September 3, Ric Boyd, Public Works Director Ketchikan Gateway Borough 344 Front St. Ketchikan, AK 99901

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1 September 3, 2009 Ric Boyd, Public Works Director Ketchikan Gateway Borough 344 Front St. Ketchikan, AK RE: Ketchikan Gateway Borough Gateway Recreation Center Roof Observations and Intrusive Inspections Dear Ric, Trinity ERD received a commission from Ketchikan Gateway Borough to investigate the sources of rust on the metal roofing panels at the Gateway Recreation Center in Ketchikan, AK. The Recreation Center is approximately ten years old. Recreation Center maintenance personal reported that areas of the metal roof were corroding on the underside of the panels, resulting in pin holes and surface corrosion on the top side of the panels. The standing seam metal roofing system is made up of the following components: Profiled acoustical steel deck Fiberglass insulation installed into the flutes of the decking Six mil polyethylene vapor retarder Eight inches of expanded polystyrene (R-33) 5/8 OSB sheathing adhered to the expanded polystyrene forming a composite One layer of ASTM D226 Type I (15#) roofing felt 24 ga, painted, standing seam metal roof, formed on site. Single panels span from eave to ridge or clerestory with no panel laps The roof slope at the roof area of interest (eave to clerestory) is approximately 4 of fall in every running foot on the clerestory side of the structure. Conditions on the adjoining, steeper roof plane were not investigated at this time.

2 Page 2 of 15 Roof Investigation An intrusive investigation was conducted on August 6, 2009 with the assistance of Tongass Construction, LLC. Two areas of metal panels were selected for intrusive investigation; these areas were identified as locations of prior interior leaks, as they had been patched with roof mastic to prevent further water entry. An additional opening was made where no surface deterioration was observed. All exploratory openings were made approximately 75% of the distance down-slope of the clerestory. Cuts were made approximately 15, 22, and 30 from the rake edge. At both test cuts where surface damage was observed, it was noted that the undersides of the metal panels were corroded, primarily in the area directly under and adjacent to the standing seam. The roofing felt exposed at the first two test cuts was observed to be saturated and in a state of deterioration. The OSB sheathing was wet, with a moisture content, by weight, of 32% across test cut #1 and as high as 30% at test cut #2. At the first test cut, the panel had corroded through from the interior face to exterior. After removal of the panel and saturated underlayment, a section of the OSB sheathing was removed, exposing the underlying expanded polystyrene insulation. The insulation was wet to the touch. The insulation was removed exposing the galvanized metal deck and acoustical insulation set into the perforated holes of the metal deck flutes. The top surface of the deck was wet to the touch and the fiberglass acoustical insulation had water beads on the surface. Photograph 1 Underside of Steel Acoustical Deck Note Perforations Along Flutes A third area of metal panel was cut in a location with no surface evidence of corrosion, paint blisters, or prior leak repairs. The underside of the metal roofing panel was wet to the touch with some signs of corrosion. The roofing felt and OSB sheathing were observed to be relatively dry. The attached photographs provide a step-by-step removal at the three openings.

3 Page 3 of 15 Photograph 2 - Overview of the Gateway Recreation Center Photograph 3 - Roofing Mastic Patches at Areas of Leakage Note the Extent of Patching. Panels Appear to be Corroding from the Inside Out.

4 Page 4 of 15 Photograph 4 - Corrosion Resulting in Hole Through Metal Roofing Panel Mastic Patch No Longer Stops Water Entry at this Repair. Photograph 5 - Example of Paint Blisters Filled with Water These are Likely the Beginnings of the Corrosion Deteriorating the Underside of the Metal Panel

5 Page 5 of 15 Photograph 6 - Removal of Metal Panel at Test Cut #1 Note Significant Corrosion and Saturated Organic Felt Underlayment. Photograph 7 - Note Level of Corrosion at Point of Eruption at Panel Surface. Felt is Deteriorated and Fully Saturated.

6 Page 6 of 15 Photograph 8 - TRAMEX Moisture Meter Reading of Exposed OSB Sheathing % at Point of Contact. Surface of OSB is Wet to the Touch. Photograph 9 - Exposed Expanded Polystyrene Insulation Observed to be Wet. Removal of Polystyrene Insulation Exposed a Galvanized Metal Deck with Acoustical Batts on the Flutes.

7 Page 7 of 15 Photograph 10 - Overview of Test Cut #2 Photograph 11 - Removal of Metal Panel at Test Cut #2 Note Corrosion and Wet Felt Eruption of the Panel is on the Opposite Side of the Standing Seam. Also Note Extensive Underside Corrosion Adjacent to Standing Seam and to Clip Fasteners. There is no Appreciable Withdrawal Resistance for the Fasteners Sealing the Clip to the OSB Sheathing.

8 Page 8 of 15 Photograph 12 - Moisture on Roofing Felt in Test Cut #2 is Greater than Test Cut #1. Free Water was Observed on the Underlayment Surface. Photograph 13 - Wet and Decayed OSB Sheathing in Test Cut #2 Moisture Level Varied from 30% at Red Arrow and 23% at Blue Arrow

9 Page 9 of 15 Photograph 14 - Overview of Test Cut #3 Photograph 15 - Dry Underlayment and Sheathing Note Minor Corrosion on Underside of Metal Panel

10 Page 10 of 15 Window Transition Investigation The second phase of the investigation moved to the clerestory, where the window system and exterior cladding transitions to the roof. The metal flashing at the point of transition was lifted, revealing pine needles and tree leaves under the flashing, indicating gaps in the weather protection materials of sufficient size to allow air and water entry. It is not likely this debris is from original construction. The metal transition flashing is installed over a metal closure filled with foam. The foam is installed at the base of the roof-to-wall transition. The closure was installed in 12 foot lengths, notched to accommodate the standing seam of the metal panels. The notches are cut inconsistently, leaving gaps with exposed foam at many of the standing seam elements. Winddriven rain can easily enter around and under the metal flashing at many of these gaps. The edges of the cuts were not sealed or otherwise protected. This is a clear source of water entry from the exterior into the roof assembly. There are wide gaps at some standing seams and virtually none at others, likely creating the varied moisture conditions as viewed at the test cuts. The metal flashing was removed, exposing the fiberglass insulation within the interior walls. The vapor retarder installed within the roof assembly is not tied to an exterior wall vapor retarder. Warm, moist air can condense at the roof-to-wall transition, contributing to moisture under the metal roof panels. The vapor retarder was not properly secured to the top of the wall cavity opening, resulting in a breach in the assembly at a critical point. Interior investigation identified a continuous metal radiator installed directly behind the roof-towall transition. This creates an elevated temperature at the clerestory transition. The elevated temperature can saturate higher levels of moisture within the air where a breach in the vapor retarder has been identified. The purpose of the radiator is to wash the interior of the clerestory windows with warm air to reduce condensation on the glazing and to counteract the cold air generated by the non-thermally broken window system. The radiator creates no problem for a properly designed and installed system with a complete vapor retarder.

11 Page 11 of 15 Photograph 16 - Overview of Standing Seam Roof and Adjacent Clerestory Photograph 17 - Overview of Curtain Wall - Note Roof to Wall Flashing

12 Page 12 of 15 Photograph 18 - Close-Up of Metal Closure with Flashing Lifted and Exposed Fiberglass Insulation Note Open Joint at Standing Seam No Complete Vapor Retarder was Observed on the Warm Side of the Transition. Photograph 19 - Removal of Section of Metal Closure

13 Page 13 of 15 Photograph 20 - Incomplete Vapor Retarder at Roof-to-Wall Transition The Roof Vapor Retarder Should Have Been Connected to the Wall Vapor Retarder Warm Air Can Enter the Assembly and Condense at the Dew Point Photograph 21 - Continuous Radiator Behind Roof-to-Wall Transition

14 Page 14 of 15 Discussion The standing seam roof assembly is installed in a single panel from eave to clerestory. Water entry through the roof panels can only take place at panel joints and transition flashings. Panel joints are typically sealed with a proprietary sealing system, butyl caulk tape, or a sealant bead. The performance of the panel system, especially in areas where snow can lay on the roof for long periods of time, is directly dependent on the quality of these seals. From the limited inspection of the roof panels, there are indications that panel joints were not tight. This is reinforced by the severe corrosion observed at the standing seams. Water is also entering at the clerestory transition, with the primary leakage at the gaps on both sides of the standing seams. The lack of a complete vapor retarder also allows the accumulation of condensation within the roof assembly, which contributes to the free water under the panels and to eventual corrosion. Remediation of the condition must include both an effective metal roof assembly and a complete vapor retarder to eliminate condensed moisture under the metal panels. The level of moisture in the polystyrene insulation must also be considered in any re-roof specification. The eight inches of expanded polystyrene provides a value of R-33. Replacement of the insulation should be considered based on the extent of moisture observed within the insulation. The fiberglass batt insulation in the flute channels appears to be in good condition and can remain in place. Conclusion Water has entered the roof assembly at the clerestory transition, at the roof side laps and at breaches in the vapor retarder. The roof is not properly sealed and flashed, allowing water entry through the roof panels. The incomplete vapor retarder results in condensation at the rising wall. Water vapor condenses and trickles down the assembly, adding to the corrosive elements. The radiator heats the air directly adjacent to the unprotected wall cavity, allowing for more water vapor in the saturated air to condense at a critical point. Water entering the assembly is trapped on the underside of the metal panels, where it is held within and on the surface of the felt underlayment, and is then absorbed by the OSB sheathing. The extended exposure to moisture has corroded the underside of the metal roofing panels, creating eruptions and breaches in some areas. The breaches allow more water entry into the assembly, in turn resulting in more corrosion and deterioration of materials within the roof assembly. The deterioration of the OSB sheathing has compromised the attachment of the metal panels. The metal roof system has failed. It is not practical to repair the damaged panels within the current roof assembly. The only effective approach is the replacement of the roof. This will require removal and replacement of the polystyrene/osb composite where the OSB surface has deteriorated and the insulation is wet. The repair should also include the addition of a complete vapor retarder on the warm side of the insulation with an effective tie-in to the exterior wall vapor retarder at the clerestory rising wall.

15 Page 15 of 15 The attachment of the panels at the clerestory should also be reviewed to confirm that there is adequate connection to meet drag load requirements. Current attachment at the clerestory should be reviewed to insure the new assembly is attached to resist slippage. The new roof assembly should utilize a metal panel that can remain watertight at the existing slope. The specified roof assembly should have performance data to meet the wind uplift and anticipated weather conditions. The new system should be designed to resist water entry during extended periods of snow and ice build-up on the roof. The underlayment should be capable of extended periods of wetting without allowing water to reach the sheathing below. The eave details and gutter attachment should also be modified to effectively allow for drainage from under the roof at the underlayment and the vapor retarder, should water reach this critical component of the roof. Due to the corrosive environment, consideration should be given to a more effective coating on the panel surfaces and a drying capability on both sides of the panel. Please contact our office with any questions. Sincerely, TRINITY ERD BUILDING SCIENCE RESEARCH DESIGN CONSULTATION Colin Murphy, RRC, FRCI, LEED AP for the firm This report and the data contained therein is the sole property of ERD and the named client. This report shall not be reproduced outside Trinity ERD except by the named client without written permission by the named client, in which case the report shall be reproduced in its entirety

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