1 Personal Bankruptcy and the Mortgage Crisis Michelle J. White UCSD and NBER
2 What I ll talk about: Why have a personal bankruptcy law? US bankruptcy law and changes under the 2005 bankruptcy reform. Can bankruptcy help solve the mortgage crisis?
3 Bankruptcy provides consumption insurance to debtors Individuals benefit from borrowing, but face risk. Bankruptcy reduces downside risk by discharging some debt when ability-to-repay falls. This makes risk-averse debtors better off. States with higher exemptions provide more complete consumption insurance.
4 Bankruptcy encourages entrepreneurship Risk-averse individuals are more willing to start businesses if the cost of failure is lower. Evidence shows that states with more generous bankruptcy exemptions have more entrepreneurs.
5 But a generous bankruptcy law: reduces credit availability/raises interest rates This applies to: Consumer credit Small business credit Credit to small corporations encourages opportunistic behavior
6 US Personal Bankruptcy Law Two procedures Chapters 7 and 13
7 Chapter 7 Unsecured debt is discharged. Debtors must use assets above an exemption to repay. All future income is exempt. Some states have high homestead exemptions in these states debtors can keep high income and high assets. Prior to 2005, 70% of filings were Ch 7.
8 Chapter 13 Unsecured debt is discharged. Debtors must use some future income to repay debt for 3-5 years. All assets are exempt. Ch 13 mainly used by debtors to save their houses or cars (mortgages and car loans aren t discharged in bankruptcy).
9 Sounds pretty favorable to debtors
10 Bankruptcy filings rose 5-fold from bankruptcy filings bankruptcy filings
11 But pro-debtor bankruptcy law doesn t explain the rise in filings. What does?
12 Consumer and mortgage debt /median income, consumer debt /median income mortgage debt/ median income
13 Rising Debt Relative to Income Consumer debt/ median Income Mortgage debt/ median income 3% 13% 56% 150%
14 Lenders lobbied heavily for bankruptcy reform What did they get? New means test forces high-income debtors to file under Chapter 13 and repay some unsecured debt (not very strict). Higher bankruptcy costs discourage all debtors from filing.
15 Effects of the 2005 reforms Filings fell from 2 million in 2005 to 600,000 in 2006, but rose to 800,000 in Higher debt: Consumer debt/hh rose 13% and mortgage debt/hh rose 16% from Lower charge-off rate on credit card loans. More Ch 13 bankruptcies.
16 How does bankruptcy help debtors save their homes?
17 Homeowners and Ch 7 Ch 7 helps homeowners because credit card debt is discharged, so paying the mortgage is easier. But Ch 7 doesn t stop foreclosure. Since 2005, some debtors can t pass the means test for Ch 7. Homestead exemption is capped at $125,000 if debtors moved in the past 3.5 years.
18 Homeowners and Ch 13 Stops foreclosure and allows debtors to repay mortgage arrears over 5 years under a repayment plan. Most unsecured debt is discharged b/c mortgage is paid first. But no mortgage forgiveness in bankruptcy. Not changed in 2005.
19 How are debtors using Chapter 13? Repay unsecured debt or save their homes?
20 Debtors are using Chapter 13 to save their homes/cars In a 2006 sample, 96% of Ch 13 filers were homeowners. 78% passed the means test, so they could have filed under Ch 7. What debtors repaid in Ch 13 plans: -- 78% repaid mortgages % repaid car loans. -- only 9% repaid just unsecured debt. But Ch 13 doesn t help the mortgage crisis.
21 Bankruptcy and The Mortgage Crisis 2.7 million foreclosures occurred in 2007 and 2008; 2 million more to come. Foreclosures have very high costs: Owners lose since they must move; Some become homeless; Lenders lose 1/2 of loan value; Neighborhoods harmed because vacancies cause blight/disease; Cities lose property tax revenue. Foreclosures lead to yet more foreclosures
22 Solutions 1: renegotiate mortgage contracts Avoiding foreclosure is in both sides interest. But little renegotiation has occurred why? Most mortgages are in securities that limit or prohibit changes in financial terms. Mortgage servicers fear liability if they renegotiate. Servicers are paid for foreclosing, not renegotiating. Second mortgage-holders can block refinancing of first mortgages. Private mortgage holders prefer foreclosure.
23 Solutions 2: Government programs Hope Now program to encourage voluntary renegotiation. It did little. Hope for Homeowners passed July Government will issue new mortgages. Program requires old lenders to consent. This means adverse selection (large losses for government) and tough bargaining by lenders (some worthwhile refinancing won t occur).
24 Solutions 3: Bankruptcy approach Allow bankruptcy judges to strip-down mortgages in bankruptcy. Divide mortgage into: secured part = current market value and unsecured part = the remainder. The unsecured part could be discharged or partially repaid, like other unsecured debt.
25 Solutions 3: cont. Judges could also: Reduce the principle or interest rate. Discharge excessive fees. Lenders consent not required, so no renegotiation problem and no adverse selection. Bankruptcy trustees could spot opportunism since bankruptcy requires extensive documentation.
26 Solutions 3: cont. Possible drawbacks: Mortgage interest rates might rise? Reduced supply of credit card loans because more would be discharged.
27 Bankruptcy approach provides an alternate route for debtors if: lenders refuse their consent or government programs run out of money.
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