ArcGIS Server Security Threats & Best Practices David Cordes Michael Young

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1 ArcGIS Server Security Threats & Best Practices 2014 David Cordes Michael Young

2 Agenda Introduction Threats Best practice - ArcGIS Server settings - Infrastructure settings - Processes Summary

3 Introduction Application Security Risks * OWASP Top

4 Threats Standardized Vulnerability Ranking Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) - Open and standardized method for rating IT vulnerabilities - Overall score based on input from 3 scores - Base - Temporal - Environmental

5 Threats Calculate Your Vulnerability Risk NIST online calculator for calculating vulnerability risk

6 Attacks Injection What - Tricking an application into including unintended commands in the data set to an interpreter Example - Attacker sends attack in form data, such as or 1=1 - Application forwards attack to database in a SQL query - Database runs modified query containing attack and sends results to app Recommendations - Utilize standardized queries added in Minimize database privileges to reduce impact

7 Attacks Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) What - Raw data from attacker is sent to an innocent user s browser Example - Attacker sets trap by entering a malicious script into a web page that stores the data on the server - Victim views the page and the script runs inside the victim s browser with full access to the DOM and cookies - Script silently sends attacker victim s session cookie Recommendations - Don t include user supplied input in the output page - Ensure any ArcGIS Server security patches are applied

8 Attacks Security Misconfiguration What - Web applications rely on a secure foundation from OS up through Application Server Example - Install backdoor through missing OS or server patch - Accidentally exposing ArcGIS Admin and Manager interfaces to Internet Recommendations - Ensure security patches in place e.g. OpenSSL/Heartbleed - Utilize the ArcGIS Web Adaptor - Server hardening guide coming

9 Attacks Sensitive Data Exposure What - Storing and transmitting sensitive data insecurely Example - Victim enters sensitive information in a form - Error handler logs sensitive info - Logs accessible to all IT staff for debugging purposes providing opportunity for malicious insider to review sensitive info Recommendations - Utilize encryption and ensure rigorous key management - Require SSL for services

10 Attacks Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) What - Victim s browser is tricked into issuing a command to a vulnerable web app Example - Attacker sets trap on a website or Hidden <img> tag contains attack against vulnerable site - While logged onto vulnerable site, victim views attackers site where the <img> tag is loaded by browser, sending GET request (including credentials) to vulnerable site - Vulnerable site sees legitimate request from victim and performs the action requested Recommendations - Properly encode all input on the way out.

11 Attacks Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities What - Vulnerable components are common can be identified and exploited with automated tools Example - Vulnerable framework library incorporated as part of web application - Developer does not know dependent component being used, let alone the version - Results in application weakness such as injection, broken access control, XSS Recommendations - Incorporate automated checks for libraries being out of date, such as Maven Versions Plugin - Subscribe to Trust.ArcGIS.com feed soon for security patch info

12 Attacks Un-validated Redirects and Forwards What - Web application redirect includes user supplied parameters in the destination URL and are not validated Example - Attacker sends attack to victims /webpage - Victim clicks link containing un-validated parameter and app redirects victim to attacker s site. Attackers site installs malware on victim system Recommendations - Minimize use of redirects and validate target URL to ensure authorized external site

13 Attacks Risk Factor Summary

14 Best Practices

15 Disable the primary site administrator Enterprise users? Recommend: Disable the Primary Site Administrator (PSA) account Can be re-enabled if locked out of ArcGIS Server

16 Worried about token sniffing? How do tokens work? Recommend: Use https and shorten the max token times

17 Disable Services Directory What is services directory? Recommend: Disable on non-development machines

18 Limiting access to your web services Which web apps can access your services? Default: Any Recommend: Specify

19 Preventing Injection and Spying Use HTTPS for everything Don t use dynamic work spaces Upgrade to 10.2 or later

20 Infrastructure Settings

21 Infrastructure Settings 1. Firewall Ports 2. Least privileges 3. Protect the config-store

22 Firewall ports Product Port Purpose Who Accesses Server 6080 Service Access Web Adaptor or Reverse Proxy Server 6443 Encrypted Access Web Adaptor or Reverse Proxy Portal 7080 Service Access Web Adaptor or Reverse Proxy Portal 7443 Encrypted Access Web Adaptor or Reverse Proxy Server Internal communications Other machines in site

23 Least privileges 10.0 and prior admin required 10.1 and later minimal privileges Windows - run as a service. Linux use SELinux

24 Protect your config-store at all costs config-store and directories must be secured Be paranoid don t even allow read access Securing Your ArcGIS for Server

25 Processes

26 Simple processes go a long way. 1. Monitor your logs 2. Review elevated privileges 3. Change SSL certs yearly 4. Change token key yearly

27 Monitor the logs ArcGIS Server logs dodgy things. Bad password attempts Locked out accounts Potential CSRF attacks and IP

28 Review Elevated Privileges Admin API (10.2+) Review groups with publisher, administrator privileges

29

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