY AREA IN 2030 Año Total CABA Total Corona 1 Total Corona 2 Total Área de Estudio Año CABA CORONA 1 CORONA ,1% 42,6% 33,3% ,5% 41,8% 34,7% ,9% 41,1% 36,0% ,3% 40,3% 37,4% ,8% 39,5% 38,7% Crecimiento de Población respecto a 2001 Área de Estudio 23,7% Proyecciones de Población Área de Estudio 18,9% ,5% 10,3% 6,4%

25 TOTAL POPULATION PROJECTS IN THE STUDY AREA SECTOR PERIOD (30 JUNE EACH YEAR) CORONA 1 CRECIMIENTO POBLACIÓN POR CORREDOR Varic. % resp Noroeste Norte Oeste Sudoeste Sudeste Sur CORREDO R Noroeste Norte Oeste Sudoeste Sudeste Sur CORONA ,1 % 1,8% 2,4% 3,1% 3,8% 0,3 % 0,5% 0,6% 0,8% 1,0% 1,9 % 3,0% 4,1% 5,4% 6,7% 8,9 % 14,2 % 19,8 % 25,7 % 31,8 % 1,7 % 2,7% 3,7% 4,7% 5,8% 1,8 % 2,9% 4,0% 5,1% 6,2% IN SECTOR 1, THE HIGHEST POPULATION GROWTH IN 2001 RATE OCURRED IN THE SOUTHWEST CORRIDOR, CORRESPONDING TO THE MUNICIPALITY OF LA MATANZA

26 TOTAL POPULATION PROJECTIONS IN THE STUDY AREA SECTOR PERIOD (30 JUNE OF EACH YEAR) CORREDORES CORONA 2 Y 3 Variac.% Población resp Año Noroeste Norte Oeste Sudoeste Sudeste Sur ,5% 9,7% 15,8% 18,2% 12,1% 14,3% ,8% 15,6% 25,7% 29,9% 19,8% 14,4% ,6% 21,8% 36,4% 42,8% 28,1% 14,5% ,2% 28,4% 48,1% 57,1% 37,0% 14,6% ,4% 35,3% 60,7% 73,0% 33,5% 4,7% Noroeste Norte Oeste Sudoeste Sudeste Sur THE CORRIDORS WITH THE HIGHEST POPULATION GROWTH LEVELS ARE THE SOUTHWEST, WEST AND NORTHEAST. THE LOWEST GROWTH RATES WERE RECORDED IN THE SOUTHEAST AND SOUTH.

27 The Municipality of La Matanza is located in the center-west of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (AMBA), having the "most widespread borders" between the municipalities that make up the Buenos Aires conurbation extending to the 3º sector whose boundary is the Provincial Highway No. 6 CABA HAB LA MATANZA HAB TOTAL HAB PARTIDOS G. BSAS HAB

28 TOTAL POPULATION PROJECTION IN THE STUDY AREA SOUTHWEST CORRIDOR LA MATANZA PERIOD (30 JUNE OF EACH YEAR) CORONA 1 -CORREDOR SUDOESTE Variac.% Población resp ,78% ,66% ,82% ,25% 2015 La Matanza I+II Total Corredor Sudoeste 8,94% 2010 IN THE SOUTHWEST CORRIDOR, OF WHICH THE MUNICIPALITY OF LA MATANZA FORMS PART, WILL EXPERIENCE IMPORTANT GROWTH LEVELS.

29 TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AMBA has terrestrial transport infrastructure made up from road networks and railways disposed, generally, radially with respect to the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. On the railway infrastructure there are wide diversity of metropolitan public transport services The transport system is made up by diverse mass and individual modes that supported by the infrastructure (motorways, avenues, transit centres, roads and streets) allow the mobility of people either cars, buses, trains, underground, motorbikes, bicycles or on foot. Urban public transport : 369 bus services operate under national, provincial and municipal jurisdiction Railway lines: 7 metropolitan railway lines operate under national jurisdiction, all starting their trajectory in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA) and with the larger part of their extension in Greater Buenos Aires. 828Km - 20% electrified Underground Network: 6 lines (51.2Km) Tram Lines: One lines with two branches operatin as a pre-metro (jurisdiction of the Government of the City of Buenos Aires) 7.4Km River Transport ferry boats: 6 lines with 24 branches

30 DIAGNOSTIC OF MOBILITY Although it is possible to assert that the land transport infrastructure is quantitatively important and extensive, serious problems are evident: Deficient mobile and fixed infrastructure (particularly in the rail system) An overly radial layout in detriment to transversality Inadequate modal distribution of public transport (dominated by the automobile). A high dependency on private vehicles provokes higher congestion levels, contamination and a larger quantity of accidents, including those involving pedestrians A clear inequality in the geographic provision of modes of mass public transportation If we divide the AMBA into two zones using the northern limit of the municipality of La Matanza (that spans both sectors), in the northern zone lives 45% of the population and it produces 55% of the journeys to and from CABA, while in the southern zone the proportions are inverted. When the modal distribution is analysed, bus journeys maintain proportionality with the population, while the largest difference appears in rail transport where 2/3 parts of the journeys correspond to the northern zone.

31 METHODOLOGY To find out if the AMBA transport network satisfies the basic pattens of mobility and accessibility it was necessary to answer, among others, the following questions: How many public transport users are there and who are they? Which part of the population is the most vulnerable according to age, education, income, that would use public transport? Is public transport fulfilling it s role in relation to the expansion that is ocurring in territorial and demographic terms? How are service quality levels? Who are the users that most benefit and who are the most vulnerable? Which journeys are made and how many times, in what periods and by which modes of transport? Are the infrastructure and the transport services responding to the demand or are they producing inequalities?

32 Diagnostic of Mobility INEQUIDAD EN LA DISTRIBUCIÓN GEOGRÁFICA DEL SERVICIO DE TRANSPORTE PUBLICO 45% POB 55% VIAJES 45% VIAJES- BUS 67% VIAJES- TREN 55% POB 45% VIAJES 55% VIAJES- BUS Densely populated municipalities like La Matanza, remain relegated with the minimum participation in relation to its population. Municipalities like La Matanza or Florencio Varela are virtually devoid of mass transport services, like rail From the 2nd sector La Matanza, in particular, generates only 2% of TRAIN journeys to CABA From la Matanza, 2º sector, journeys to CABA by bus are difficult due to the extensive routes within CABA to arrive at the macro centre. 33% VIAJES- TREN

33 DIAGNOSTIC OF MOBILITY VIAJES ANUALES (%) 41% 16% 43% TREN BUS - SUBGRUPO 1 AUTOMOTOR PRIVADO PAX-KM(%) 46% 22% 32% TREN BUS - SUBGRUPO 1 AUTOMOTOR PRIVADO 33

34 With regard to the zones of origin of the journey entering CABA by BUS, it can be seen that where it refers to journeys from 1º sector, the municipality of La Matanza, is in 1st place with 20% of the journeys. Where it refers to journeys from the 2º sector, the municipality of La Matanza drops to 4th place with 9% of the journeys. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE VIAJES DE 2º CORONA A CABA - MODO BUS ZONA ORIGEN VIAJES DIARIOS - BUS DISTRIBUCIÓN PORCENTUAL ALMIRANTE BROWN % BERAZATEGUI % TIGRE % LA MATANZA % FLORENCIO VARELA % SAN MIGUEL % MERLO % MORENO % ESTEBAN ECHEVERRIA % MALVINAS ARGENTINAS % JOSE C PAZ % SAN FERNANDO % EZEIZA % PRESIDENTE PERON 785 1% TOTAL % DISTRIBUCIÓN DE VIAJES DE 2º CORONA A CABA - MODO BUS ZONA ORIGEN VIAJES DIARIOS - BUS DISTRIBUCIÓN PORCENTUAL ALMIRANTE BROWN % BERAZATEGUI % TIGRE % LA MATANZA % FLORENCIO VARELA % SAN MIGUEL % MERLO % MORENO % ESTEBAN ECHEVERRIA % MALVINAS ARGENTINAS % JOSE C PAZ % SAN FERNANDO % EZEIZA % PRESIDENTE PERON 785 1% TOTAL %

35 RAIL NETWORK Ejes no servidos

36 DAILY JOURNEYS BY TRAIN 1 SECTOR - CABA DAILY JOURNEYS SOUTHWESTERN ZONE 51% POPULATION 35% JOURNEYS

37 DAILY JOURNEYS BY BUS 1 SECTOR - CABA DAILY JOURNEYS SOUTHWESTERN ZONE 58% POPULATION 61% JOURNEYS

38 DAILY JOURNEYS BETWEEN SECTORS AND TO CABA

39 BRT PROPOSAL FOR THE MUNICIPALITY OF LA MATANZA (NATIONAL ROUTE Nº 3 - -CABA) SUMMARY OF STUDY

40 WHAT DO WE UNDERSTAND BY BRT? Generally, different terms are usually used interchangeably and erroneously, as a clear understanding of the progress that the BRT concept currently has, does not exist. The BRT can be understood as a rapid, flexible and high performance mode of transport, that combines a variety of physical elements, operating factors and a set of important benefits, integrated in a sustainable system with it own identity and associated with a high quality image (Haydee Lordi, 2012). A BRT can be regarded as a flexible system due to the following characteristics: Encompasses a wide variety of applications, each of them adapted to a determined group of travel markets and physical environments. The BRT vehicles allow different technologies (for example, standard buses and specialized BRT vehicles). Freedom of movement in any place where there is pavement. Its basic services units, comprised of only one vehicle, which is relatively small in comparison with other rapid transport modes such as rail and underground. The application of a BRT corridor could cover segments of the route where vehicles operate in mixed traffic as well as dedicated traffic or completely separate in their principal terminals.

41 Two development alternatives are presented : BRT PROPOSAL - BUS RAPID TRANSIT MUNICIPALITY OF LA MATANZA 1st alternative - BRT ROUTE Nº 3 González Catán Virreyes 26.5 km. 2nd alternative - BRT ROUTE Nº 3 González Catán Constitución 35 km. The complete corridor would be made up from the following 5 sections: Tramo Arteria Inicio Fin Longitud 1 RN 3- A. Brig. G. J. M de Rosas Gonzalez Catán Rotonda San Justo Km 2 RN 3- A. Brig. G. J. M de Rosas Rotonda San Justo Emp. Av. Gral Paz 4.50 Km 3 Av. Gral. Paz Emp. Av. Rosas Emp. AU6 (Liniers) 3.00 Km 4 AU6 Emp. AU6 (Liniers) Emp. AU 25 de Mayo (Virreyes 6.00 Km 5 AU 25 de Mayo Emp. AU 25 de Mayo (Virreyes) Constitución 8.50 Km TOTAL Km Sections 1 & 2 correspond to Av. Brig. Gral. J. M. de Rosas in the Municipality of La Matanza. From there, it is proposed to continue the corridor by motorway. The 3rd section by Av. Gral Paz (motorway with urban characteristics), Motorway 6 (section 4) y Motorway 25 de Mayo (section 5) The idea to utilize the motorway infrastructure to implant the BRT full meets the leitmotif of the work that we undertook, that was precisely to use the existing infrastructure to optimize and generate mobility.

42 BRT- BUS RAPID TRANSIT La Matanza (G. Catán Virreyes) MAIN CONNECTIVITY BRT METROBUS- LINIERS UNDERGROUND LINE E (VIRREYES) BRT project to Florencio Varela following the provincial P1 railway

43 BRT- BUS RAPID TRANSIT LA MATANZA (G. CATÁN VIRREYES) 4 CARRILES

44 Tramo por colectora Av. Gral. Paz (a contraflujo) BRT LA MATANZA (G. CATÁN VIRREYES) SECTION: CAMINO DE CINTURA GRAL PAZ

45 ESTIMATION OF THE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF BRT ALTERNATIVE 1 (preliminary information)

46 ESTIMATION OF THE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF BRT ALTERNATIVE 2 (preliminary information) Longitud del corredor Long en corredor por trama urbana Long en autopista vel comercial en corredor por trama urb vel en autopista vel promedio ponderada tiempo en estaciones por sentido tiempo en cabecera Tiempo viaje en correror por sentido Ciclo demanda de bus en hora punta flota necesaria 35 km 17.5 km 17.5 km 35 km/h 80 km/h 57.5 km/h 15 minutos 6 minutos minutos 128 minutos 171 buses 188 buses dias del año pax anuales pasajeros día habil 100% pasajeros sábado 55% pasajeros domingo/feriados 35% ,167,348 pax/año flota 188 buses distancia media recorrida por bus 212 km demanda anual 54,167,348 pax IPK `tarifa ($/pax) * IPK (pax/km) = Costo por km ($/km)

47 CONCLUSION One main criteria used to choose the BRT layout was to utilize and optimize the existing infrastructure. This point becomes particularly apparent in the motorway BRT section, making use of the least congested lanes according to rush hour on that particular day. The area of La Matanza shows high growth prospects and with as yet unsatisfied transport requirements, which guarantees a significant demand for nature-induced investment that is expected to appear as soon as this is has happened. Inter-modality with other transport modes: the connectivity of the BRT proposal with other modes in this sense the layout intercepts: a) 2 existing metro lines and 3 future ones b) a light t rail system c) two railway lines d) BRT Metrobus and e) at least four important transit centres with feeder buses. Urban insertion of feeder bus transit stations to the BRT and its surrounding areas. Integration of feeder bus rates and BRT Supplying tightly woven and consolidated urban sectors that generate a significant demand and generate significant demand to make economically sustainable investment and also provide an extensive service. To offer a real alternative to private vehicles in terms of service, journey time, reliability, economy (reduction of costs not obvious to a private vehicle user such as environmental contamination and accidents, among others). The financial evaluation based on different alternatives suggested gave reasonable results which would render the BRT system in the metropolitan AMBA area as a viable mass transport system in economic and financial terms and especially applicable as a way of converting the existing infrastructure directed at the private vehicle into an infrastructure capable of housing sustainable mass transport systems. The success of the study means that the government of Argentina has decided to take forward the idea of realizing the BRT in La Matanza.

48 Questions?

49 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!! Haydée Alicia Lordi Lecturer, National University of San Martín, Argentina Executive Committe Member Argentine Road Association Member of the World Road Association PIARC Member of the TRB Scientific Committee I-TED 2014 INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTATION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE

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