Nomadic Positioning Services for a Mobile Services Platform

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1 Nomadic Positioning s for a Mobile Platform E.A.M. Schoot Uiterkamp Thesis for a Master of Science degree in Telematics from the University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 26 August 2005

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3 Nomadic Positioning s for a Mobile Platform E.A.M. Schoot Uiterkamp Thesis for a Master of Science degree in Telematics from the University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 26 August 2005 University of Twente Department EWI Architecture and s of Network Applications Graduation Committee: Dr. ir. A.T. van Halteren Dr. ir. D.A.C. Quartel B.B. Shishkov, Msc.

4 ii Nomadic Positioning s for a Mobile s Platform

5 Abstract There is a growing number of people that carry a personal mobile device, such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) or a smartphone. These mobile devices are becoming more and more powerful. Processing power increases and a growing number of mobile devices is equipped with wireless networking capabilities, such as WLAN, GPRS, UMTS or Bluetooth. These trends enable a new way of service provisioning, called nomadic service provisioning. This type of service provisioning envisions the use of personal mobile devices as a platform for the deployment of services. Individuals start acting as service providers to others located anywhere on the Internet. Due to temporary unavailability of the mobile device (e.g. as a result of network disruptions or battery failure) nomadic services are offered on an ad-hoc basis. This thesis investigates a software infrastructure for nomadic service provisioning. This software infrastructure, called Mobile Platform (MSP), aims to simplify the development of nomadic mobile services. In this thesis MSP is used to develop a nomadic positioning service. A nomadic positioning service offers the position of the mobile device to interested parties. However when designing such a service a number of issues have to be taken care of. The processing power of mobile devices has increased, but is still limited. Wireless networks are slow compared to fixed networks and the user may have to pay for the amount of data that is communicated. Therefore the design of the nomadic positioning service meets with the following requirements: a) Efficient use of bandwidth the amount of data traveling between the mobile device and the (fixed) Internet can be tuned to the capacity and cost of the available wireless technology; b) Numerical scalability the bandwidth usage on the wireless link does not increase with the number of parties interested in the location of a mobile device; c) Plug-and-work no additional configuration is required for publishing services when new devices come online; Besides the limited processing power and limited network capacity, a mobile environment introduces a number of other challenges, such as Network Address Translation (NAT), Automatic Private IP Addressing and temporary service unavailability because of broken network connections. Another issue that needs to be taken care of is that position information is considered privacy-sensitive information. The last issue is that the used positioning technologies may not be available or applicable at any time. Therefore the nomadic positioning service provides a technology independent way to determine the position of a mobile device, supporting GPS, WiFi, Bluetooth and possibly other technologies for positioning. To satisfy these requirements the nomadic positioning service uses a service discovery architecture combined with positioning software. discovery protocols make it possible to offer services to anyone, anywhere over the network without any additional configuration after the first set up. The Jini Surrogate architecture is a service discovery architecture that defines protocols for service discovery. The Jini Surrogate architecture specifies a protocol-independent structure that allows for an efficient way to offer nomadic services over a network. MSP provides an HTTP based implementation of the Jini Surrogate architecture. The Jini Surrogate Architecture specification defines how services can join a Jini network using a iii

6 surrogate service. The surrogate service runs in the fixed network and acts as a proxy on behalf of a device. All communication to the nomadic service runs transparently through the surrogate service. This allows for optimization of the amount of data that is communicated via the wireless network. When more parties are interested in the position of the mobile device, requests from these parties can be combined into one request to the nomadic service or these requests can be answered by the surrogate with the last known position of the mobile device. This optimizes the amount of data communicated over the wireless network and prevents an increase in the amount of resources needed from the device and wireless network when more parties are interested in the position. Alternatives to the Jini Surrogate architecture, such as SLP or UPnP can be used for service discovery. These technologies however do not provide any functionality to optimize usage of the wireless network and processing power in the mobile device. Place Lab is a Java library that provides functionality for determining the position of a device using GPS, WIFI, GSM, Bluetooth and other technologies. In the nomadic positioning service WiFi will be used for the positioning for demonstration purposes. Place Lab offers functionality to calculate the position of the mobile device on the device itself. This allows the service to send only the calculated position and no other privacy sensitive information to the service user. Place Lab however only provides position information on the device but does not allow others to retrieve the device position. This Masters Thesis demonstrates the feasibility of nomadic positioning services, while dealing with the requirements and issues mentioned above, using a combination of the Jini Surrogate architecture and Place Lab. Along the way, problems with the Jini Surrogate Architecture, MSP, Place Lab and the used positioning hardware are reported. For some of these problems a solution is presented; others are left for further research. iv

7 Preface This Masters Thesis involves research, design and implementation on nomadic positioning services. Combining Place Lab positioning technologies with the Jini Surrogate architecture seems a promising way to realize positioning services in a device and network independent way. This thesis researches whether this combination is as ideal as it looks. This Masters Thesis was carried out internally, at the University of Twente in Enschede from January until July I would like to thank my supervisors Aart van Halteren, Dick Quartel en Boris Shishkov. With their comments, help and suggestions I enjoyed working on this assignment and was able to finish it. I want to thank Peter van Tol and Rob Schoot Uiterkamp who took the time to read this thesis and gave me good advice and comments on how to improve it. Furthermore I want to thank my family, friends and student colleagues for the moral support and their critical view on what I was doing. Emiel Schoot Uiterkamp Enschede, 26 th of August 2005 v

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9 Table of Contents ABSTRACT... III PREFACE... V TABLE OF CONTENTS... VII 1 INTRODUCTION THE FREEBAND AWARENESS PROJECT Goal of the AWARENESS project The AWARENESS Infrastructure NOMADIC SERVICES NOMADIC POSITIONING SERVICES COMBINING SERVICE DISCOVERY AND POSITIONING SOFTWARE AS A SOLUTION RESEARCH QUESTIONS APPROACH Background Design and implementation of a Nomadic Positioning Evaluation THESIS STRUCTURE BACKGROUND POSITIONING HARDWARE GPS GSM triangulation WIFI Access Points Bluetooth beacons Sensors POSITIONING SOFTWARE JSR Place Lab NetStumbler WiFiFoFum SERVICE DISCOVERY Jini Jini Surrogate Architecture SLP UPnP SECURITY AND PRIVACY CONCLUSION DESIGN OF A NOMADIC POSITIONING SERVICE INTRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS Functionality Performance Scalability Reliability Manageability Privacy HIGH-LEVEL DESIGN THE MOBILE SERVICES PLATFORM HTTPInterconnect vii

10 3.5 THE POSITIONING SERVICE The Jini service interface MSPLocation THE SERVICE USER VALUE-ADDED SERVICE Requirements High-Level Design Mapper service Changes to the MSPLocation EVALUATION OF THE NOMADIC POSITIONING SERVICE REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION Functionality Performance Scalability Reliability and Manageability Privacy EVALUATION OF THE VALUE-ADDED SERVICE ENCOUNTERED PROBLEMS CONCLUSION CONCLUSIONS AN EFFICIENT AND PRIVACY SENSITIVE WAY TO OFFER POSITION INFORMATION CHALLENGES IN A MOBILE ENVIRONMENT TECHNOLOGY INDEPENDENT POSITIONING CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH FURTHER RESEARCH ON THE JINI SURROGATE ARCHITECTURE FURTHER RESEARCH ON PLACE LAB BIBLIOGRAPHY GLOSSARY APPENDICES APPENDIX A: CLASS DIAGRAM MSPLOCATIONSERVICE SERVER APPENDIX B: CLASS DIAGRAM MSPLOCATIONSERVICE SURROGATE APPENDIX C: CLASS DIAGRAM MSPLOCATIONSERVICE CLIENT viii

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13 1 Introduction More and more people own a personal mobile device such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) or a smartphone. Processing power in these personal mobile devices is increasing and mobile devices are more and more equipped with wireless networking capabilities, such as WLAN, GPRS, UMTS and Bluetooth. These different types of networks enable the devices to communicate with each other and with their environment. Based on knowledge about their environment and near devices mobile devices can identify their location and their context. The increasing processing power of these mobile devices and the advance in wireless connectivity (WLAN, GPRS, UMTS and Bluetooth) allow for a new way of service provisioning, called nomadic service provisioning. Nomadic service provisioning allows individuals to deploy a so called nomadic service on a mobile device. Individuals can act as service providers by offering a nomadic service to interested parties via the Internet. These nomadic services are offered on an ad-hoc basis to users (due to possible temporary unavailability as a result of network disruptions or battery failure). Within the Freeband AWARENESS project a Mobile s Platform (MSP) has been developed. The MSP is a software infrastructure that aims to simplify the development of nomadic services. Location based services are services that use the ability of context-awareness to provide users of mobile devices with personalized services tailored to a specific location. As a result of increasing processing power and an advance in wireless connectivity, the application range of location based services is rapidly developing, particularly in the field of geographic, telematic, traffic, tourist and logistic services. An example of a location based service is a service that gives information about nearby restaurants. [Mah04] Another example is a nomadic positioning service. A nomadic positioning service is a nomadic service that offers the position of the mobile device to interested parties via a network. However when designing such a nomadic positioning service a number of issues have to be taken care of. The processing power of mobile devices has increased, but is still limited. Wireless networks are slow compared to fixed networks and the user may have to pay for the amount of data that is communicated. Therefore the design of the nomadic positioning service meets with the following requirements: a) Efficient use of bandwidth the amount of data traveling between the mobile device and the (fixed) Internet can be tuned to the capacity and cost of the available wireless technology; b) Numerical scalability the bandwidth usage on the wireless link does not increase with the number of parties interested in the location of a mobile device; c) Plug-and-work no additional configuration is required for publishing services when new devices come online; Besides the limited processing power and limited network capacity, the combination of mobile devices and wireless networks introduces a number of challenges specific for mobile computing environments. Examples of these challenges are Network Address Translation (NAT), Automatic Private IP Addressing and temporary service unavailability because of broken network connections. Another issue is that the used positioning technologies may not be available or applicable at any time. Therefore the nomadic positioning service provides a technology independent way to determine the position of a mobile device, supporting GPS, WiFi, Bluetooth and possibly other technologies for positioning. 1

14 To satisfy these requirements the nomadic positioning service can use a service discovery architecture combined with positioning software. discovery protocols make it possible to offer services to anyone, anywhere over the network without any additional configuration after the first set up. The Jini Surrogate architecture is a service discovery architecture that defines protocols for service discovery. The Jini Surrogate architecture specification is independent of the used protocol for communication. MSP provides an HTTP based implementation of the Jini Surrogate architecture. This implementation can cope with the challenges of the mobile environment. Furthermore is may solve some of the efficiency issues mentioned before. Alternatives for the Jini Surrogate architecture are the Location Protocol (SLP) or Universal Plug and Play (UPnP). There is a Java library, Place Lab, that provides functionality for determining the position of a device using e.g. GPS, WIFI, GSM or Bluetooth beacons. This library allows switching between available positioning technologies. It however only provides position information on the device but does not allow others to retrieve the position of the device. Combining this positioning technology with a service discovery architecture seems a promising way to realize positioning services in a device and network independent way. This chapter starts with an overview of the objectives of the AWARENESS project, in which the MSP has been developed. One of the features of the AWARENESS infrastructure is the development of nomadic services. In the second section the concept of nomadic services is introduced. In the third section the nomadic positioning service and the problems that arise when designing and implementing such a nomadic positioning service are considered. In the fourth section the Jini Surrogate architecture is introduced as a possible solution to these problems. Finally the approach that will be taken to prove whether this assumption is correct is explained. 1.1 The Freeband AWARENESS project Context-awareness allows for a new type of context-aware network and service infrastructure. The Freeband AWARENESS project aims at researching and designing such an infrastructure to support context-aware mobile applications. The Freeband AWARENESS project is a Dutch collaborative project on context AWARE mobile NEtworks and S. Eight partners from industry and academia work together in this project (Lucent Technologies, University of Twente, Roessingh R&D, Telematica Instituut, Twente Institute for Wireless and Mobile Communications, Ericsson, Yucat, Twente Medical Systems International). [AWA05] Goal of the AWARENESS project The goal of the Freeband AWARENESS project is to research and design a service and network infrastructure for context-aware and pro-active mobile applications, and validate this through prototyping with mobile health applications. In the AWARENESS project vision a human user is always and everywhere surrounded by a networking environment ('ubiquitous') that is able to determine the identity of the user and the (upcoming) context information that is (or might become) relevant to service provisioning ('attentiveness'), such that the user can have anywhere, anytime access to mobile services in a secure and privacy-sensitive manner The AWARENESS Infrastructure The AWARENESS network and service architecture consists of three layers (figure 1.1): the Network Infrastructure Layer, the Infrastructure Layer and the Mobile Applications Layer. The Network Infrastructure Layer and the Infrastructure Layer form the real AWARENESS infrastructure. The Mobile Application Layer consists of the (prototype) health applications that are used to validate the infrastructure. 2

15 The network Mobile Application Layer infrastructure provides Context-aware, pro-active context-aware mobility support in a dynamic network environment Infrastructure where unmanaged and Generic service components managed networks coexist. The network Security and identity AWARENESS Context management supports context-aware Infrastructure mobility by taking the Network Infrastructure context of the user into Context-aware mobility support account when controlling the connectivity that is provided to this user, for instance, dynamic Figure 1.1: The AWARENESS Infrastructure routing protocols, security settings and network selection. Furthermore the network provides a source of context information, such as presence information or available bandwidth. The service infrastructure consists of generic service components that support easy and rapid development of ubiquitous attentive applications. The support functionalities include context management, intelligent context information processing, federated identity management, third party access control, mobility management, service discovery, privacy enforcement and security mechanisms. The AWARENESS infrastructure is validated by prototyping context-aware and proactive mobile applications. Most applications in the AWARENESS project are in the healthcare domain. AWARENESS will develop a mobile health service platform and health applications. 1.2 Nomadic s One of the promising features the AWARENESS infrastructure offers is the development of nomadic services. Nomadic services are services that can be offered by a mobile device. These nomadic services are offered on an ad-hoc basis to users (or even to other services). Because nomadic services are offered by a mobile device, they may enter or exit the network on arbitrary moments. Mobile Device Nomadic 2,5G or 3G Network Fixed or Mobile Device Internet Provider User Figure 1.2: A Nomadic Provider and User Figure 1.2 shows a nomadic service provider offering a service on a mobile device. The service may be offered through a 2,5G or 3G network as well as through any other wireless network. This network is connected to the Internet, via which the service user on a fixed or mobile device can use the service. 3

16 An important issue for nomadic services is efficient communication. Because part of the communication runs over a wireless network (in which the user has to pay for the data that is communicated), it is important that the amount of data communicated over the wireless network can be optimized. Preferably the amount of resources needed from the device and wireless network do not increase when more parties are interested in the nomadic service. This improves scalability. Nomadic services may appear and disappear because of network availability or other issues. Once set up it should require minimal (preferably zero) configuration to support additional mobile devices. Another important issue is privacy. Because the nomadic service may share privacysensitive information, it must be guaranteed that this information is not available for everyone. It should be possible to authenticate the service users that are able to receive this information. Furthermore as less privacy sensitive information as possible should be sent through the wireless network. Because nomadic services run in a mobile environment a number of challenges may be encountered. Examples of such challenges are Network Address Translation (NAT), Automatic Private IP Addressing, temporary unavailable because of limited network connection, limited processing power and limited battery power. [Hal04] Network Address Translation (NAT) is the translation of an IP address used within one network to a different IP address known inside another network. Mobile devices are connected to for example a 2.5 or 3G network, which is connected to the Internet via a router. The mobile devices have a local IP address on the 2.5 or 3G network, all local IP addresses are mapped to one global IP address on the Internet. This helps to ensure security and reduces the demand on the (limited) number of global IP addresses. However, NAT inhibits hosts connected to the public Internet to initiate a connection to a host behind a NAT router. Consequently, initiating a connection to a service deployed on a mobile device becomes practically impossible. Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) is a feature that enables a device to assign itself an IP address when there is no DHCP server available to perform that function. When a mobile device enters a network without a DHCP server, it may assign itself a IP address, however this address is not known by other devices in the network. The IP address cannot be resolved through a DNS service. Consequently, finding the IP address of a service deployed on a mobile device becomes practically impossible. Mobile devices use a wireless network to communicate. These networks can be temporarily unavailable because of interference or other reasons. When a service is offered via this network, the service is also unavailable. Limited processing and battery power of a mobile device limit the life-time of services that are offered on that device. A developer of nomadic services needs to keep these limitations in mind. To make a service available to service users, communication between the service user and the service needs to be established. In fixed networks the position of a service (e.g. the host it runs on) can be fixed and therefore the service user can easily connect to the service. In a mobile environment however this is not the case. s may appear and disappear whenever they want and run on different positions (on one host, but with a changing address because of roaming through different networks). If the position of the service is not fixed there are several ways to make the service available to other users. One way is advertising the service using service discovery protocols, such the Jini, SLP or UPnP. These service discovery protocols allow services to be advertised on the network and allow service users to discover and connect to these services. To make these protocols work in a mobile environment, they need to be able to cope with the challenges of the mobile environment. 4

17 1.3 Nomadic Positioning s There are many services one can offer on a mobile device. An example of a useful nomadic service is a nomadic positioning service. A nomadic positioning service is a service that can offer the current position of a mobile device (and its owner) to other users. Such a service may be used as a standalone service or as a building block for other services. The standalone service can be used to find your friends or it can be used by parents who want to know where their children are. The positioning service may also be used by value-added services, to which the position of the service is relevant. FLAVOUR is a friendly location-aware conference aid with privacy observant architecture. The FLAVOUR project offers a conference aid, which will be provided for the first time to the participants of the fourth Annual Conference on Scalable Vector Graphics (SVGOpen 2005) taking place in August at University of Twente. This conference aid can find fellow attendees, locate and use resources and receive messages and notifications. This aid uses the nomadic positioning service to locate the attendees. FLAVOUR is a service that acts as a service user. [Mut05] An example of a value-added service that enhances the basic functionality of the nomadic positioning service is a database Mobile Device Nomadic Positioning Positioning Software Positioning Hardware GPS, GSM, WiFi, etc. Figure 1.3: Nomadic Positioning on a Mobile Device service with a database, in which the position of beacons (GPS, WIFI access points, GSM cells, Bluetooth beacons, etc) can be stored. Users can download a databaseview with position information of all known beacons around their current position (based on at least one detected beacon). When a user detects a beacon that is not already in the database, information about this beacon can be added to the database. To offer the current position of the mobile device (on which the service runs) to service users, the service must be able to determine the position of the mobile device. There are several types of positioning hardware, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), Bluetooth, WIFI, GSM and others. Positioning hardware is able to detect corresponding beacons. Which technology should be used depends on the available technologies on the mobile device. Furthermore it depends on the situation in which it is used, because each technology has its own advantages. Based on the detected beacons, the response time of the beacons and signal strength the position of a device can be determined by positioning software. Positioning software uses certain algorithms to determine the position. Several algorithms are available for the different positioning hardware, each varying in complexity and accuracy. Depending on the desired accuracy and the used positioning hardware suitable positioning software can be chosen. This positioning software provides functionality to determine the position of the mobile device. It however does not offer functionality to provide the position of the device to other users. Combining the positioning software with a service discovery architecture may solve this issue. 5

18 1.4 Combining service discovery and positioning software as a solution Before a service user can use the service, a connection needs to be established between the service user and the service. In traditional networks the address of a service is most of the time fixed and therefore the service user can easily find and connect to the service. In a mobile environment however this is not the case. s may appear and disappear whenever they want and run on different positions (on one host, but with a changing address because of roaming through different networks). To allow service users to connect to a nomadic service, service discovery protocols are required. A service discovery architecture is an architecture that allows services to be published, invoked and discovered via a network. Such an architecture makes it possible to offer services to anyone, anywhere over the network. It makes the network more dynamic by enabling the ability to add and delete services flexibly. A service discovery architecture in general consists of a service provider, a service registry and a service user. The service provider can register its service with the service registry. The service user is able to search the service registry to find a service that it requires. Using a service discovery architecture the nomadic positioning service is able to offer its service to interested parties. Provider Nomadic Registry Internet User Figure 1.4: Discovery Architecture There are a number of service discovery architectures that can be used, such as Jini and the Jini Surrogate architecture, SLP or UPnP. Each architecture offers its own advantages and disadvantage. Jini and SLP focus on a large scale network, such as the Internet, UPnP focuses on a smaller home network. The features, advantages and disadvantages of these different architectures have to be compared and the most ideal one will be used in the design and implementation of the nomadic positioning service. Positioning software is software that is able to determine the position of a mobile device, based on positioning technologies such as GPS, WIFI, GSM or Bluetooth. These positioning technologies however may not be available or applicable at any time. Therefore the nomadic positioning service should use positioning software that supports several types of positioning technology. There is a Java library, Place Lab, that provides functionality for determining the position of a device supporting GPS, WIFI, GSM and Bluetooth. Combining a service discovery architecture and positioning software may allow design and implementation of a nomadic positioning service that meets the requirements that were set in the introduction. Furthermore this combination may solve the challenges of the mobile environment. 6

19 1.5 Research Questions A number of problems can be encountered when designing and implementing a nomadic positioning service. The design must be able to cope with these problems. Which hardware needs to be used for the positioning, how can the service be advertised and distributed through a network and how can one overcome the challenges of a mobile environment? The combination of a service discovery architecture and Place Lab seems a feasible approach to solve these problems. The main research question is: Is the combination of a service discovery architecture and Place Lab an efficient and privacy-sensitive way to realize nomadic positioning services in a device and network independent way? Before this question can be answered a few sub-questions need to be answered. Is it possible to design and implement a nomadic positioning service based on the combination of Place Lab and a service discovery architecture that is efficient in bandwidth usage, is numerical scalable and needs not additional configuration when new devices come online. Is it possible for a nomadic service to join a service discovery architecture, although the nomadic service may not be able to meet the requirements due to limited processing power and wireless network links? And is the service discovery architecture able to overcome the issues that may be encountered in a mobile environment, such as NAT, APIPA, failing wireless network connections and limited processing and battery power? Is it possible to provide a technology independent way to determine the location of a mobile device, based on GPS, WiFi, Bluetooth and possibly other technologies for positioning? These questions will be answered in this Masters Thesis. 1.6 Approach Several approaches can be taken to research whether combining the Place Lab positioning technology with a service discovery architecture is a feasible way to realize nomadic positioning services that meet the set requirements. This thesis starts with a literature study to get a view on the background and to determine with service discovery architecture seems the most ideal one for the development of a nomadic positioning service. Next a nomadic positioning service will be designed based on the combination of Place Lab and the chosen service discovery architecture. This design will be implemented and evaluated to see whether the requirements have been met and the challenges of the mobile environment have been overcome Background To get a good view of the context of the assignment, literature on the subject and on research that has already been done on this subject has been studied. More specific literature on service discovery architectures, Place Lab, J2ME (JSR82, JSR179, etc) and on the combination of these technologies has been studied. Good literature on these subjects has been found in the library of the University of Twente or on the Internet. discovery architectures provide a framework that can be used to advertise services over the network. Research will be done on these service discovery 7

20 architectures. The different architectures offer different ways to publish a service via a network. This research must answer how a service discovery architecture can be used to advertise a nomadic positioning service and which architecture seems the most ideal one for this task. Place Lab offers functionality to determine a users position based on hardware beacons. Place Lab can be used in several ways, such as stand-alone or integrated in the service. These ways will be compared and the best one will be used in the nomadic positioning service. Furthermore research will be done on determining or estimating a position based. There are different ways to determine and estimate a position of a mobile device. A number of simple Place Lab applications have been implemented to compare the different ways in which Place Lab can be used and how the position can be determined and estimated. To get familiar with Place Lab, the chosen service discovery architecture and other technologies that are important for this assignment, some basic services have been developed using these technologies. The development of these simple services gave a practical insight in what was described in literature. Furthermore the technologies have been combined in different ways to examine which combination was most suitable. To run a nomadic positioning service on a mobile device it is necessary to implement the service in J2ME (J2ME applications or midlets), because mobile devices (and especially devices with limited processing power) do not support J2EE Design and implementation of a Nomadic Positioning Based on the studied literature and the experience gained by developing some simple applications, a nomadic positioning service will be designed. This design starts with the refinement of the requirements. The requirements that were set in the introduction will be explained in more detail. Furthermore this design consists of a high-level overview of the different building blocks of which the nomadic positioning service consists. This design describes these building blocks and how they should be combined. In several steps these building block have been decomposed into smaller building blocks. To prove the usability of positioning technologies combined with the Jini Surrogate architecture for nomadic positioning services, value-added services have been developed. Value-added services are services that enhance the basic functionality of the nomadic positioning service. There are many possible value-added services that can be designed based on the nomadic positioning service. A database service that offers position information has been designed and implemented Evaluation Next, the nomadic positioning service is implemented according to the design. The implementation will be based on Place Lab combined with the chosen service discovery architecture. Finally, this implementation will be evaluated based on the requirements that were set before. The assumption that the combination of Place Lab with the chosen service discovery architecture is feasible is validated. The chosen service discovery architecture is evaluated and if necessary alternatives will be considered. Based on the evaluation of the design and implementation, conclusions can be drawn and advice for further research can be given. 8

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