1 HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF LANDSLIDES BASED ON COMPREHENSIVE DOCUMENTATION ANALYSES AND EXPERIENCES OF THE EVENT IN GASEN AND HASLAU 2005 (AUSTRIA) 1 HAGEN KARL, ANDRECS PETER Key words: landslide, torrent events, hazard assessment, hazard zoning, disaster prevention, Austrian Alps. Abschätzung der Rutschungsnaturgefahr auf Grund einer umfassenden Dokumentation - Analysen und Erfahrungen für die Ereignisse in Gasen und Haslau 2005 (Österreich). Das wachsende Sicherheitsbedürfnis und der zunehmende Bedarf an nutzbaren Flächen in gebirgigen Regionen erfordern verbesserte Methoden zur Abschätzung von Naturgefahren. Besonders die Gefährdung durch Massenbewegungen bedarf einer Weiterentwicklung der Beurteilungsmethoden, um Gefahrenzonen bestimmen zu können. Basierend auf der umfassenden Dokumentation eines Schadensereignisses in Südost-Österreich, wurde eine Datenbank aufgebaut, die als Basis für die Entwicklung von Methoden zur flächendeckenden Gefahrenzonierung für Rutschungen dienen soll. Rückschlüsse hinsichtlich der Dokumentationsmethodik werden gegeben sowie Erkenntnisse der Eignung unterschiedlicher Datensätze für die Gefahrenanalyse und -beurteilung vorgestellt, wie zum Beispiel das neue, wetterradarbasierte Vorhersagemodel (INCA), das die Abschätzung der zeitlichen und räumlichen Niederschlagsverteilung ermöglicht, oder die digitale landwirtschaftliche Bodenkarte (EBod) mit rutschungsrelevanten Bodeninformationen. Die Bedeutung verschiedener Datengrundlagen und Parameter für die Bestimmung von durch Rutschungen gefährdeter Bereiche wird diskutiert. 1. INTRODUCTION Growing concern about public safety, booming tourist areas and insecure further climatic conditions in the Alps require the development and improvement of methods to estimate present and potential natural alpine hazards. A main preventing measure is to keep endangered areas free from settlement. In this context, the Austrian Federal Service for Torrent and Avalanche Control (WLV) has identified hazards in the so-called hazard-zone maps (GZP) starting in the early 1970s. Nowadays, Austrian land use planning refers to these expertises with legally-binding land use plans. While hazard zoning of floods, debris flows or avalanches is available in particular spatial plans, an urgent need for development remains concerning zoning mass movement hazards. The information about mass movements provided within the presently existing hazard zoning maps is often of a more general nature. There is no statutory commitment to identify landslide zones, for instance. In fact, these are often not marked on the maps and cannot be identified for spatial planning disaster prevention. 1 Paper presented at the IAG Regional Conference on Geomorphology Landslides, Floods and Global Environmental Change in Mountain Regions, Braşov, September 15 26, Dipl. Eng., Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Department of Natural Hazards and Timberline, Hauptstr. 7, 1140 Vienna Austria, Dipl. Eng., Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Department of Natural Hazards and Timberline, Hauptstr. 7, 1140 Vienna Austria, Rev. Roum. Géogr./Rom. Journ. Geogr., 53, (2), p , 2009, Bucureşti.
2 210 Hagen Karl, Andrecs Peter 2 2. DEFINITIONS Landslides are sliding movements of loose material along existing slide zones, or occurring at the moment of slope failure arising. The material displacement is caused primarily by gravitation (Schwab et al., 2005). Beside conventional classifications into translational and rotational landslides, a differentiation can roughly be made between: spontaneous, more ore less shallow landslides in loose material (Fig. 2a) and continuous, often deep-seated mass movements (Fig. 2b) This classification is adequate in issues of hazard assessment (Table 1). The present paper focuses on the assessment of spontaneous landslides in loose material. Fig. 1- Building badly affected by a landslide developing into a debris flow (Gasen, 2005). No information was available on landslide hazards in this area (neither any documentation from previous events nor from hazard mapping) although it is very likely (according to oral information and geomorphologic conditions), that landslide events had existed before. Fig. 2a Spontaneous, shallow landslides in loose material, partially developing into debris flow (e.g. the Gasen-Austria 2005 event). Fig 2b Continuous, deep seated mass movement in bedrock at varying movement rates (e.g. Gradenbach-Austria).
3 3 Hazard assessment of landslides in Gasen and Halsau (Austria) 211 Table 1 A hazard assessment-related, basic classification of landslides and specific values attached. (*Mass movement velocity classification by Cruden and Varnes (1996)). landslide types spontaneous continuous occurrence small, varying, large affected area large, few, limited area velocity fast very fast (extremely fast)* very slow slow * hazards movement, debris flow movement, (river load) documentation sporadic +/- well doc.(measurements) problems unknown location movement rates measures target measures, slope drainage, etc. early warning systems, technical limits Different types of landside processes involve different hazard assessment challenges (compare also Table 1). The following issues are crucial: Where will the landslides occur? Continuous (often large) landslides are often known and more or less documented, while comprehensive investigations to determine slope susceptibility (position of potential landslides) is basic to any further actions in this regard. What is the probability (frequency) of landslide occurrence (susceptibility hazard index maps). Which area is affected? Spontaneous landslides often develop into debris flow, whereby the affected area is clearly larger than the sliding area. What magnitude (volume) will the landslides reach, considering the range and occurrence forces. What kind of hazards will occur, in what way will people and their properties be endangered. This depends on the kind of process and more especially on its velocity (hazard assessment). 3. THE GASEN 2005 EVENT (AUSTRIA) Between the 20th and the 22nd of August 2005, an extreme precipitation event, producing about 200 mm of rainfall within 36 hours (> 100 years return period), triggered off several shallow landslides and mudflows. As an additional triggering factor, a high soil moisture content acting as a critical precondition was being considered. The conjunction of these adverse climatic conditions is very rare (return period of >> 100 years, Andrecs et al., 2007). Basic landslide susceptibility in the area is high because of the absence of glaciation during the last Ice Age, so thick soil and loose material horizons could develop. The area shows a distinct topography with steep slopes and narrow valleys. The variable susceptibility for spontaneous landslides may be considered high because of extensive forest road construction. About 2/3 of the surveyed landslides were triggered (or increased in magnitude) because of improper road slopes. Agricultural areas were affected more seriously by landslides than forest areas although these areas are found mainly in the steeper parts of the region. When affected, the wooden debris often caused problems by impairing protection measures and jamming channels. The 2005 event was the starting point for a national landslides standardized documentation. In this connection, the BFW was charged by the Austrian Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) to make a detailed investigation of disaster in the most affected areas of Styria (the communities of Gasen and Haslau near Birkfeld (BMLFUW 2006), and so about 250 single landslides were recorded in detail (Andrecs et al., 2007). Also other institutions surveyed the area, and the data collected where included into a collective database (Koicu & Tilch 2005). This
4 212 Hagen Karl, Andrecs Peter 4 database represents the initial point for further analyses and investigations which are supposed to end up in a standardized hazard mapping method of landslides. 3.1 Meteorological survey There are two sources of obtaining meteorological data: Gauging stations and Radar-based precipitation data (INCA) Due to the fact, that there are no meteorological gauging stations located within the affected area (Fig. 3), the precipitation data had to be extrapolated from surrounding measuring points (Hydrographischer Landesdienst, 2005). Because the distribution of precipitation sums at a small scale, especially the precipitation maximum between Gasen and Haslau, is not recorded in this data base, the concentration of landslides in this area cannot be explained on the basis of these data. Fig. 3 Overview: The investigated area around the communities of Gasen and Haslau (grey rectangle) in the Province of Styria, Austria For this reason, a newly-developed system to determine spatial and temporal precipitation distribution was applied. This approach is called INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analyses) and is operated by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in Vienna (ZAMG). INCA is a well-developed analysis and forecasting system for various meteorological parameters, including precipitation, wind and temperature. The system uses weather radar values, which are pre-scaled and actually scaled with ground measuring stations. The minimal time step is 15 minutes and can be added to any longer time steps (Haiden et al., 2006). Due to reliable radar data and moderate precipitation intensities, a high-quality spatial pattern of precipitation sums could be provided (Fig. 4). The estimation of absolute precipitation intensities was made on an acceptable level, about 20 % error (Andrecs et al., 2007).
5 5 Hazard assessment of landslides in Gasen and Halsau (Austria) 213 Fig. 4 There are no gauging stations (points with a flag) in the area of the communities of Gasen and Haslau. The INCA data (raster 1*1 km) are relevant in regard of the spatial distribution of the precipitation sums (36 hrs). 3.2 Geomorphologic, geologic and pedologic information A DEM (Digital Elevation Model, 10*10 m) is available for the whole area, probably not detailed enough to reflect relevant morphologic surface-structures. A DEM (1*1 m) based on a laser scan was prepared in some parts of the area to survey the differences of accuracies and the subsequent benefit for landslide assessment. Due to the inadequate level of detail, the existing geological map of the area (1: ) could not offer significant information on landslide susceptibility. In Austria, the BFW survey offered a digital soil map of all agricultural areas, containing various soil data, maximum accuracy of 1: First steps were taken to determine susceptibility depending on different soil types using the so-called Ebod (electronic soil information system). The analyses showed certain soil types significantly landslide-prone. Ongoing investigation shall concretize these correlations and extend the database to the physical parameters of soil types. 3.3 Field survey The field survey was performed by several institutions from different scientific and administrative perspectives. While the BFW survey put emphasis on the documentation of losses and (anthropogenic) triggering causes including all kinds of processes, the geological survey in Austria (GBA), for instance, focused on the relevant parameters of processes explicitly for landslides. As a matter of fact, the field survey led to insights into documentation methods and how to best proceed in the future. The most important conclusion can be worded as follows: Begin with the end in mind.
6 214 Hagen Karl, Andrecs Peter 6 Expected results in terms of spatial extent, scale and content should already be defined at the beginning of documentation. It is important to consider the available human and financial resources, methods and basic data, adapting scale and survey methods accordingly. Not surveyed input data can rarely be found later in other reports. Since there is neither quantified nor standardized collected information, conclusions are limited. It is crucial to identify the purpose of documentation. Should this documentation concentrate on: An overview of losses or a monetary valuation of disasters? The development of better insights into the process? The advancement and development of hazard and risk assessment tools? The development of an applied disaster management plan? 3.4 Remote sensing New techniques of remote sensing provide helpful data to locate landslides (field survey), to assess process areas (Fig. 5), to identify the susceptibility of slopes and to improve basic data like for instance of the land cover or the road and path network. Fig. 5 This area-wide (Austria) digital soil map contains various soil data, e.g. soil type, water supply, permeability and soil depth (Ebod).
7 7 Hazard assessment of landslides in Gasen and Halsau (Austria) 215 The Gasen aerial images from parts of the affected area where taken about three weeks after the event. The assessment and limitation of the landslide starting zones were subdivided into three categories: secure assumed indication While the probability for a secure assessment in open land was high, estimating small landslides in forests areas was problematic. However, there was sometimes an indication of previous events. The delimitation between transport and deposition zones is partially subjective. Due to delayed flights after the event, several deposition zones had already been cleared, which gave rise to misinterpretations. LANDSLIDE HAZARD ASSESSMENT CRUCIAL POINTS Operations to pursue proper assessment of spontaneous landslide-prone areas, as well as the identification of endangered areas need comprehensive area and parameter information. Slope susceptibility depends on many parameters such as area inclination, morphology, soil type (grain size, structure, water regime, friction angle) and thickness of loose material. Vegetation interacting with the soil type is also relevant due to its influence on the water regime. The topographical position of the fracture line, material properties (viscosity) and surface conditions (roughness ) are relevant to material transport and deposition. Furthermore, susceptibility of slopes changes with the development of mass movements. In order to predict spontaneous landslides in terms of spatial occurrence, a homogeneous and area-wide documentation of landslides and their triggering mechanisms is required. Such data allow for the assessment of slope susceptibility by using statistical analyses of parameters and parameter combinations (Fig. 6). Fig. 6 Classification of landslides and debris flow in starting, transport and deposition zones based on aerial images (Haslau, Joanneum Research, Tilch & Kociu 2007).
8 216 Hagen Karl, Andrecs Peter 8 Localizing endangered areas, evaluating slope susceptibility has to be completed by an assessment of transport trajectories of landslide-entailed processes and the range of the displaced mass. Commonly, spontaneous landslides-entailed processes develop into slope debris flow. These rapid processes mean hazards cropping up even in flat areas that are not directly landslide-prone. High velocities may cause considerable damage even with small sliding volumes. Because of their affinities to avalanche transport mechanism developing, energy curve-based avalanche models to estimate the affected area in case of landslides and debris flow seems to be a promising approach. In single debris flow events, mass transport velocities, pressures and deposition depths can be determined by modeling these events (e. g. with Flo2D) in order to assess the hazards in detail. At present, these models are not applicable throughout the area. Climate change, socio-economic and risk assessment Landslides present a threat to life and livelihood throughout the world, ranging from minor distribution to social and economic catastrophe (Crozier & Galde 2005). The threat by natural hazards such as landslides is not constant; it varies according to background conditions. Climate change influences directly the probability of landslide events by varying intensities of precipitation. Socio-economic issues affect hazards directly because susceptibility of slopes is influenced by changes in land use (vegetation, constructions such as forest roads Fig. 7, a. s. o.). Fig. 7 Hazard index map for landslides in the communities of Gasen and Haslau (Schwarz & Tilch 2008), based on a neuronal network approach. According to the formula risk = hazard * vulnerability there have to be valuable structures in the affected areas which document the risk of losses. The risk of economic or anthropogenic losses is the real value of public interest, and of course this risk depends directly on the value of those structures in the affected areas. Satisfying socio-economic development (in the alpine region) led to
9 9 Hazard assessment of landslides in Gasen and Halsau (Austria) 217 considerable increase in losses over the last decades (Fig. 8), even without taking into account the climate change effects (WIFO 2008). Existing hazard and risk assessments have to be updated according to the rate of socioeconomic and climatic changes, methods have to be transparent to argue comprehensible changes of endangered areas. Fig. 7 Landslide triggered off by improper forest road dewatering (Haslau 2005). Fig. 8 Schematic relation between risk, hazard and vulnerability. Changes of hazards and vulnerability (caused by socio-economic development) may reduce or increase the risk.
10 218 Hagen Karl, Andrecs Peter 10 WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE From the perspective of the above analysis it is evident that each scientific or methodological progress, as well as enhanced spatial hazard and risk assessment of spontaneous landslides need a proper and homogeneous landslide inventory. This activity should be institutionalized! The everlasting conflict between decreasing quality and data availability when increasing the geographical range can be solved by applying a top-down strategy on different scales (levels of accuracy), ranging from Pan-European summary maps and regional land use planning to detailed planning of preventive measures. Although everybody talks about risk assessment, it is well known that often the second part of the equation (risk = hazard * vulnerability) is largely neglected in practice. As a matter of fact, essential methods to estimate the frequency and magnitude of spontaneous landslides are rare. Therefore, this should be a priority task. In order to evaluate the consequences of climate change and what it means to the risks of landslides, it is necessary to have high-quality databases of current risk level, but they are not available yet for most of the Alpine area and for other mountainous regions. REFERENCES Andrecs, P., Hagen, K., Lang, E., Stary, U., Gartner, K., Herzberger, E., Riedel, F., Haiden, T. (2007), Documentation and Analyses of Disasters 2005 in the Communities of Gasen and Haslau (Styria), BFW-Documentation 6, Wien. BMLFUW (2006), Hochwasser 2005, Erignisdokumentation, Teilbericht der Wildbach und Lawinenverbauung, BMLFUW, Wien. Crozier, M.J., Galde, T. (2005), Landslide hazard and risk: issues, concepts and approach, in Glade T., Anderson M.B., Crozier, M.J (Hrsg.), Landslide hazard and risk, Wiley, Chiechester. Cruden, D.M., Varnes, D.J. (1996), Landslide types and processes, in A.K Turner and R.L. Schuster (Hrsg), landslides: investigation and mitigation, Special Report, Nacional Academey Press, Washington D.C. Ebod, (http://gis.lebensministerium.at/ebod/frames/index.php?&gui_id=ebod). Haiden, T., Kann, A., Stadlbacher, K., Steinheiner, M., Wittmann, G. (2006), Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis (INCA), System overview, ZAMG Report, Vienna. Hydrographischer Landesdienst der Steiermark (2005), Niederschlagswerte der Stationen in der Steiermark (values), Graz. Koicu, A., Tilch, N. (2005), Der Katastrophenmonat August 2005 Bestandesaufnahme und erste Bewertung der Massenbewegungen im Bezirk Weiz (Oststeiermark), 7, Geoforum Umhaussen, Geologische Bundesanstalt, Wien. Schwab, J.C., Gori, P.L., Jeer, S. (2005), Landslide Hazards and Planing, American Planning Association, Report Nr. 533/534, Chicago. Schwarz, L., Tilch, N. (2008), Möglichkeiten und Limitierungen der Regionalisierung mittels Neuronaler Netze am Beispiel einer Rutschungsanfälligkeitskarte für die Region Gasen-Haslau, in Strobl, J., Blaschke, T., Griesebner, G. (2008), Angewandte Geoinformatik 2008, Beiträge zum 20, AGIT-Symposium, Salzburg. Tilch, N., Kociu, A. (2007), Bericht zum Projekt: Abschätzung der Risikodisposition für Rutschungen und Hangbewegungen am Beispiel Gasen/Haslau (Stmk), Geologische Bundesanstalt, Wien. WIFO Austrian Institute of Economic Research (2008), Eine volkswirtschaftliche Analyse der Wildbach- und Lawinenverbauung, WIFO, Wien. Received June 15, 2009
ENDREPORT - ADAPTSLIDE Wien, Juli 2011 AdaptSlide 2 Modelling of Landslide Susceptibility and affected Areas Process-specific Validation of Databases, Methods and Results for the Communities of Gasen and
Sub-sector Guideline: (1) Sediment-related Disaster Prevention (Adaptation Project) (2) Sediment-related Disaster Prevention (BAU Development with Adaptation Options) Basic Concept A. General Concept B.
Chapter 2 Flash Flood Science A flash flood is generally defined as a rapid onset flood of short duration with a relatively high peak discharge (World Meteorological Organization). The American Meteorological
Disaster Mitigation of Debris Flows, Slope Failures and Landslides 639 Anthropogenic Caused Mass Movements and their Impact on Railway Lines in Austria Christian Rachoy 1) and Manfred Scheikl 2) 1) Dept.
Curriculum of the Master degree programme Mountain Risk Engineering Code: 066 430 University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna Center for International Relations For legal purposes, only the
Disaster Mitigation of Debris Flows, Slope Failures and Landslides 627 Documentation of the Disasters of August 2005 in Austria Caused by Floods and Slope Movements: Methods and Results Florian Rudolf-Miklau,
Multifunctional monitoring in torrent catchments E. Lang and U. Stary Multifunktionales Monitoring in Wildbacheinzugsgebieten Introduction Multifunctional monitoring in torrent catchments is generating
1 2 A very short description of the functional center network: regarding the Hydraulic and Hydrogeological risk, the national alert system is ensured by the National Civil Protection Department (DPCN),
GEOTECHNICAL ISSUES OF LANDSLIDES CHARACTERISTICS MECHANISMS PREPARDNESS: BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER A LANDSLIDE QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSIONS Huge landslide Leyte, Phillipines, 1998 2000 casulties Small debris
Keynote 2: What is Landslide Hazard? Inventory Maps, Uncertainty, and an Approach to Meeting Insurance Industry Needs Jeffrey R Keaton Richard J Roth, Jr Amec Foster Wheeler Los Angeles, USA Consulting
26th Session of the EFC Working Party on the Impact of Climate Change on Natural Hazards in Austria NATIONAL REPORT AUSTRIA Seite 1 16.04.2009 Global increase of temperatures: between 1.8 C and 4.0 C (IPCC
Ber. Geol. B. A., 82, ISSN 1017 8880 Landslide Monitoring Technologies & Early Warning Systems State of the Art of Landslide Site Monitoring in Europe: Preliminary Results of the SafeLand Questionnaire
The 83rd Annual Conference of the Agricultural Economics Society Dublin 30th March to 1st April 2009 Flood risk Prevention and Impact on Agricultural Lands Klaus Wagner, Julia Neuwirth, Hubert Janetschek
Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia October / November 2013 VARNES LANDSLIDE CLASSIFICATION (1978) Jan Novotný Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Czech Republic ARCADIS CZ a.s., division Geotechnika,
Belmont Forum Collaborative Research Action on Mountains as Sentinels of Change 1. Background and rationale Mountains exist in many regions of the world and are home to a significant fraction of the world
Appendix B. Introduction to Landslide Evaluation Tools Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Monitoring of Landslides 66 The Landslide Handbook A Guide to Understanding Landslides Part 1. Mapping Maps are a useful
Quantitative Precipitation Estimation and Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting by the Japan Meteorological Agency Kazuhiko NAGATA Forecast Division, Forecast Department Japan Meteorological Agency 1.
Landslides Learn if landslides, including debris flows, could occur in your area by contacting local officials, your state geological survey or department of natural resources, or the geology department
Prevention of Environmental Disasters by Spatial Planning and Land Management Theo KÖTTER, Germany Key words: SUMMARY Today's society becomes ever more rapidly vulnerable to natural disasters due to the
Nowcasting: analysis and up to 6 hours forecast Very high resoultion in time and space Better than NWP Rapid update Application oriented NWP problems for 0 6 forecast: Incomplete physics Resolution space
Origins and causes of river basin sediment degradation and available remediation and mitigation options Feedback from the Riskbase workshop Corinne Merly 1, Olivier Cerdan 1, Laurence Gourcy 1 Emmanuelle
C. Pfurtscheller R. Schwarze ESTIMATING THE COSTS OF EMERGENCY SERVICES DURING FLOOD EVENTS Funding Project Management Coordination Agenda Introduction Emergency costs State of the art Flooding of 2005
Programme for Flood-Safe Development in Settlement Area - 1 - CONTENTS 1 REGULATION...3 2 COMMENTS...7 2.1 Introduction...7 2.2 Minimizing the risk associated with flood events by spatial planning measures
The 8th International Conference on Geo-information for Disaster Management Intelligent Systems for Crisis Management METHODOLOGY FOR LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY AND HAZARD MAPPING USING GIS AND SDI T. Fernández
Web Based Real Time Monitoring System Along North-South Expressway, Malaysia Low Tian Huat Mohd Asbi & Associates, Malaysia; firstname.lastname@example.org Faisal Ali Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
Multi-Hazard Analysis in Natural Risk Assessments R. Bell, T. Glade Department of Geography, University of Bonn, Germany Abstract Analysis of natural risks in mountainous regions includes several typical
WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE Weather i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time. ii) The daily or short term variations of different conditions of lower
Background/Introduction RISK ANALYSIS MODULE 3, CASE STUDY 2 Flood Damage Potential at European Scale By Dr. Peter Burek There is good reason to be concerned about the growth of flood losses in Europe.
Environmental Geology Chapter 5 INTRODUCTION to NATURAL HAZARDS Types of Natural Hazards (e.g. Volcanic eruptions, Earthquakes, Floods,Hurricanes,Landslides Natural Disaster - A particular event in which
Netherlands Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment Delta Programme Urban Development and Reconstruction Guideline for Stress Testing the Climate Resilience of Urban Areas Extended summary Version 1.0
Terms of Reference For First Joint Mission for the Pilot Programme on Climate Resilience (PPCR) In St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1 Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations CIF IDB MTESP NEMO NESDC NESDP NGO
DEVELOPING FLOOD VULNERABILITY MAP FOR NORTH KOREA Soojeong Myeong, Research Fellow Hyun Jung Hong, Researcher Korea Environment Institute Seoul, South Korea 122-706 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Class: Date: Glaciers and Mass Movements Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence
Earth surface processes and landform Ch. 1 Introduction Ch. 2 geomorphic system Earth surface processes now is a team of USGS (United States Geological Survey), it is not limited in landform or geomorphology.
Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Infrastructure & the Built Environment A Toolbox Tool 2.3.1: General information on the causes of rainfall-induced landslides Author G. Dellow Affiliation GNS Science,
Numerical Modeling and Simulation of Extreme Flood Inundation to Assess Vulnerability of Transportation Infrastructure Assets 2015 University Transportation Center (UTC) Conference for the Southeastern
Probabilistic Risk Assessment Studies in Yemen The catastrophic risk analysis quantifies the risks of hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and loss, thus providing the decision maker with the necessary information
Photo: BMLFUW/Rita Newman. Walser Gemüse Record number: 24 Disclosure date 1576 first mention of vegetable growing in a contract regarding delivery of the property within a family (in the archives of the
Landslide hazard zonation using MR and AHP methods and GIS techniques in Langan watershed, Ardabil, Iran A. Esmali Ouri 1* S. Amirian 2 1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh
Flood Zone Investigation by using Satellite and Aerial Imagery Younes Daneshbod Islamic Azad University-Arsanjan branch Daneshgah Boulevard, Islamid Azad University, Arsnjan, Iran Email: email@example.com
Extreme Events and Disasters are the Biggest Threat to Taiwan Typhoon Morakot Impacts due from Climate Change According to the statistical data of the past hundred years, the annual mean temperature of
REPUBLIC OF SIERRA LEONE MINISTRY OF ENERGY AND WATER RESOURCES FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR MANUAL DRILLING MAPPING OF FAVOURABLE ZONES Page 2 of 22 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 4 General context 5 Geography
Spawning the Atmosphere Measurements, 22-23 Jan 2014, Bern BSRN Station Sonnblick Baseline surface radiation network station Sonnblick Marc Olefs, Wolfgang Schöner ZAMG Central Institute for Meteorology
Fire Weather Index: from high resolution climatology to Climate Change impact study International Conference on current knowledge of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Forestry in Europe COST-WMO
Estimating Potential Reduction Flood Benefits of Restored Wetlands Kenneth W. Potter University of Wisconsin Introduction Throughout the summer of 1993 a recurring question was the impact of wetland drainage
Plan Plus Volume 1 No 1 2002 (117-123) APPLICATION OF GIS (GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM) FOR LANDSLIDE HAZARD ZONATION AND MAPPING DISASTER PRONE AREA: A STUDY OF KULEKHANI WATERSHED, NEPAL Purna Chandra
Natural Hazards: An Overview Dr. Adly Kh. Al-Saafin Eng g./env. Geology Earth Sciences Dept. KFUPM - Dhahran Objectives The study of hazardous processes constitutes one of the main activities of environmental
Prospectus Supplement No. 2 Erste Group Bank AG (Incorporated as a stock corporation in the Republic of Austria under registered number FN 33209 m) EUR 30,000,000,000 Debt Issuance Programme This supplement
Page 1 of 9 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Natural Disasters & Assessing Hazards and Risk This page last updated on 19-Aug-2014 Natural Hazards and Natural Disasters
Introduction Monitoring of terrain movements (unstable slopes, landslides, glaciers, ) is an increasingly important task for today s geotechnical people asked to prevent or forecast natural disaster that
The Kentucky Geological Survey Landslide Program: An Overview Matt Crawford Kentucky Geological Survey 2015 Geohazards in Transportation August 4 6, 2015 Huntington, WV Outline National background Landslides
THE INFLUENCE OF FORM ROUGHNESS ON MODELLING OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AT STEEP SLOPES Michael CHIARI 1, Dieter RICKENMANN 1, 2 1 Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering, University of Natural Resources and
Flash Flood Guidance Systems Introduction The Flash Flood Guidance System (FFGS) was designed and developed by the Hydrologic Research Center a non-profit public benefit corporation located in of San Diego,
FloodRisk II Further steps for future implementation strategies towards an integrated flood risk management English Short Report Copyright: Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Environment and
1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Malaysia s climate is hot and humid throughout the year since it is situated near the equator. According to the Malaysian Meteorological Department, Malaysia will
Standardized Runoff Index (SRI) Adolfo Mérida Abril Javier Gras Treviño Contents 1. About the SRI SRI in the world Methodology 2. Comments made in Athens on SRI factsheet 3. Last modifications of the factsheet
Climate Change Impacts in the Asia/Pacific Region Global CC threat CC in the A/P region The Stern Review and IPCC 4 th Assessment Report both state that climate change will have adverse impact on people
Landslides & Mudslides Landslides, also known as mudslides and debris flow, occur in all U.S. states and territories. In snowy mountainous areas winter snow landslides are called avalanches. Landslides
Page 1 of 10 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Flooding Hazards, Prediction & Human Intervention This page last updated on 19-Oct-2015 Hazards Associated with Flooding
USING SOIL INFORMATION IN NATURAL DISASTER ANALYSIS: VALUE FOR MONEY Duration Hrs. 96 0 Victor Jetten Dept. of Earth Systems Analysis, ITC USING SOIL INFORMATION IN NATURAL DISASTER ANALYSIS: VALUE FOR
Mass Wasting Mass wasting is downhill movement of masses of bedrock, rock debris or soil, under the pull of gravity Landslides are much more costly over time in the U.S., in terms of both lives and dollars,
sample The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events 2 Impacts
Basin characteristics From hydrological processes at the point scale to hydrological processes throughout the space continuum: point scale à river basin The watershed characteristics (shape, length, topography,
STRATEGY OF GEOLOGICAL HAZARD MITIGATION IN INDONESIA BY : Dr. Surono (HEAD OF CENTRE FOR VOLCANOLOGY AND GEOLOGICAL HAZARD MITIGATION) MINISTRY OF ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES GEOLOGICAL AGENCY CENTRE
Preliminary advances in Climate Risk Management in China Meteorological Administration Gao Ge Guayaquil,Ecuador, Oct.2011 Contents China Framework of Climate Service Experience in Climate/disaster risk
GOVERNMENT OF NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND LABOUR CHAPTER 3A Environmental Guidelines for STREAM CROSSING BY ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLES WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT DIVISION Water Investigations
Graduate School of Disaster Prevention Kangwon National University 1joongang-Ro Samcheok-city, Gangwon-Do, Republic of Korea http://college.kangwon.ac.kr/prevention/main.jsp Outline Natural disasters such
Bayesian Modeling of in Human-Environment Systems Thomas Koellner1 and Adrienne Grêt-Regamey2 1Department of Environmental Sciences, Natural and Social Science Interface NSSI, ETH Zurich, Switzerland 2
Sediment Supply and the Upland-Stream Connection Brian Bledsoe Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Colorado State University Overview The sediment system (with an eye towards hillslope processes
Review Countermeasures for Sediment-related Disasters in Japan using Hazard Maps Taro UCHIDA 1, Haruo NISHIMOTO 2, Nobutomo OSANAI 3, Takeshi SHIMIZU 1 1 Volcano and Debris Flow Research Team, Public Works
IRASMOS Symposium 2008 15 16 May 2008, Davos, Switzerland Counter measures against extremely rapid mass movements Markus HOLUB Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, Austria
Dr. Eberhard Faust, Munich Re, December 2006 Technical Note No. 145: The socio-economic benefits of climate services Finance, insurance, reinsurance Formatted: Centered 1. Introduction Modern societies,
NAME DATE WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST 1. The diagram below shows a meandering stream. Measurements of stream velocity were taken along straight line AB. Which graph best shows the
1 Avalanche Problem Essentials Storm Slabs This document is part of Decision Making in Avalanche Terrain: a fieldbook for winter backcountry users by Pascal Haegeli, Roger Atkins and Karl Klassen and provides
HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT, MONITORING, MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (HAMMS) FOR LANDSLIDE AND FLOOD Mohd. Nor Desa, Rohayu and Lariyah, UNITEN WHAT WE HAVE IN MIND AND FROM OUR PREVIOUS PROJECT CONTRIBUTION
DEVELOPMENT OF REAL-TIME VISUALIZATION TOOLS FOR THE QUALITY CONTROL OF DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS AND ORTHOIMAGES Dr.-Ing. Manfred Wiggenhagen University of Hanover, Germany Institute for Photogrammetry and
DISASTER RISK DETECTION AND MANAGEMENT COURSES SETUP SCENARIO AT MAKERERE UNIVERSITY CASE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY Derek Muhwezi 2 MISSION OF THE DEPARTMENT To provide and promote quality education,
New challenges of water resources management: Title the future role of CHy by Bruce Stewart* Karl Hofius in his article in this issue of the Bulletin entitled Evolving role of WMO in hydrology and water
River Flood Damage Assessment using IKONOS images, Segmentation Algorithms & Flood Simulation Models Steven M. de Jong & Raymond Sluiter Utrecht University Corné van der Sande Netherlands Earth Observation
METHODS & TECHNIQUES FOR THE ANTI-EROSION AND ANTI-FLOODING PROTECTION IN MOUNTAINOUS DRAINAGE BASINS IN EVRYTANIA (GREECE) Α. Mertzanis 1, S. Kosmas 2, A. Papadopoulos 1, A. Kosmas 3 and F. Marabini 4