Conveyance means a mechanism for transporting water from one point to another, including pipes, ditches, and channels.

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1 Glossary of Common Stormwater Terms Baffle means a device to check, deflect, or regulate flow. Beneficial Uses means uses of waters of the states which include but are not limited to - use for domestic, stock watering, industrial, commercial, agricultural, irrigation, mining, fish and wildlife maintenance and enhancement, recreation, generation of electric power, and preservation of environmental and aesthetic values, and all other uses compatible with the enjoyment of public waters of the state. Best Management Practice (BMP) means the schedule of activities, prohibition of practices, maintenance procedures, and structural and/or managerial practices, that when used singly or in combination, prevent or reduce the release of pollutants and other adverse impacts to waters of Washington State. Bioretention means engineered facilities that store and treat stormwater by passing it through a specified soil profile, and either retain or detain the treated stormwater for flow attenuation. CESCL means Certified Erosion and Sediment Control Lead; an individual who has current certification through an approved erosion and sediment control training program that meets the minimum training standards established by Ecology (see BMP C160 of Volume II). A CESCL is knowledgeable in the principles and practices of erosion and sediment control. The CESCL must have the skills to assess site conditions and construction activities that could impact the quality of stormwater and, the effectiveness of erosion and sediment control measures used to control the quality or stormwater discharges. Certification is obtained through an Ecology approved erosion and sediment control course. Course listings are provided online at Ecology s website. Check dam means a small dam, either temporary or permanent, built across a minor channel, swale, bioswale or drainage ditch that reduces erosion and gullying in the channel and allows sediments and pollutants to settle; they also lower the speed of water flow during storm events; they can be built with logs, stone or sandbags. Common Plan of Development or Sale means a site where multiple separate and distinct construction activities may be taking place at different times on different schedules and/or by different contractors, but still under as single plan. Examples include: 1) phase projects and projects with multiple filings or lots, even if the separate phases or filings/lots will be constructed under separate contract or by separate owners (e.g., a development where lots are sold to separate builders); 2) a development plan that may be phased over multiple years, but is still under a consistent plan for long-term development; 3) projects in a contiguous area that may be unrelated but still under the same contract, such as construction of a building extension and a new parking lot at the same facility; and 4) linear projects such as roads, pipelines, or utilities. If the project is part of a common plan of development or sale, the disturbed area of the entire plan must be used in determining permit requirements. Construction Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan means a document that describes the potential for pollution problems on a construction project and explains and illustrates the measures to be taken on the construction site to control those problems. Conveyance means a mechanism for transporting water from one point to another, including pipes, ditches, and channels. Curtain drain means a trench that is dug around a structure to intercept water traveling through the soil in order to prevent flooding or dampness (see Picture Gallery). Discharge means runoff leaving a new development or redevelopment via overland flow, built conveyance systems, or infiltration facilities. A hydraulic rate of flow, specifically fluid flow; a volume of Page 1 of 7

2 fluid passing a point per unit to time, commonly expressed as cubic feet per second, cubic meters per second, gallons per minute, gallons per day, or millions of gallons per day. Dispersion means the release of surface and stormwater runoff such that the flow spreads over a wide area and is located so as not to allow flow to pick up pollutants or to concentrate anywhere upstream of a drainage channel with erodible underlying granular soils. Downspout dispersion means a device that receives water from a gutter downspout and conveys it away and downslope from the foundation of a structure (see Picture Gallery). Downstream analysis means an analysis of potential drainage impacts and drainage facilities downstream of the subject property. Drainage means the collection, conveyance, containment, and/or discharge of surface and stormwater runoff. Drainage basin means a geographic and hydrologic subunit of a watershed or drainage catchment area; see also Watershed. Drainage impacts means the adverse impacts from changes to existing water quantity, rate or quality; water storage, retention and detention capacity; or water conveyance ability caused by a development activity; and may include, but are not limited to - flooding, erosion, sedimentation, scouring, bank sloughing, groundwater discharges to aquifer recharge areas, and adverse impacts to wetlands, fish and wildlife habitat conservation areas and geologically hazardous areas. Dry well means an underground structure that disposes of runoff by dissipating it into the ground, where it merges with groundwater; some dry wells are covered and incorporate a large storage capacity, such as the dry wells for parking lots, which are usually buried below the same parking area; a very simple dry well can be a vertical, unlined hole (see Picture Gallery). Effective impervious surface means those impervious surfaces that are connected via sheet flow or discrete conveyance to a drainage system. Impervious surfaces are considered ineffective if: 1) the runoff is dispersed through at least one hundred feet of native vegetation in accordance with BMP T5.30 Full Dispersion as described in Chapter 5 of Volume V; 2) residential roof runoff is infiltrated in accordance with Downspout Full Infiltration systems in BMP 5.10A Volume III; or 3) approved continuous runoff modeling methods indicate that the entire runoff file is infiltrated. Energy dissipater means any means by which the total energy of flowing water is reduced; in stormwater design, they are usually mechanisms that reduce velocity prior to, or at, discharge from an outfall (including gutter downspouts) in order to prevent erosion; includes rock splash pads, baffles, and check dams. Filter strip means a grassy area with gentle slopes that treats stormwater runoff from adjacent paved areas before it concentrates into a discrete channel. Flexible water diverter means a bendable attachment to the bottom of a gutter drain pipe that allows specific positioning of gutter flow (see Picture Gallery). Flow control BMP (or facility) means a method or drainage facility designed to mitigate the impacts of increased surface and stormwater runoff flow rates generated by development. Flow control methods/facilities are designed either to hold water for a considerable length of time and then release it by evaporation, plant transpiration, and/or infiltration into the ground, or to hold runoff for a short period of time, releasing it to the conveyance system at a controlled rate. Page 2 of 7

3 Flow duration means the aggregate time that peak flows are at or above a particular flow rate of interest. For example, the amount of time that peak flows are at or above 50% of the 2-year peak flow rate for a period of record. Flow frequency means the inverse of the probability that the flow will be equaled or exceeded in any given year (the exceedance probability). For example, if the exceedance probability is 0.01 or 1 in 100, that flow is referred to as the 100-year flow. Frequency of storm (design storm frequency) means the anticipated period in years that will elapse, based on average probability of storms in the design region, before a storm of a given intensity and/or total volume will recur; thus a 10-year storm can be expected to occur on the average once every 10 years. Sewers designed to handle flows that occur under such storm conditions would be expected to be surcharged by any storms of greater amount of intensity. Hardpan means a cemented or compacted and often clay-like layer of soil that is impenetrable by roots; also known as glacial till. Hard surface means an impervious surface, a permeable pavement, or a vegetated roof. Hog fuel means wood-based mulch. Hollywood drive means a driveway that is not completely paved; the strip in the middle is left vegetated. Hydrologic Soil Group Classifications, as Defined by the Soil Conservation Service: A = (Low runoff potential) Soils having low runoff potential and high infiltration rates, even when thoroughly wetted. They consist chiefly of deep, well to excessively drained sands or gravels and have a high rate of water transmission (greater than 0.30 in/hr). B = (Moderately low runoff potential) Soils having moderate infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted, and consisting chiefly of moderately deep to deep, moderately well to well drained soils with moderately fine to moderately coarse textures. These soils have a moderate rate of water transmission ( in/hr). C = (Moderately high runoff potential) Soils having low infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted, and consisting chiefly of soils with a layer that impedes downward movement of water; and/or soils with moderately fine to fine textures. These soils have a low rate of water transmission ( in/hr). D = (High runoff potential) Soils having very low infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted, and consisting chiefly of clay soils with a high swelling potential, soils with a permanent high water table, soils with a hardpan or clay layer at or near the surface, soils with a compacted subgrade at or near the surface, and shallow soils over nearly impervious material. These soils have a very low rate of water transmission ( in/hr). Impervious surface means a non-vegetated surface area that either prevents or retards the entry of water into the soil mantle as under natural conditions prior to development. It is a non-vegetated surface area which causes water to run off the surface in greater quantities or at an increased rate of flow from the flow present under natural conditions prior to development. Common impervious surfaces include, but are not limited to, roof tops, walkways, patios, driveways, parking lots or stormwater areas, concrete or asphalt paving, gravel roads, packed earthen materials, and oiled, macadam or other surfaces which similarly impede the natural infiltration of stormwater. Infiltration means the downward movement of water from the surface to the subsoil. Land disturbing activity means any activity that results in a change in the existing soil cover (both vegetative and nonvegetative) and/or the existing soil topography. Land disturbing activities include, but are not limited to clearing, grading, filling, and excavation. Compaction that is associated with stabilization Page 3 of 7

4 of structures and road construction shall also be considered a land disturbing activity. Vegetation maintenance practices, including landscape maintenance and gardening, are not considered landdisturbing activities. Stormwater facility maintenance is not considered a land disturbing activity if conducted according to established standards and procedures. Level spreader means a temporary ESC device used to spread out stormwater runoff uniformly over the ground surface as sheet flow (i.e., not through channels). The purpose of level spreaders is to prevent concentrated, erosive flows from occurring, and to enhance infiltration (see Picture Gallery). Low Impact Development (LID) means a stormwater and land use management strategy that strives to mimic pre-disturbance hydrologic processes of infiltration, filtration, storage, evaporation, and transpiration by emphasizing conservation, use of on-site natural features, site planning, and distributed stormwater management practices that are integrated into a project design. LID Best Management Practices (BMPs) means distributed stormwater management practices, integrated into a project design, that emphasize pre-disturbance hydrologic processes of infiltration, filtration, storage, evaporation, and transpiration. LID BMPs include, but are not limited to, bioretention/rain gardens, permeable pavements, roof downspout controls, dispersion, soil quality and depth, minimal excavation foundations, vegetated roofs, and water re-use. Maintenance means repair and maintenance activities conducted on currently serviceable structures, facilities, and equipment that involves no expansion or use beyond that previously existing and results in no significant adverse hydrologic impact. New development means land disturbing activities, including Class IV General Forest Practices that are conversions from timber land to other uses; structural development, including construction or installation of a building or other structure; creation of hard surfaces; and subdivision, short subdivision and binding site plans, as defined and applied in Chapter RCW. Projects meeting the definition of redevelopment shall not be considered new development. Outwash soils means soils formed from highly permeable sands and gravels. Overland flow see surface runoff. Perforated stub out means a shore length of pipe containing small holes; installed to provide for future connection to a storm drainage system. Permeable soils mean soil materials with a sufficiently rapid infiltration rate so as to greatly reduce or eliminate surface and stormwater runoff. These soils are generally classified as SCS hydrologic soil types A and B. Pervious/permeable surface means any surface material that allows stormwater to soak into the ground. Examples include lawn, landscape, pasture, native vegetation areas, and permeable pavers/pavements (see Picture Gallery). Predeveloped condition means the native vegetation and soils that existed at a site prior to the influence of Euro-American settlement. The pre-developed condition shall be assumed to be forested land cover unless reasonable, historic information is provided that indicates the site was prairie prior to settlement. Project site means that portion of a property, properties, or right of way subject to land disturbing activities, new hard surfaces, or replaced hard surfaces. Rain barrel/s means a container/s that holds water from a gutter downspout for later use, typically irrigation (see Picture Gallery). Page 4 of 7

5 Rain garden means a non-engineered shallow landscaped depression, with compost-amended native soils and adapted plants. The depression is designed to pond and temporarily store stormwater runoff from adjacent areas, and to allow stormwater to pass through the amended soil profile (see Picture Gallery). Refer to the Rain Garden handbook for Western Washington Homeowners for rain garden specifications and construction guidance. Receiving waters means bodies of water or surface water systems to which surface runoff is discharged via a point source of stormwater or via sheet flow; it also means groundwater to which surface runoff is directed by infiltration. Recharge means the addition of water to the zone of saturation (i.e., an aquifer). Redevelopment on a site that is already substantially developed (i.e., has 35% or more of existing hard surface coverage) means the creation or addition of hard surfaces; the expansion of a building footprint or addition or replacement of a structure; structural development including construction, installation or expansion of a building or other structure; replacement of hard surface that is not part of a routine maintenance activity; and/or land disturbing activities. Replaced hard surface means, for structures, the removal and replacement of impervious surfaces down to the foundation; for other impervious surfaces, the removal down to bare soil or base course and replacement. Retrofitting means the renovation of an existing structure or facility to meet changed conditions or to improve performance. Sheet Flow means runoff that flows over the ground surface as a thin, even layer, no concentrated in a channel; see surface runoff. Site means the area defined by the legal boundaries of a parcel or parcels of land that is (are) subject to new development or redevelopment, including contiguous improvements in the right-of-way. For road projects, the length of the project site and the right-of-way boundaries define the site. Source control means preventing pollutants from entering stormwater by means that include, but are not limited to - materials storage and handling practices and facilities, and site maintenance practices. Source control BMP means structures, equipment, supplies, or operations intended to prevent pollutants from coming into contact with stormwater through physical separation of areas or careful management of activities that are sources of pollutants. The Ecology manual separates source control BMPs into two types. Structural source control BMPs are physical, structural, or mechanical devices or facilities that are intended to prevent pollutants from entering stormwater. Operational BMPs are non-structural practices that prevent or reduce pollutants from entering stormwater. See Volume IV of the Ecology manual for details. Stormwater facility means a system of collecting, conveying and storing stormwater runoff. Stormwater facilities include, but are not limited to - all stormwater conveyance systems and containment facilities including pipes, swales, culverts, street gutters, channels, dikes, ditches, closed depressions, infiltration devices, catch basins, retention ponds, detention ponds, stormwater treatment facilities, constructed wetlands, oil/water separators, biofiltration swales, erosion and sedimentation control facilities, and other drainage structures and appurtenances, both natural and artificial. Stormwater flow control facility means a drainage facility designed to mitigate the impacts of increased surface and stormwater runoff flow rates generated by development. Flow control facilities are designed either to hold water for a considerable length of time then release it by evaporation, plant transpiration, and/or infiltration into the ground, or to hold runoff for a short period of time, releasing it to the conveyance system at a controlled rate. Page 5 of 7

6 Stormwater pollution prevention plan or SWPPP means a documented plan that identifies measures to prevent and control contamination of point source discharges of stormwater. The SWPPP is one element of a construction plan and drainage report. Stormwater runoff means water originating from rainfall and other precipitation that enters drainage facilities, rivers, streams, natural drainage ways, springs, seeps, ponds, lakes, or wetlands, and also groundwater base flows above the aquifer or water table. Stormwater Site Plan means the comprehensive report containing all of the technical information and analysis necessary for regulatory agencies to evaluate a proposed new development or redevelopment project for compliance with stormwater requirements. Contents of the Stormwater Site Plan will vary with the type and size of the project, and individual site characteristics. It includes a Construction Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (Construction SWPP) and a permanent Stormwater Control Plan (PSC Plan). Guidance on preparing a Stormwater Site Plan is contained in Chapter 3 of Volume I. Stormwater treatment means the removal of pollutants from stormwater, by means that include, but are not limited to - filtration, sedimentation, absorption, and chemical alteration or degradation of pollutants. Stormwater treatment facility means a constructed drainage facility that removes pollutants from stormwater and includes the inlet and outlet pipes and all maintenance access points for such facilities. Surcharge means the flow condition occurring in closed conduits when the hydraulic grade line is above the crown of the sewer. Surface runoff means the flow that occurs when the soil cannot absorb any more water and it runs over the land surface. Swale means a low area of land, typically planted with water tolerant species, that accepts concentrated flow (generally with flow depths of less than one foot), whereas filter strips accept sheet flow; both are designed to slow and hold runoff, filter pollutants, and increase infiltration into the groundwater system. Threshold discharge area means an on-site area draining to a single natural discharge location or multiple natural discharge locations that combine within one-quarter mile downstream as determined by the shortest flow path. Page 6 of 7

7 Tightline means a continuous length of pipe used to convey flows to a different location with no inlets or collection points in between, at the end of which is a method of slowing or dispersing the flow. Till means a layer of poorly sorted soil deposited by glacial action that generally has very low infiltration rates. Trench drains are typically used where driveways cross ditches along roadsides; the sides of the trench are constructed of wood or concrete and the trench is covered, usually by grated metal (see Picture Gallery). Water quality design storm means the 24-hour rainfall amount with a 6-month return frequency; commonly referred to as the 6-month, 24-hour storm. Waters of the State includes those waters as defined as "waters of the United States" in 40 CFR Subpart within the geographic boundaries of Washington State and "waters of the state" as defined in Chapter RCW which includes lakes, rivers, ponds, streams, inland waters, underground waters, salt waters and all other surface waters and water courses within the jurisdiction of the State of Washington. Watershed means the area of land, bounded by high points or ridges, wherein surface water drains to the same place, usually a stream, lake, bay, estuary or sea; see also Drainage basin. Page 7 of 7

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