1 Jurnal f Califrnia and Great Basin Anthrplgy UC Merced Peer Reviewed Title: Inferring Settlement Systems fr the Prehistric Hunter-Gatherers f San Dieg Cunty, Califrnia Jurnal Issue: Jurnal f Califrnia and Great Basin Anthrplgy, 19(2) Authr: Laylander, Dn Publicatin Date: 1997 Permalink: Keywrds: ethngraphy, ethnhistry, archaelgy, prehistry, native peples, Great Basin Abstract: Recent discussins f prehistric settlement systems have ften been framed in terms f a simple typlgical cntrast between ''fragers'' and ''cllectrs.'' This dichtmy des less than full justice t the ptential cmplexity f prehistric adaptive systems and t their expressin in the archaelgical recrd. Settlement systems are prpsed t vary in several partially independent dimensins. A number f variables in the archaelgical recrd may be argued t reflect aspects f this variatin. The ptential, the difficulties, and sme partial successes in inferring settlement systems frm the prehistric archaelgical recrd f San Dieg Cunty are discussed. Cpyright Infrmatin: All rights reserved unless therwise indicated. Cntact the authr r riginal publisher fr any necessary permissins. eschlarship is nt the cpyright wner fr depsited wrks. Learn mre at eschlarship prvides pen access, schlarly publishing services t the University f Califrnia and delivers a dynamic research platfrm t schlars wrldwide.
2 Jurnal f Califrnia and Great Basin Anthrplgy Vl. 19, N. 2, pp (1997). Inferring Settlement Systems fr the Prehistric Hunter-Gatherers f San Dieg Cunty, Califrnia DON LAYLANDER, CaUf. Dept. f Transprtatin, 1352 West Olive Ave., Fresn, CA Recent discussins f prehistric settlement systems have ften been framed in terms f a simple typlgical cntrast between 'fragers'' and ' 'cllectrs.'' This dichtmy des less thanfulljustice t the ptential cmplexity f prehistric adaptive systems and t their expressin in the archaelgical recrd. Settlement systems are prpsed t vary in several partially independent dimensins. A number f variables in the archaelgical recrd may be argued t reflect aspects f this variatin. The ptential, the difficulties, and sme partial successes in inferring settlement systems frm the prehistric archaelgical recrd f San Dieg Cunty are discussed. UNDERSTANDING die spatial rganizatin f prehistric hunter-gatherers is amng die mst ambitius archaelgical bjectives in the study f such peples. In recent decades, substantial advances have been made, bth in cnceptualizing settlement systems and in develping archaelgical criteria fr their recgnitin. Hwever, much wrk remains t be dne in bth respects. Lewis R. Binfrd's (1980) distinctin between "fragers" and "cllectrs" is a cmmnly applied classificatin, but ne which nly imperfecdy captures the diversity f huntergatherer settlement systems. Alternatively, sme 15 settlement dimensins are suggested here as ptentially significant, and their manifestatins in the ethngraphic recrd fr San Dieg Cunty (Fig. 1) are briefly discussed. Finally, variables in the San Dieg archaelgical recrd that shed additinal light n these settlement dimensins are identified. BEYOND FORAGERS AND COLLECTORS In the literature n hunter-gadierer settlement systems, Binfrd's 1980 article. Willw Smke and Dgs' Tails, has becme a mdern classic. The distinctin between "fragers" and "cllectrs" has been applied t the classificatin f prehistric archaelgical recrds in varius regins, including San Dieg Cunty (e.g., Graham 1981; Hectr 1988; Wdke and McDnald 1989; Beck 1993; Byrd et al. 1993; Warren et al. 1993; McDnald et al. 1994). T summarize briefly, Binfrd (1980) suggested that fragers mve their residential bases t the resurces they explit ("mapping n"), generally d nt stre resurces, and gather resurces n an "encunter" basis. Tw types f archaelgical sites are prduced by fragers: residential bases and "lcatins" (extractive sites). In cntrast, cllectrs make use f a lgistical strategy, using special task grups t prcure resurces frm beynd the daily fraging radius f a residential base. Strage is characteristic f cllectrs, and resurces are gathered n a mre planned, "intercept" basis. In additin t residential bases and lcatins, cllectrs prduce three ther site types: field camps, statins, and caches. "Field camps" are vernight camps used by task grups, and therefre, by definitin, indicate the use f lgistical practices. "Statins" are infrmatin-gathering
3 180 JOURNAL OF CALIFORNIA AND GREAT BASIN ANTHROPOLOGY Fig. 1. Map f San Dieg Cunty, with ethngraphic bundaries shwn. sites, such as game bservatin r ambush sites, and therefre (at least in sme cases) reflect acquisitin f resurces by intercept rather than encunter. "Caches" are strage sites. Cllectrs als tend t make fewer residential mves, t have mre "cmplex" settlement systems, and t prduce archaelgical recrds with a greater range f intersite variability. Sme prblems may be nted with Binfrd's scheme, r at least with the ways in which it has been applied typlgically t particular regins and perids. Three main interpretive variables distinguish the types f settlement systems: mapping n versus lgistics, nnstrage versus strage, and encunter versus intercept. The frager/cllectr typlgy can be described as plythetic and nnrigrus, in that several defining variables are invlved, but in an essentially undefined maimer. Typlgies based n plythetic, nnrigrus definitins wrk well nly under certain cnditins: when the relevant variables are s numerus r cmplexly related that a mnthetic and/r rigrus definitin is impractical, and when the variables are strngly crrelated with ne anther, s as t prduce few ambiguus cases. Under these cnditins, much infrmatin can be effectively cmpressed int die typlgy. On the ther hand, in cases where the crrelatins amng the variables are nly mderate r weak, tw prblems are likely: particular cases will be incnsistently assigned t types, and values fr sme variables may be in-
4 PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GATHERERS OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY 181 crrectly inferred frm knwn values fr ther variables. Bth f these prblems appear t apply t the frager/cllectr dichtmy. Althugh Binfrd (1980) may have been crrect in seeing a wrldwide crrelatin between the three frager/ cllectr variables, there is little reasn t suppse that the crrelatins are strng enugh t justify the applicatin f the frager/cllectr dichtmy, as it is defined, t any particular case. One can easily imagine hunter-gatherers whse settlement system invlves any cmbinatin f values fr the three variables: nt mving resurces lgistically, but string them; nt mving resurces lgistically, but acquiring them n an intercept basis; nt string, but acquiring by intercept; and s n. Therefre, even when the values fr the variables are all well knwn, there is n assurance that tw bservers will cnsistendy distinguish a particular ethngraphic r archaelgical case as fraging r as cllecting. Inferring ne f the three variables frm knwn values fr ne r tw f the thers will be precarius at best. Archaelgically, identificatin f a "field camp" des nt imply intercept prcurement r strage; a "statin" des nt imply lgistical mvement r strage; and a cache des nt imply lgistical mvement r intercept prcurement. Nne f these site types necessarily imply infrequent residential mves r substantial settlement system cmplexity. Binfrd's discussin has been valuable fr calling attentin t ptentially imprtant variables, bth in settlement systems and in the archaelgical recrd. Hwever, t recnstruct particular prehistric settlement systems, it is essenfial that archaelgists mve beynd a simple frager/cllectr dichtmy and cnsider a range f dimensins, which may vary partially r fully independently f each ther. INTERPRETIVE DIMENSIONS In this sectin, an attempt is made t identify sme significant settlement dimensins and t nte briefly their applicatin t prehistric San Dieg Cunty, as inferred primarily frm the lcal ethngraphic recrd r frm wrldwide ethngraphic patterns. Character and Cmpsitin f Cmmunities The first grup f dimensins relates t the character and cmpsitin f cmmunities. "Cmmunity" is defined herein as a grup f peple f bth sexes and ptentially all ages, living in prximity t each ther fr an extended perid f time. Scieties based n units ther than cmmunities are knwn ethnlgically, but they are nt likely t be relevant t prehistric San Dieg Cunty. The principal cntrast intended here is between cmmunities and task grups f narrwer cmpsitin and mre limited duratin. Cmmunity dimensins f interest include cmmunity size, settlement nucleatin, cmmunity fissin/fusin, and fluidity in cmmunity membership. Cmmunity Size. Cmmunity size refers t die number f peple wh cmpsed the cmmunity. In a survey f the wrldwide ethngraphic literature, Kelly (1995) fund huntergatherer cmmunity sizes ranging frm 10 t 1,500 persns, with a median f abut 100 persns fr "sedentary" grups, and arund 25 fr "nmadic" grups. Late Prehistric San Dieg Cunty grups seem t have been relatively large, at least at their seasnal maxima. White (1963) suggested an average f 200 persns per Luisefi territrial rancherfa, althugh such a rancherta might cntain mre dian ne village. Cahuilla territrial lineages were estimated at abut 75 persns. The Cupeii, with an estimated ppulatin f 500 and nly tw settlements (at least in histrical times), wuld have had an anmalusly large average cmmunity size f 250 persns (Kreber 1925:689). True (1970:57) suggested that amng the Dieguen "as many as 200 peple may have lived in ne lcatin. A hundred seems a mre reasnable
5 182 JOURNAL OF CALIFORNIA AND GREAT BASIN ANTHROPOLOGY estimate... and 8-10 famuies per settlement wuld nt be t few under sme circumstances." Hicks (1963) evaluated ethnhistric evidence and cncluded that western Yuman lineage-bands frmed cmmunities with an average ppulatin f 50 t 150. Settlement Nucleatin. Settlement nucleatin is defined as the extent t which cmmunity residence was clustered r dispersed. Settlement nucleatin has received little attentin in the reginal ethngraphic literature, but it is an imprtant dimensin in interpreting the archaelgical recrd. Late Prehistric settlement in San Dieg Cunty seems t have been mre strngly nucleated int cmpact "villages" than, fr instance, that f the agricultural Yumans f the Lwer Clrad River, but sme tendency tward dispersin may have been present. Several archaelgists have interpreted scattered habitatin sites as utlying prtins f ethnhistrically identified vulages (e.g., Graham 1981; Kyle 1988; McDnald et al. 1993). Shipek (1982: 297) wrte f Diegueii territrial units as cntaining bth a "central primary village and a number f utlier hmesteads." It is nt clear hw these hmesteads were perceived: as yearrund family residences shwing weak nucleatin with respect t the cmmunity's central village, as settlements ccupied by seasnal fissin f the main village cmmunity, r pssibly as lgistical camps. Cmmunity Fissin/Fusin. The extent t which cmmunities brke dwn seasnally int smaller cmmunities r jined int larger nes is knwn as cmmunity fissin/fusin. Spier (1923:306) reprted that the eastern Diegueii spent the winters in the eastern fthills f the Peninsular Range, "in grups f mixed gentile [kin grup] affiliatin," but during the summer, in their main territries, "they lived in little grups abut the valleys." Hicks (1963:138) argued that amng the western Yumans, "seasnal mvements... were regularly made t ther lcalities, sme f them shared with ther bands, diers supprting nly a prtin f ne band." A smewhat ambiguus attitude tward the fissin/fusin mdel was taken by True and his cllabratrs (True 1970, 1993; True et al. 1974; True and Waugh 1982). In several discussins, a simple, ne-t-ne matching f lwland winter and upland summer settlements was prpsed, which wuld minimize fissin/fusin tendencies (True 1970:54-55, 1993:16; True and Waugh 1982:34). In ther discussins, reference was made t "subsidiary camps" and "satellite gathering r hunting statins," (True 1970:55; True et al. 1974:78) which may be cmmunity fissin settlements, lgistical camps, nnresidential wrk statins, r a mix f all three. In ne frmulatin, the pattern was seen develpmentally as a fusin prcess: riginally separate, kin-based cmmunities were prpsed t have retained their distinct territries in the summer upland phase but t have cnslidated int larger cmmunities in the winter lwland phase (True and Waugh 1982:37). Fluidity in Cmmunity Membership. Fluidity in cmmunity membership refers t the extent t which peple changed the cmmunity t which they belnged. Intermarriage between cmmunities wuld have tended t prmte membership fluidity, bth in the riginal emigratin f ne marriage partner and by creating ties which culd serve as a basis fr a nuclear family t mve frm ne spuse's riginal cmmunity t the ther's. Tendencies tward smaller cmmunities and tward kin-based territrial units wuld have prmted lcal exgamy, whue larger and less stricuy kin-based cmmunities wuld have permitted mre lcal endgamy. Shipek (1982:297) argued that Dieguen kin grups crsscut territrial bands, which "facilitated mvement f individuals r families frm ne area t anther in times f necessity." Lumala (1976:257) reprted that Diegueii "residential grups vary in size, frm, and cmpsitin f kinflk frm place t place, seasn t seasn.
6 PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GATHERERS OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY 183 and year t year, accrding t the fd supply." Dieguen kwitxal, r "drifters," discussed at length by Lumala, seem t be a prime example f cmmunity membership fluidity. Owen (1965, 1966) als stressed the absence f rigid barriers t the mvement f peple between western Yuman cmmunities. The ethngraphic literature seems t indicate that western Yuman cmmunifies were mre fluid that thse f the Ut-Aztecan peples t the nrth. Cmmunity Mbility A secnd set f interpretive dimensins relates t cmmunity mbility, including daily catchment size, annual range size, distance f residential mves, frequency f residential mves, rate f catchment reccupatin, and rate f site reuse. Daily Catchment Size. Daily catchment size is defined as the fraging radius within which members f a cmmunity travelled during a day, mving ut frm and returning t a lngterm residential base r a temprary camp. Binfrd (1982) suggested a 10-km. hunter-gatherer fraging radius, but specific ethngraphic evidence n prehistric catchment sizes in San Dieg Cunty is lacking. Annual Range Size. The area encmpassed by a cmmunity's catchments thrughut a year is knwn as annual range size. In cases where an exclusive cmmunity territry was established, the annual range might crrespnd with diat territry, althugh diere might als be areas nt claimed by any cmmunity, int which the cmmunity culd mve during prtins f the year. Sparkman (1908) reprted diat each Luisefi band had an alltted territry in die San Luis Rey Valley, anther n Palmar Muntain, and, accrding t traditin, als went t the cast in the winter. Exclusive and cmprehensive cmmunity territries, typically n the rder f 80 km.^ seem t be implied in White's (1963) mdel f Luisen settlement. Shipek (1982:297) suggested that Diegueii "territrial bands... generally cntrlled frm 10 t 30 miles alng a drainage and up t the drainage divides." This wuld suggest a cmmunity territrial unit n the rder f 500 km.^ which wuld prbably be manageable as a single daily fraging catchment frm a fixed base. Hwever, Shipek (1982) als prpsed the existence f a "natinal" level f sciplitical rganizatin amng the Dieguen, with sme lands, including sme castal areas and the pinyn and acrn areas in the muntains, "wned" at this level. Such lands wuld imply that a cmmunity's annual range was substantially larger than the cmmunity territry, whether the additinal areas were accessed residentially r lgistically. Distance f Residential Mves. In Kelly's (1995) wrldwide sample, the average distance f residential mves ranged frm 4 t 70 km., with a median f arund 12 km. The mdel f lwland-upland seasnal shifts fr the inland Luisefi and Diegueii implies residential mves n the rder f 10 t 20 km. Residential mves by these same grups t the cast wuld have invlved 40 t 60 km. f travel, prbably in tw r mre stages. Frequency f Residential Mves. Frequency f residential mves refers t the number f mves made in the curse f an annual rund. Kelly (1995) fund that hunter-gatherers wrldwide mved frm zer t 60 times annually, with a typical figure f arund 10 mves. The catchment-sized territries prjected fr Late Prehistric grups in San Dieg Cunty suggest that n residential mves might have been necessary. The "biplar" settlement mdels frequendy prpsed fr bth the Late Prehistric and Archaic perids, usually with a castal/ interir r lwland/upland axis, wuld suggest tw residential mves per year (cf. Sparkman 1908; True 1970, 1993; True and Waugh 1982; McDnald et al. 1994). Hwever, Spier (1923: 307) evidently envisined an extended series f residential shifts by the eastern Dieguen as they
7 184 JOURNAL OF CALIFORNIA AND GREAT BASIN ANTHROPOLOGY mved frm winter desert settlements up tward summer sites in the muntains. In nrthern San Dieg Cunty, cnsiderably greater mbility was suggested fr the San Luis Rey I Perid than fr its successr, and Archaic settlement was envisined as "a pattern f mbility and shrt-term residency" (True and Waugh 1982; Waugh 1986:27). Rate f Catchment Reccupatin. The frequency r regularity with which a given catchment was reccupied by a cmmunity in successive years is called rate f catchment reccupatin. Binfrd (1983:381) reprted that a Nunamiut band in nrthern Alaska went thrugh a cycle invlving reccupatin f catchments nly after abut 40 years. Fr Late Prehistric western San Dieg Cunty, it appears likely that many lwland catchments were reccupied at clse t a 100% rate. Hwever, sme upland catchments explited during the fall acrn harvest may have been less regularly reccupied, depending n the lcal vagaries f the acrn crp. Similarly, agave harvesting areas and lwland desert catchments may have been used nly peridically r irregularly, depending n varying resurce availabuity and cmmunity needs. Rate f Site Reuse. Rate f site reuse refers t the frequency with which a given site was reused by a cmmunity r task grup. Site reuse implies catchment reccupatin, but the reverse is nt true. The ethngraphic recrd has little t say direcdy abut this variable. True and his cllabratrs (True 1970; True et al. 1974; True and Waugh 1982) argued diat Luisen and Dieguen settlements were "relatively stable and permanent," althugh acknwledging that they may ccasinally have been relcated. "Village names" which were recrded ethngraphically r ethnhistrically wuld seem t argue fr prlnged use f particular lcatins (Oxendine 1983; True and Waugh 1987). Hwever, n clser examinatin, the applicatin f these names t particular sites appears t be questinable. The names may have been terms fr cmmunities that were situated at varying lcatins, r terms fr general gegraphic areas. Spatial and Tempral Incngruities A third and final set f interpretive dimensins relates t the ways in which spatial and tempral incngruities between resurce avauability, labr availabuity, and cnsumpfin needs were managed, ther than by residential mves. These dimensins include lgistical transprting f resurces, strage f resurces, intercmmunity exchange f resurces, exclusivity in land and resurces, and intensity f resurce use. Lgistical Transprting f Resurces. Lgistical transprting f resurces refers t the mvement f resurces t a cnsumptin lcatin utside die catchment f their prcurement. The sizes prjected fr Late Prehistric cmmunity territries, which amunt t single catchments, wuld seem t rule ut the need fr any lgistical explitatin f thse territries. True et al. (1974:79) argued that Luisen cmmunity territries did nt include areas mre than ne-half day's travel frm either the summer r the winter residential base, eliminating mst r all need fr "temprary field camps." The questin remains whether resurces lcated utside f the territries were prcured direcdy by their cnsumers, and if s, whether prcurement was dne by task grups r thrugh cmmunity residential mves. The ethngraphic recrd refers t mvements which may have been either residential r lgistical. One relatively clear case f lgistical mvement relates t agave prcurement, which was said t have been dne by male-rdy task grups spending several days away frm the base settlement (Bean and Saubel 1972). Strage f Resurces. The ethngraphic recrd cntains references t the strage f numerus plant and animal resurces (cf. Laylander 1993:B.4). The majrity f these references relates t the Clrad Desert rather than t western San Dieg Cunty, but this may merely re-
8 PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GATHERERS OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY 185 fleet the greater attentin given t the ethnbtany f the desert regin. Strage f acrns seems t have been an imprtant element in the subsistence f the western grups. Intercmmunity Exchange f Resurces. Surveys f the San Dieg ethngraphic literature suggest that frmal interreginal exchange systems were nt highly develped r imprtant, particularly amng the Luisen (cf. Davis 1961). Hwever, intercmmunity participatin in ceremnial activities that included hsted feasts and gift-giving is well attested, and this may have been a significant mechanism fr adjusting resurce incngruities in the regin. Exclusivity in Land and Resurces. Exclusivity in land and resurces is the reservatin f catchments r resurces fr particular cmmunities r their subunits. The practice f exclusivity manages the prblem f incngruities between cnsumptin needs and resurce availabuity by cntaining the incngruities within a limited scial unit rather than allwing them t spread reginally. It als creates cnditins favrable t the intensificatin f resurce cnservatin and management. White (1963), Shipek (1986), and sme Uier ethngraphers have suggested strngly develped abriginal exclusivity at several levels in western San Dieg Cunty, whereas sme earlier ethngraphers specifically denied it (cf. Laylander 1991). True (1970) cntended diat wnership f resurce-prducing areas was characteristic f bdi die Luiseii and die Diegueii, aldiugh it was perhaps mre strngly develped amng the frmer. True and Waugh (1982) maintained that Luisen cmmunity territries and resurces were defended against trespass, but diey als suggested diat diis pattern f exclusivity had nly gradually develped frm a mre permissive plicy earlier in the Late Prehistric Perid. Intensity f Resurce Use. Intensity f resurce use includes intentinal stimulatin f the prductivity f particular lcatins, r die explitatin f lwer-ranking resurces. Intensive resurce use generally reflects a higher reginal ppulatin density (greater cmmunity size and/ r smaller annual range), greater cmmunity circumscriptin (greater exclusivity), r a cultural chice f greater sedentism (fewer residential mves). Because they represent an investment f labr tward a future return, resurce management practices tended t ccur nly when there was a definite intentin t reccupy the catchment in questin and prbably when sme exclusive rights t d s were present. The mst intensive frm f resurce management is agriculture. It has been suggested that agriculture was practiced in prehistric San Dieg Cunty (Bean and Lawtn 1973; Shipek 1986, 1993), aldiugh the validity f these claims has been questined (e.g., Laylander 1987). A less ambitius frm f resurce management wuld be the setting f fires t prmte pre-climax vegetatin cmmunities, which is als claimed fr prehistric San Dieg Cunty (Shipek 1986, 1993). Intensificatin thrugh the use f lwerranked resurces was prbably a much mre significant prcess, althugh it has as yet been litfle addressed in the regin. Mdelling the ptimal resurce explitatin strategies fr particular regins has becme a ppular anthrplgical pastime (cf. Bettinger 1991; Kelly 1995), but ne fraught with prblems. In ne preliminary applicatin t San Dieg Cunty, a mdel prpsed by Christensn (1990) suggested that the ptimal subsistence strategy wuld have invlved the use f nly tw resurces: acrns and rabbits. If this is even apprximately crrect, the wide range f resurces whse use is attested ethngraphically wuld be evidence f substantial intensificatin. Anther mdel fr Late Prehistric subsistence intensificatin was prpsed by Hildebrand and Hagstrum (1995). ARCHAEOLOGICAL SIGNATURES It shuld be pssible t refine the knwledge f the settlement system dimensins discussed
9 186 JOURNAL OF CALIFORNIA AND GREAT BASIN ANTHROPOLOGY abve dirugh cmparative edinlgical studies and eclgical mdelling, thrugh further critical reexaminatin f the reginal ethnhistric and edingraphic recrds, and, pssibly, thrugh the cllectin f additinal ethngraphic data. Hwever, the best prspects fr advances nw lie in archaelgical analyses. A number f bservatinal variables is relevant. Several are listed belw, with indicatins f their bearing n setdement issues and with ntes n the ways in which they have been addressed in San Dieg Cunty archaelgy. Table 1 summarizes the suggested links between archaelgical variables and settlement system interpretive dimensins. Individual Artifacts, Ecfacts, r Features The first grup f variables is evidenced in individual artifacts, ecfacts, r features. These variables include dwelling cnstructin, strage facilities, resurce management facilities, evidence f use f lw-ranked resurces, extic material, prcessing stage, and tl use wear and frmality. Dwelling Cnstructin. Dwelling cnstructin refers t the extent f effrt made t establish and imprve residential facilities, archaelgically recgnizable as excavated husepits, rck walls r fundatins, r pstmlds. Evidence fr substantial cnstructin effrt, relative t the functinal requirements impsed by the climate, wuld tend t imply a lw frequency f residential mves and a high rate f site reuse. The ethngraphic recrd fr San Dieg Cunty suggests that dwellings representing investments f substantial effrt were cnstructed, but few indicatins f this have survived r been recgnized archaelgically. Rck enclsure features, smetimes interpreted as dwellings, have been fund in several areas (Minr 1975; Van Wrmer and Carric 1993). Strage Facilities. Strage facilities reflect a tempral but nt a spatial incngruity between the prcurement r prcessing f a resurce and its cnsumptin. They may indicate a lw frequency f residential mves, r a high rate f catchment and site reuse, and site exclusivity. Rck rings n large bulder r bedrck utcrps have been reprted frm many areas in San Dieg Cunty and have cmmnly been interpreted as acrn granary fundatins (cf. James 1995). Stne-lined cache pits have been reprted (Kyle 1988; Wilke and McDnald 1989). Sme ceramic vessels have been idenfified as strage cntainers; fr instance, n the basis f die vessel frm (cf. Van Camp 1979), an absence f burning n sherds (Hectr 1988), the presence f stred materials in them (cf. Treganza 1947), r the cntexts f their ccurrence. Caches f lithic tls and cres have been reprted frm varius sites. In cases in which evidence f strage suggests an intentin t cnceal die stred materials, this may argue fr irregular use f the catchment and a lack f exclusivity. Wilke and McDnald (1989) nted this factr with respect t a rckshelter cache pit. Occurrences f ceramic strage vessels and presumed granary fundatins at lcatins that are sme distance frm habitatin sites have been nted (True et al. 1974; Laylander and Christensn 1988a). Resurce Management Facilities. Resurce management facilities are features intended t increase the prductivity f the land, such as irrigatin ditches r check dams. Management facilities wuld be expected t be assciated with a lw frequency f residential mves, regular catchment reuse, and exclusivity. Carric (1988) reprted stne diversin walls in the Ranch Bernard area which may be prehistric. Hwever, archaelgical cnfirmatin f the extensive management facuities suggested by Shipek's (1986, 1987, 1993) edingraphic accunts has generally been lacking. This may reflect subsequent destructin f the features, their incrpratin int histrical perid facilities, a fauure by archaelgists t recgnize the evidence, r a genuine prehistric scarcity r absence f such facuities.
10 PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GATHERERS OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY 187 Table 1 PROPOSED RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SETTLEMENT SYSTEM DIMENSIONS AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL VARIABLES' ' Artifact/Ecfact/Feature Variables Dwelling Cnstructin Strage Facilities Management Facilities Lw-Ranked Resurces Extic Material Prcessing Stage Tl Use Wear and Frmality Site Variables Site Area ize CO '5 niu E O c eatic Z ettlement CO c si 3 0. in/ V3 'E 3 E U x> h <u s mun E U.S >> ;a tl. QJ tsiz c E % U >> rt :3 O.a n nge OS "rt c c < > s f Res dent nee 0 3.^ a 19. " «u. c i «.-ti cd CC r u. c f- CT) Cti ^4-«OJ CUJ Pi tu S.s ^ w.s 4- a Quantity f Cultural Residues Activity Diversity Tl Diversity Seasnal Range Intrasite Feature Redundancy Resurce Depletin Stylistic Unifrmity -I- Reginal Variables Site Density Lcal Site Redundancy Lcal Site Cmplementarity Catchment Resurce Diversity -I- 4- Settlement Pattern Variability -I- = the archaelgical variable n the left is related t the settlement dimensin abve; - = n relatinship is prpsed.
11 188 JOURNAL OF CALIFORNIA AND GREAT BASIN ANTHROPOLOGY Evidence f Use f Lw-Ranked Resurces. Faunal and btanical remains, as well as functinally specific artifacts and features, may testify t the use f resurces that wuld have ranked less highly than thers available t prehistric inhabitants. A prerequisite fr recgnitin f the use f lw-ranked resurces is mre sphisticated mdelling f ptimal subsistence ptins, althugh a start has been made by Christensn (1990). Supprting the ethngraphic evidence, dcumented archaelgical remains in San Dieg Cunty attest t the use f a cnsiderable range f resurces, and it is prbable that this indicates at least sme resrt t lwranking resurces. Extic Material. Materials which were extic t a site lcatin but available within nehalf day's travel and abundantly represented in the site depsit may define the limits f the catchment which was explited frm the site. The presence at a site f materials frm beynd the catchment implies the peratins f exchange, lgistical mvement, r residential mvement, with sme indicatin f the directin and scpe f thse actins. Marine shell f Pacific Cast and Gulf f Califrnia species has been recvered frm many inland San Dieg Cunty sites, althugh nrmally in small quantities (e.g.. True et al. 1974; Laylander and Saunders 1993). Sme types f ceramics are evidently extic, ntably Lwer Clrad Buff Ware prduced in the Clrad Desert, which has been fund in limited quantities in many Late Prehistric sites in western San Dieg Cunty. Obsidian is generally a minr element in San Dieg assemblages, but specimens have been surced t Obsidian Butte near the Saltn Sea, San Felipe in nrtheastern Baja Califrnia, and the Cs Vlcanic Field and ther surces east f the Sierra Nevada. Cryptcrystalline silica in San Dieg Cunty sites prbably came frm a variety f surces, bth lcal and extic, but ntably including material frm Piedra de Lumbre in nrthwestern San Dieg Cunty (Pignil 1994). Steatite prbably als came frm several surces, including Jacumba, Munt Laguna, Cuyamaca. Valley Center, and perhaps Catalina Island (cf. Plk 1972). In a few instances, the specific mechanisms invlved in mving extic materials have been prpsed: exchange in the case f bsidian, based n reginal frequency patterns (Laylander and Christensn 1988b); residential mvement in the case f marine shell, based n seasnality analysis (Quinter 1987); and direct prcurement (residential r lgistical) in the case f Piedra de Lumbre chert, based n reginal frequency patterns (Pignil 1992). Prcessing Stage. Prcessing stage refers t the psitin f archaelgical residues n a cntinuum between initial prcurement f a resurce and its final use. The reductin stages represented by lithic tls and debitage may suggest hw far remved the activity at the site was frm the initial quarrying f the material and frm the final use f its tl end prducts. Analysis f the prcessing stage may help t identify the place f the site in a mbility pattern, r the mechanisms by which the material was mved, such as direct prcurement r exchange. In San Dieg Cunty studies, sme attentin has been directed tward attempting t define reductin stages fr lithic debitage (cf. Rsen 1982; Hectr 1984; Laylander 1993: B.12). Butchering stages, represented by different prprtins f particular anatmical elements at prcessing and cnsumptin sites, might shed sme light n lgistical practices in hunting. The discarding f marine shell represents a stage in prcessing the fd cntent f shellfish, which is fund t have ccurred variusly in the immediate vicinity f the prcurement lcatins n the cast, at special purpse prcessing sites a shrt distance inland (e.g., Crum 1991), and at habitatin bases, smetimes a cnsiderable distance frm the cast (e.g., Quinter 1987). Ceramic manufacturing residues, including un-
12 PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GATHERERS OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY 189 wrked clay, vessel-shaping tls, and firing areas, might clarify whether ceramic vessels were used primarily at the lcatins where they were made (as might be expected in a substantially sedentary system), cnstructed as a part f lgistical frays, r transprted thrugh a series f residential mves. Tl Use Wear and Frmality. A site prduced by a brief ccupatin wuld be likely t cntain lcally manufactured tls with minimal use wear. A site prduced by extended ccupatin r repeated reccupatin might cntain tls with mre extensive use wear. The expenditure f extra effrt n tl refinement beynd minimal functinal requirements wuld tend t indicate that an extended use-life was expected, which might ccur thrugh prlnged ccupatin f the site, by the caching f tls fr later reuse, r by carrying tls t successive sites during an aimual rund. Mre casual tls might reflect brief ccupatins, uncertain reccupatin, r mves made t frequently r ver distances t great t make the transprting f tls practical. Archaelgical studies in San Dieg Cunty have devted little attentin t assessing pssible cntrasts in relative tl frmality and use wear between subregins, between time perids, r between site types. One examinatin f tl frmality at a Spring Valley residential base fund a predminance f casual artifacts, with little evidence fr any cntrast between an early cmpnent and a later ne (Laylander 1992). Site Level Observatins A secnd set f archaelgical variables relates t site level bservatins, including site surface area, quantity f cultural residues, activity diversity, lithic tl diversity, seasnal range, intrasite feature redundancy, resurce depletin, and stylistic unifrmity. Site Surface Area. Site surface area is ne f the mst frequendy recrded archaelgical bservatins, but criteria fr site limits are vaguely defined and applied with little cnsistency. Christensn (1990) emplyed site surface area as a key element in distinguishing "villages r rancherfas" frm "small vulages r shrt term habitatin sites." The size f Late Prehistric vulage sites in the Cuyamaca area led True (1970:57) t pstulate that the cmmunities may have numbered as many as 200 persns. A large site may reflect ccupatin by a large cmmunity, r it may reflect weakly nucleated activities r repeated reccupatins by a small cmmunity, which makes the interpretatin f large area sites diftlcult. On the ther hand, small habitafin sites prvide cnvincing evidence fr small cmmunities, r in sme cases, fr weak cmmunity nucleatin. Small habitatin sites seem t be present in many parts f San Dieg Cunty and pertain t the Late Prehistric Perid and prbably die Archaic Perid as well. Quanfity f Cultural Residues. "Midden accumulatin," smetimes cited as an indicatr f site functin, is eft'ectively an expressin f cultural residue quantity at a site. This variable can be used as a rugh index t the amunt f certain types f activities which ccurred at the site, which in turn wuld be a cmpsite functin f cmmunity size, length f ccupatin, frequency f reccupatin, and site functin. As with site size, the quantity f remains is mst easily interpretable in instances where the quantities are very small, attesting t brief ccupatins, with few r n reccupatins, by small cmmunities. General impressins f the quantity f residues have emerged fr many archaelgical sites in San Dieg Cunty, but the representative sampling which wuld prvide a statistical basis fr estimates f ttal assemblage sizes is rare. Waugh (1986:29) prpsed increasing quantity f remains as an indicatr f decreasing Late Prehistric mbility. Activity Diversity. The range and prprtins f different activities represented in an assemblage is called activity diversity. A relatively high activity diversity wuld supprt an argument fr ccupatin by a cmmunity rather than
13 190 JOURNAL OF CALIFORNIA AND GREAT BASIN ANTHROPOLOGY merely by a task grup, ccupatin by a large cmmunity rather than a small ne, and prlnged ccupatin r repeated reccupafin rather than a single, brief ccupatin. Activity diversity has cmmnly been recgnized in classifying San Dieg Cunty sites, althugh nt generally in a frmal manner. The tl sets recvered frm lwland and upland residential sites in the Pauma-Palmar area were reprted as being "seemingly the same," indicating that "mst essential activities" ccurred at each lcatin and that the upland sites were seasnally sedentary settlements rather than mere hunting camps (True et al. 1974:80). Waugh (1986:27, 29) saw Archaic Perid "functinal assemblages f limited quantity and diversity" as indicative f sparse ppulatin and high mbility, and greater diversity in Late Prehistric Perid assemblages as indicative f decreasing mbility. Lithic Tl Diversity. Wrldwide ethngraphic data appear t indicate that the number f distinct functinal tl types emplyed by a culture is strngly negatively crrelated with the frequency and distance f residential mves (Shtt 1986). This presumably reflects the csts invlved in transprting an extensive tl kit. Elabrate lithic tl typlgies have been applied t sme San Dieg Cunty assemblages (e.g., Warren et al. 1961; Kaldenberg 1982), but it is nt clear whether these typlgies truly reflect functinal diversity r merely arbitrary segmentatin f a cntinuum f accidental variabuity. Seasnal Range. Seasnal range refers t the prtin f the year fr which ccupatin is evidenced at a site. Seasnal range has bearing upn frequency f residential mves and, in sme circumstances, upn frequency f site reccupatin. Because nly limited success has been achieved in recgnizing archaelgical seasnal signatures (as distinct frm a priri eclgically r ethngraphically based mdelling), few San Dieg Cunty sites can be cnfidenfly assigned seasnal ranges. Quinter (1987) presented faunal evidence that an inland valley site in nrthern San Dieg Cunty was ccupied during the late fall, winter, and early spring, alternating widi settlement n the cast. Rbbins- Wade (1988) reprted that a castal settlement in nrthern San Dieg Cunty was ccupied all year. Byrd (1996) argued that seasnality data, alng with assemblage size, indicated a strng presence n the nrthern San Dieg Cunty cast during the Late Prehistric Perid. Intrasite Feature Redundancy. The extent t which multiple examples f functinally equivalent features are present within a site is knwn as intrasite feature redundancy. Substantial redundancy culd suggest ccupatin by a large cmmunity, while its absence wuld pint t ccupatin by a small ne. A difficulty with using this index t demnstrate large cmmunity size is that functinally equivalent features may have been multiplied fr reasns ther than needs fr simultaneus use. Respect fr wnership rights r avidance f features assciated with deceased persns may have been factrs. It has been argued that the dense clustering f muling features n sme utcrps and the prliferatin f agave rasting pits are amng the indicatrs f a practice f aviding the reuse f features in prehistric San Dieg Cunty (Laylander 1993: B.7). Resurce Depletin. Resurce depletin is the extent t which a decline in the quantity r quality f lcal resurces is reflected diachrnically at a site. This variable wuld have a bearing n cmmunity size, daily catchment size, frequency f residential mves, and frequency f catchment reccupatin. The decline f marine shell size as a pssible indicatr f shellfish ver explitatin has been examined elsewhere in sudiern Califrnia, althugh nt in San Dieg Cunty. The pssibility f lcal depletin f surces f Sanfiag Peak metavlcanic rck, the mst widely used material fr flaked stne tls in the regin, has been discussed, but with negative results as t any cnvincing evidence f depletin (Nrwd 1980; Laylander 1992).
14 PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GATHERERS OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY 191 Stylistic Unifrmity. Stylistic unifrmity is the extent t which artifacts r features within a site shw a strng unifrmity f style, in cmparisn with cmparable remains in ther cntempraneus sites in the regin. A high degree f stylistic unifrmity wuld suggest a high degree f cmmunity membership stability; stylistic diversity might indicate that individuals r famuies tended t shift their cmmunity membership thrugh time. Shackley (1984) cnsidered the questin f stylistic unifrmity r diversity in the design f agave rasting pits as evidence fr the strength f cmmunity r ethnic grup traditins in sutheastern San Dieg Cunty. Reginal Level Observatins The final set f archaelgical variables relevant t settlement systems cnsists f bservatins made n a reginal scale. These include site density, lcal site redundancy, lcal site cmplementarity, catchment resurce diversity, and reginal settlement pattern variability. Site Density. Site density refers t the number f sites identified within a given area. Site density has an evident, if cmplex, bearing n cmmunity nucleatin, daily catchment size, distance f residential mves, frequency f residenfial mves, rate f catchment reccupatin, and rate f site reuse. Several prtins f San Dieg Cunty have been thrughly inventried fr sites, but the greatest difficulty in applying such data t interpretatins cncerning settlement systems lies in establishing a brad cntempraneity amng sites. This prblem is least severe fr the Late Prehistric Perid, which has a relatively shrt duratin (prbably less than a millennium) and relatively dependable survey-level diagnstics (pttery and small prjectile pints). Sparkman (as cited in Waugh 1986:62) nted die prliferatin f "ld vulage sites" in Pauma Valley, attributing their number in part either t seasnal residential shifts r lgistical pracuces. The number f "majr vulages" that have been identified in the Cuyamaca area suggested t True (1970:57) that cmmunity size was mre reasnably estimated at 100 rather than 200 inhabitants. Waugh (1986:270) linked die lw inland Archaic Perid site density with sparse ppulatins, and higher Late Prehistric Perid densities with lcalized, semisedentary settlement. Lcal Site Redundancy. The extent t which bradly cntempraneus residential sites are identified within the same catchment is called lcal site redundancy. This bears mst directly upn cmmunity nucleatin and the frequency f site reuse, and mre indirectly upn catchment size, frequency f residential mves, and rate f catchment reccupatin. The prblem f establishing brad cntempraneity arises again, alng with the prblem f establishing functinal equivalency. The issue has been explicitly addressed in a few studies (Laylander and Christensn 1988a; Laylander 1989), in which it has been argued that substantial redundancy is present, prbably reflecting a high frequency f residential mves, a high rate f catchment reccupatin, and nly a mderate rate f site reuse. Lcal Site Cmplementarity. The extent t which functinally subrdinate sites, such as prcessing statins, lgistical camps, r residential travel camps, are fund within the same catchment r lcal area as habitatin bases is knwn as lcal site cmplementarity. Such cmplementarity pints t the reuse f a catchment r lcal area frm an external habitatin base. This pattern is therefre relevant t catchment size, distance f residential mves, frequency f residential mves, rate f catchment reccupatin, and rate f site reuse. Lcal site cmplementarity has been nted in a few studies (Laylander and Christensn 1988a). Catchment Resurce Diversity. Catchment resurce diversity refers t the extent t which site lcatins maximize access t a wide r narrw range f resurces. High catchment resurce diversity wuld suggest that site lcatins
15 192 JOURNAL OF CALIFORNIA AND GREAT BASIN ANTHROPOLOGY were selected fr use ver an extended perid f time, t harvest a successin f resurces, r by a cmmunity with different members fcusing n the cllectin f different resurces. Lw catchment resurce diversity wuld suggest that site lcatins were selected t ptimize access t a single set f resurces, perhaps fr a brief time perid and pssibly by a task grup rather than a cmmunity. One index f catchment resurce diversity is the prximity f site lcatins t ectnes. Shackley (1980) argued that sites in Cuyamaca Ranch State Park were preferentially lcated near cntact lines between tw bitic cmmunities. Rbbins-Wade (1992) fund sme limited cnfirmatin fr a hypthesis f greater resurce diversity arund "residential bases" than arund "temprary camps" n Otay Mesa. Reginal Settlement Pattern Variability. Reginal settlement pattern variability is the extent t which different patterns in such variables as site area and site density are fund in different subregins. Significant variability f this srt may indicate the presence f a fissin/fusin settlement system. A pattern f small habitatin sites wuld indicate the fissin prtin f the annual cycle; large habitatin sites in areas with lw site densities wuld suggest the fusin phase. True (1970:56) argued that patterns f residential sites in Diegueii lwland and upland settings were sufficiently similar t supprt a biplar, ne-t-ne relatinship. In the Pauma- Palmar area, hwever, a larger number f upland sites seems t have suggested a biplar, fissin/fusin relatinship (True et al. 1974; True and Waugh 1982). CONCLUSIONS The hunter-gatherer settlement systems f prehistric San Dieg Cunty are best cnceptualized in terms f variability alng a number f different, partially independent dimensins. These relate t the cmpsitin and character f the cmmunities invlved, their mbility, and their strategies fr dealing with spatial and tempral incngruities between resurce and labr availabuity and cnsumptin needs. The regin's ethnhistric and ethngraphic recrds prvide imprtant testimny regarding at least sme f these dimensins. Yet the relevance and reliabuity f this testimny is limited by its shallw time depth and by the prcesses f distrtin which are inherent in any histrical tesfimny, exacerbated in this case by the cultural distance between abriginal lifeways and the experiences f dieir mdern recrders. T advance beynd this limited ethnhistric and ethngraphic knwledge, San Dieg Cunty settlement research must nw rely primaruy upn the archaelgical recrd. Althugh nt withut severe limitatins and distrtins f its wn, archaelgical evidence is gradually being brught t bear n a variety f issues. Prbably the mst crucial methdlgical prblem is t develp the ability t infer cnvincingly the specific functins r activities which are represented by particular artifacts, ecfacts, features, sites, and site distributin patterns. Refinement f chrnlgy is imprtant in establishing cntempraneity r successin. Intrareginal variability needs t be examined mre clsely t distinguish scial bundaries and cntrasting functinal pses. Paleenvirnmental recnstructin and the identificatin f prehistric surce areas fr faunal, btanical, and mineral resurces are als imprtant. Substantial ambiguity and uncertainty bscures the applicatin f the frager/cl lectr dichtmy t prehistric San Dieg Cunty. One cnventinal cnclusin has been that Archaic peples were essentially fragers, and that their Late Prehistric successrs were cllectrs. This may be little mre than a precnceived ntin, based n an evlutinary mdel f increasing cmplexity and an apparent increase in site density thrugh time. Evidence fr Archaic set- Uement is plentiful near the cast, but is mre meager inland. Were castal and inland areas inhabited by separate, perhaps essentially seden-
16 PREHISTORIC HUNTER-GATHERERS OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY 193 tary. Archaic cmmunities? Or were inland areas explited by castal cmmunities thrugh seasnal residential shifts, r by lgistical task grups, r bth? Did Archaic grups stre resurces? Were Archaic subsistence strategies less intensive that thse f their successrs, r were they merely different? Cnvincing answers t these questins have nt yet emerged. The picture f Late Prehistric Perid settlement is mre circumstantial, but still far frm definitive. The evidence seems cmpelling that mst cmmunities practiced residential mbility t sme extent. There are mre ambiguus hints f lgistical mbility as well. Whether cmmunities were stable in cmpsitin r fairly fluid in membership and given t seasnal fissins and fusins is still pen t debate, althugh the latter view is perhaps better supprted. Strage f resurces seems t have been imprtant, and sme signs f intensive resurce use are evident. Basic cnceptual tls fr discussing prehistric settlement systems are at hand. Middlerange thery t link archaelgical bservatins with interpretive cnclusins is being develped, and sme f thse necessary tls are available. The mst serius bstacle t advances in settlement studies in San Dieg Cunty seems t be the weakness f the mechanisms which are in place fr ensuring that the hst f particularistic archaelgical investigatins prduce relevant and cmparable empirical data and that these data are effectively integrated int a reginal scheme f research. T die extent that this latter bstacle is vercme, significant advances can be expected. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Over the years, the wrk f many San Dieg clleagues has stimulated the ideas expressed here. The supprt and critical feedback frm Mike Glassw and ther Jurnal editrs and reviewers are greatly appreciated. REFERENCES Bean, Lwell Jhn, and Harry W. Lawtn 1973 Sme Explanatins fr the Rise f Cultural Cmplexity in Native Califrnia with Cmments n Prt-Agriculture and Agriculture. In: Patterns f Indian Burning in Califrnia: Eclgy and Ethnhistry, by Henry T. Lewis, pp. v-xlvii. Ramna: Ballena Press. Bean, Lwell Jhn, and Katherine Siva Saubel 1972 Temalpakh: Cahuilla Indian Knwledge and Usage f Plants. Banning: Maiki Museum Press. Beck, Rman F Prehistric Settlement Patterns in Ls Peiiasquits Canyn. Prceedings f the Sciety fr Califrnia Archaelgy 6: Bettinger, Rbert L Hunter-Gatherers: Archaelgical and Evlutinary Thery. New Yrk: Plenum Press. Binfrd, Lewis R Willw Smke and Dgs' Tails: Hunter- Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaelgical Site Frmatin. American Antiquity 45(l): The Archaelgy f Place. Jurnal f Anthrplgical Archaelgy 1(1): Wrking at Archaelgy. New Yrk: Academic Press. Byrd, Brian F Old Prblems and New Perspectives n the Archaic f Castal Suthern Califrnia: Recent Results frm Camp Pendletn. Paper presented at the annual meetings f the Sciety fr Califrnia Archaelgy, Bakersfield. Byrd, Brian F., Jhn R. Ck, and Carl Serr 1993 Archaelgical Investigatins f Multi- Cmpnent Archaic and Late Prehistric Residential Camps Alng the Sweetwater River, Ranch San Dieg, Califrnia. Reprt n file at the Suth Castal Infrmatin Center, San Dieg State University. Carric, Richard L Rck Rms, Stacks, and Granary Basins: The Stne Architecture f Westwd Valley. Prceedings f the Sciety fr Califrnia Archaelgy 1: Christensn, Lynne Elizabeth 1990 The Late Prehistric Yuman Peple f San Dieg Cunty, Califrnia: Their Setdement and Subsistence System. Ph.D. dissertatin, Arizna State University.
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