1 Interdependencies among payment and settlement systems Overview of forms and challenges for risk management Denis Beau Chairman of the CPSS working group on system interdependencies Bank of England/ECB Conference on Payments and monetary and financial stability November 12-13,
2 What are interdependencies, and Why do they matter? Interdependencies arise when the settlement flows, operational processes or risk management procedures of one system are related to those of other systems Interdependencies potentially can simultaneously: Improve the safety and efficiency of payment and settlement processes Allow financial disruptions to be passed more easily and more quickly across systems, their participants and related markets, accentuating their role in transmitting disruptions (Ferguson report) 2
3 Forms of interdependencies Interdependencies arise from: Direct relationships among systems Indirect relationships among systems due to the activities of financial institutions, Environmental factors: the dependence of multiple systems on common third-parties, on common markets, etc That reflect multiple activities and purposes: Clearing and settlement channels/arrangements Operational processes and facilities Risk management 3
4 Taxonomy Table 1: Selected examples of interdependencies arising from relationships Type of Relationship: Clearing and Settlement Risk management General Operations Form of Interdependencies : System-based CCP and CSD links to LVPS systems for money settlements Cross-margining between two CCPs Shared operational resources or facilities between systems under common ownership Institution-based Direct and indirect participation of large financial institutions in multiple systems Provision of back-up liquidity to a system by large financial institutions Provision of operational services to systems by large financial institutions Environment-based Common collateral valuation methodologies for CCPs Common third-party IT or telecommunications service providers to multiple systems 4
5 Factors influencing interdependencies Four key and interrelated forces and policies: Globalisation and regional integration Consolidation Public policies Technological innovations The influence of these forces and polices take place in the context of the effort of central banks and other authorities together with market participants to increase efficiency and reduce risks in systems. Central banks have promoted some forms of interdependencies, particularly system-based (eg DVP and PVP links) 5
6 Extent of Interdependencies Interdependencies are particularly strong on a domestic basis Comprehensive web of clearing and settlement relationships among key domestic systems (CCP to CSD, CCP to LVPS, LVPS to CSD) Significant overlap in the participant base of domestic systems, leading to strong interdependencies of liquidity flows across systems To a lesser degree, some reliance on common service providers, and some risk-management links (cross-margining, common default definitions, etc) Focused interdependencies on a cross-border basis CLS-related relationships are well known Widespread reliance on SWIFT But, role of institution-based links currently less clear; may continue to grow in importance going forward 6
7 Profiles of global banks Global settlement activity Reliance on correspondents and custodians Mixed approach Self-clearing Significant selfclearing Less More Very significant Significant Moderate
8 Implications for risks in payment and settlement systems Specific sources of several risks have been eliminated, or reduced Principal credit risk: implementation of DVP and PVP Operational risk: links among systems can help with STP Liquidity risk and settlement asset risk: central bank money has lower credit risk and liquidity risk (more assurance in its provision vs correspondents) But, new sources of risk have been introduced These risks are often cross-system in nature, meaning that a disruption in one system may have direct implications for the smooth functioning of a second system Obvious examples at the system level (DVP links, CLS, etc); but, can also be at the institution level if flows in one system are conditional on those in another And, concentration in the sources of risks have been accentuated Multiple systems now face common risks from key systems (RTGS), large financial institutions, and key service providers (eg SWIFT) 8
9 Implications for transmission of disruptions Specific sources of several risks have been eliminated, or reduced Principal credit risk: implementation of DVP and PVP Operational risk: links among systems can help with STP Liquidity risk and settlement asset risk: links among systems facilitate the use of central bank money But, new sources of risk have been introduced These risks are often cross-system in nature, meaning that a disruption in one system may have direct implications for the smooth functioning of a second system Obvious examples at the system level (DVP links, CLS, etc); but, can also be at the institution level And, concentration in the sources of risks have been accentuated Multiple systems now face common risks from key systems (RTGS), large financial institutions, and key service providers (eg SWIFT) 9
10 challenges for risk management? field of vision Operational and liquidity risk management of systems, institutions and service providers at the centre of key interdependencies Testing Information sharing and coordination 10
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