Radio Frequency (RF) Survey

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Radio Frequency (RF) Survey"

Transcription

1 Municipal Wireless Broadband and the Digital Community Report Radio Frequency (RF) Survey for the City and County of San Francisco July 21, 2006

2 Preface This document describes Civitium s findings and recommendations following the performance of a Radio Frequency (RF) Survey during May and June 2006 for the City and County of San Francisco. These results are intended only to provide general insight into the spectrum environment throughout San Francisco, specifically for various unlicensed frequency bands being considered for the TechConnect initiative. Should the City and County reach a definitive agreement for the deployment of a community wide wireless broadband network, it is assumed that the party responsible for deploying the network will perform its own spectrum survey and analysis prior to deployment, and that ongoing monitoring of the environment will be required. Since spectrum environments are inherently dynamic, this survey should be considered only a snapshot from the May June, 2006 timeframe. This survey should not be used to predict what the environment may look like at any point in the future. AirMagnet is a registered trademark of AirMagnet, Inc. All other product names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies. Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 2 of 13

3 Table of Contents PREFACE... 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION DATA COLLECTED RF SPECTRUM SCANS WIRELESS LAN SCANS FINDINGS EXISTING SIGNAL LEVELS EXISTING WIRELESS LANS TOPOGRAPHIC CONCERNS RECOMMENDATIONS SNR VALUES BACK HAUL FREQUENCIES CLIENT ACCESS FREQUENCIES DYNAMIC RF CHANNEL SELECTION OPERATOR COORDINATION LICENSED OPERATORS MOUNTING ASSETS INDOOR EQUIPMENT...10 APPENDIX A LEAD ENGINEER BIO APPENDIX B RF SPECTRUM SCANS APPENDIX C WIRELESS LAN SCANS Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 3 of 13

4 1 Introduction This report includes the methodology, findings and recommendations in relation to a pre installation analysis of the radio frequency (RF) environment for the deployment of a citywide Wi Fi network for the City and County of San Francisco. The survey team collected data throughout the City s approximate 50 square miles. Throughout the report, this area is referred to as the survey area. 2 Data Collected Civitium collected RF data within the survey area between May 22, 2006 and June 2, The data consisted of RF spectrum scans and wireless Local Area Network (LAN) scans. This data offers a basis for determining the impact of existing signals on the operation of a citywide Wi Fi network. 2.1 RF Spectrum Scans Spectrum scans were collected using a spectrum analyzer to measure signal activity in the and 5 6 gigahertz (GHz) frequency bands at various locations throughout the survey area. Numerous spectrum scans were performed at ground level using an AirMagnet Spectrum Analyzer Card (shown below) inserted into a laptop running AirMagnet s Survey software. This spectrum analyzer used an external omni directional antenna. The software automatically captured a spectrum scan at rapid intervals while the survey team drove throughout the survey area. The software plotted the location of each spectrum scan on a map based on coordinates obtained through a Global Positioning System (GPS) device, with external antenna for better position accuracy. The survey team drove throughout the survey area in a manner to capture a minimum of two spectrum images of the and GHz frequency bands per square mile. Hundred of spectrum images, however, were actually recorded. Spectrum scans were also performed atop several rooftops and antennas sites distributed throughout the survey area using a Bantam Instruments 425A spectrum analyzer (shown below.) Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 4 of 13

5 Refer to Appendix B for the identification of chosen spectrum image locations and resulting spectrum images. 2.2 Wireless LAN Scans The wireless LAN scans were done through the use of AirMagnet Survey software interfaced with an a/b/g radio card and a GPS device. The software automatically recorded the SSID (Service Set Identifier), RF channel setting, signal strength and noise levels of wireless LAN access points while the survey team drove throughout the survey area in half mile increments. This provides a sample of the wireless LANs active within the survey area. Refer to Appendix C for images that depict the routes driven throughout the survey area and maps indicating average noise and access point signal amplitudes. Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 5 of 13

6 3 Findings This section of the report discusses various findings based on the spectrum scans, wireless LAN scans, and notes made while visiting the survey area. 3.1 Existing Signal Levels The existing signal levels shown in the spectrum images and wireless LAN scans in Appendix B and Appendix C, respectively, suggest a limited level of noise impact to a municipal Wi Fi network. These existing signals are emanating from wireless LANs and other radio equipment currently operating throughout the City. In most cases, the average signal levels were below 85dBm at ground level throughout the survey area in the GHz and GHz bands (refer to Appendix C, Figure C 3). This only provides a rough indication of existing signal activity within the survey area, but it offers an initial basis for assessing the impact on the deployment of a Wi Fi system. This consistent average noise does not pose significant potential problems to the use of these frequencies for supporting mesh nodes at ground level within the City. It s comparable to other cities successfully implementing metro scale Wi Fi networks such as Philadelphia, Miami Beach and Anaheim. More specifically, however, the spectrum scans (refer to Appendix B) indicate consistent radio activity at 5.8GHz observed at ground level throughout the survey area. The peak signal values were often 70dBm (moderately high) at 5.8GHz. This may preclude the use of 5.8GHz for backhaul in some areas, depending on the range of the backhaul and the technologies implemented. In addition, there was existing signal noise indicated in the spectrum scans in the GHz band at ground level that will require careful design to avoid the impacts of RF interference and optimize the performance of a city wide Wi Fi network. The maximum signal levels in the GHz frequencies are moderately high ( 70dBm) in parts of the band at some locations, such as Area 1, Location 9. These signals are likely emanating from existing Wi Fi access points. In most cases, it will be possible, though, to tune the mesh nodes of the city wide Wi Fi network in the applicable locations to significantly reduce the interference. On the rooftop of One Market Plaza, the spectrum scans indicate considerable signal activity in the GHz band. Signals were consistently present at 75dBm and even 60dBm to 50dBm (high) in this band. These signal levels are too high to enable effective backhaul should the GHz band be used Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 6 of 13

7 at One Market Plaza. The other rooftop locations, such as the Central Radio Station, Clay and Jones Building, and Bernal Heights radio site, have moderate signals levels in the GHz band, but the levels are low enough or within parts of the band that will likely enable the use of 2.4GHz backhaul, depending on the range of the backhaul. Despite the presence of these existing signals, the proper design and deployment of the network should allow effective operation of the system. 3.2 Existing Wireless LANs The wireless LAN scans shown in Appendix C indicate that there are numerous wireless LANs operating throughout the survey area. The AirMagnet Survey software captured approximately 5,500 wireless LAN access points as the survey team drove along the survey route show in Appendix C, Figure C 1. This constitutes a sample of the total number of existing wireless LANs. Based on this data and the range of typical access points, it s likely that there are five times more (27,500) access points active within the entire survey area, which results in an average of 550 access points per square mile. Even though there are many wireless LAN access points currently operating within the City, the signal levels from these existing networks are relatively low when measured outdoors, where the city wide network equipment will be deployed. The vast majority of these existing wireless LANs are installed inside buildings, which attenuate the signals as they propagate outside to levels that will likely have minimal impacts on the city wide network. As shown in Appendix C, the signal strength of the existing b/g wireless LAN access points (measured outdoors) is mostly between 85dBm and 65dBm. The majority (74 percent) of the existing access points are operating on channel 6, the common default channel. By setting the city wide Wi Fi mesh nodes to non overlapping channels in relation to channel 6 (such as channel 1 or channel 11), the majority of the interference from existing access points can be avoided. Only 1.5 percent of the access points found by the AirMagnet Survey software were a access points operating in the 5GHz bands. Thus, the impact of existing a access points is insignificant. 3.3 Topographic Concerns Large portions of San Francisco include hills and curved streets, which can be difficult areas to cover with Wi Fi mesh networks. It may be possible, however, to provide adequate signal coverage with Wi Fi mesh nodes throughout the City by increasing the density of these nodes above other density used for other cities. This assumes that adequate mounting assets are available throughout the City at groundlevel to support the nodes, and from rooftops to support the backhaul. Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 7 of 13

8 4 Recommendations Based on the findings above, the following are Civitium s recommendations for deploying a municipal Wi Fi wireless network throughout the City: 4.1 SNR Values The SNR (signal to noise ratio) in all areas of the city wide Wi Fi network should be at least 15dB SNR to enable stable connections. In addition, signal levels of the Wi Fi network should be high enough in all areas to provide required data rates as indicated in the technical specifications of the client radio cards that the City decides to support. If the wireless network will be supporting voice applications, then the SNR will likely need to be higher based on the specifications of the supported wireless voice handsets. For example, Cisco recommends a minimum of 25dB SNR for the Cisco 7920 Wireless IP Phone. The installation of the network should adhere to these values to ensure that existing noise levels doesn t limit range and performance of the municipal wireless network. In addition, it s important to understand that these minimum SNR values must be present at the location of the wireless user device and the mesh node to ensure effective two way communications. 4.2 Back Haul Frequencies In order to reduce RF interference between backhaul and existing systems operating in the GHz band, the backhaul frequencies should be in the GHz or MHz bands in some areas, such as on the rooftop of One Market Plaza. This avoids excessive retransmissions and potential lower performance that may occur in the GHz bands. As mentioned earlier, it may be necessary to avoid 5.8GHz in some areas due to current systems operating at that frequency. 4.3 Client Access Frequencies As mentioned before, most (74 percent) of the existing wireless LANs operating in the GHz band are set to channel 6. As a result, the mesh nodes of the city wide Wi Fi network should be set to channels that don t conflict with channel 6 (such as channel 1 or channel 11). Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 8 of 13

9 4.4 Dynamic RF Channel Selection The continual proliferation of wireless LANs and other radio frequency equipment throughout the City will introduce additional sources of potential interference in the future. As a result, the use of access points or mesh nodes that dynamically choose the least congested channel may improve the performance of a city Wi Fi network. Keep in mind that static channels should be chosen, however, if the wireless network will be supporting wireless voice applications. Most Wi Fi phone specifications recommend using static channels to avoid excessive handset roaming and resulting dropped calls. 4.5 Operator Coordination Regardless of the amount of pre planning and engineering that occurs, unintentional interference between operators and/or consumers may still occur after the deployment of a citywide Wi Fi network. For this reason, Civitium recommends that the City require the party deploying the network to define and commit to certain measures for identifying, diagnosing, responding to and mitigating the impact of this unintentional self interference. This may include participating in, or creating, a forum for operators to work together voluntarily to address these issues and/or creating a forum for complaints by affected parties. This approach may address 90% of the issues that surface, since networks owned by both the party causing interference and the party being interfered with can suffer when interference occurs. This creates a natural incentive for coordination and cooperation. One such organization, the Wireless Broadband Access Network Coordination (BANC) group, currently exists, with more than thirty members participating 1. The group is defined as a group of fixed wireless operators that are working together to minimize interference and maximize reliability and spectrum efficiency and it may serve as a model for addressing these inherent challenges. 4.6 Licensed Operators While often referred to as unlicensed, Wi Fi services, specified in the FCC s Part 15 Rules, are technically certified by the FCC, and operators do not require licensing. This is a subtle, but important distinction in that there are other services operating in portions of the same shared spectrum that do require a license. One such service, Amateur (Ham) Radio Service, operates in shared spectrum according to the FCC s Part 97 Rules. Ham Radio is defined as a voluntary noncommercial 1 See Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 9 of 13

10 communication service, used by qualified persons of any age who are interested in radio technique with a personal aim and without pecuniary interest.ʺ These Amateur Radio Services often operate at higher output power (technically EIRP) than Wi Fi services, so the possibility of interference does exist. Civitium proposes that the same mechanisms referenced in Section 4.5 above may be used to address these issues if they occur. The common view in the industry is that Ham Radio users are reasonable and are often happy to cooperate with operators of other services Mounting Assets Mesh node installation locations. The City should mount mesh nodes on the arm of light poles and traffic light poles, with the node as close to the center of the road as possible rather than along the side of the road. This generally maximizes signal propagation. The mounting assets should be clear of trees if possible. In addition, mesh nodes should be installed on mounting assets that are located ideally at street intersections. This makes best use of the mesh node for covering larger areas. If only vertical poles (no arms) are available, then it s best to stagger installation of the nodes on poles along both sides of the street. It s important to not use mounting assets for wireless mesh nodes that are higher than the structures surrounding them. This avoids existing wireless LAN signals and RF noise from impacting the operation of the node and the users it supports. Gateway/backhaul installation locations. The location of gateways and backhaul components should be installed on mounting assets offering unobstructed line of sight with the headend or a relay point. The designer of the city wide Wi Fi network should take into consideration all tower sites and rooftops that the City has access to when selecting headend and relay points. 4.8 Indoor Equipment While some users may be able to access the network directly from a desktop, laptop of other mobile device while indoors (e.g. inside a residence or business), it is assumed that in the majority of cases, a dedicated wireless bridge or CPE (customer premise equipment) will be required. These devices, which typically cost between $75 and $100 (and are often subsidized for paying subscribers), incorporate directional, high gain antennas and higher output power (often 200mw or more), allowing transmissions from the user to reach its closest Wi Fi mesh node. 2 See Hams are Your Friends at planet.com/fixed_wireless/business/2001/ham_bol.html Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 10 of 13

11 Appendix A Lead Engineer Bio James T. (Jim) Geier is an Associate Partner with Civitium and the founder of Wireless Nets, Ltd. His 25 years of experience includes the analysis, design, software development, installation, and support of numerous wireless network based systems for municipalities, enterprises, airports, homes, retail stores, manufacturing facilities, warehouses, and hospitals worldwide. Jim is the author of several books, including Deploying Voice over Wireless LANs (Cisco Press), Wireless LANs (SAMS), Wireless Networks First Step (Cisco Press), Wireless Networking Handbook (Macmillan), and Network Reengineering (McGraw Hill). He is the author of numerous tutorials for FiPlanet.com and other publications. Jim has been active within the Wi Fi Alliance, responsible for certifying interoperability of (Wi Fi) wireless LANs. He has also been an active member of the IEEE Working Group, responsible for developing international standards for wireless LANs. He served as Chairman of the IEEE Computer Society, Dayton Section, and Chairman of the IEEE International Conference on Wireless LAN Implementation. Jim is an advisory board member of several leading wireless LAN companies. Jim s education includes a bachelor s and master s degree in electrical engineering and a masterʹs degree in business administration. Jim has completed training for various municipal Wi Fi system solutions focused on designing, installing, testing, and troubleshooting municipal wireless networks. Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 11 of 13

12 Appendix B RF Spectrum Scans Provided under separate cover. Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 12 of 13

13 Appendix C Wireless LAN Scans Provided under separate cover. Copyright Civitium, LLC 2006 Page: 13 of 13

Which antenna for Wi-Fi?

Which antenna for Wi-Fi? Which antenna for Wi-Fi? Introduction Wi-Fi is a brand originally licensed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to describe the underlying technology of wireless local area networks (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802.11 specifications.

More information

What is 802.11? Why are standards important?

What is 802.11? Why are standards important? What is 802.11? The 802.11 standards are a group of evolving specifications defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Commonly referred to as Wi Fi the 802.11 standards define

More information

Site Survey and RF Design Validation

Site Survey and RF Design Validation CHAPTER 8 Site Survey Introduction In the realm of wireless networking, careful planning is essential to ensure that your wireless network performs in a manner that is consistent with Cisco s design and

More information

CITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO TECHCONNECT COMMUNITY WIRELESS BROADBAND NETWORK March 15, 2006. Copy for Public Distribution

CITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO TECHCONNECT COMMUNITY WIRELESS BROADBAND NETWORK March 15, 2006. Copy for Public Distribution CITY AND COUNTY OF SAN FRANCISCO TECHCONNECT COMMUNITY WIRELESS BROADBAND NETWORK March 15, 2006 Copy for Public Distribution Agenda 2 Introduction to Team Proposal Highlights Financial Summary Products

More information

Cisco Outdoor Wireless Mesh Enables Alternative Broadband Access

Cisco Outdoor Wireless Mesh Enables Alternative Broadband Access Cisco Outdoor Wireless Mesh Enables Alternative Broadband Access Cisco ServiceMesh defines a network design for service providers delivering valueadded municipal wireless services over a mesh network.

More information

Municipal Mesh Network Design

Municipal Mesh Network Design White Paper Municipal Mesh Network Design Author: Maen Artimy 1 Summary This document provides a wireless mesh network design for the downtown area of the Town of Wolfville, Nova Scotia. This design serves

More information

Cisco Outdoor Wireless Network Serves Up Automatic Meter Reading

Cisco Outdoor Wireless Network Serves Up Automatic Meter Reading Cisco Outdoor Wireless Network Serves Up Automatic Meter Reading Summary Cisco outdoor wireless solutions make it practical to deploy and manage Wi-Fi on a citywide scale. This application note describes

More information

802.11n in the Outdoor Environment

802.11n in the Outdoor Environment POSITION PAPER 802.11n in the Outdoor Environment How Motorola is transforming outdoor mesh networks to leverage full n advantages Municipalities and large enterprise customers are deploying mesh networks

More information

Basic Network Design

Basic Network Design Frequency Reuse and Planning Cellular Technology enables mobile communication because they use of a complex two-way radio system between the mobile unit and the wireless network. It uses radio frequencies

More information

Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point

Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point Overview To optimize the overall performance of a WLAN in an outdoor deployment it is important to understand how to maximize coverage

More information

Defining the Smart Grid WAN

Defining the Smart Grid WAN Defining the Smart Grid WAN WHITE PAPER Trilliant helps leading utilities and energy retailers achieve their smart grid visions through the Trilliant Communications Platform, the only communications platform

More information

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network Wireless Networks Background: # wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds # wired phone subscribers! computer nets: laptops, palmtops, PDAs, Internet-enabled phone promise anytime untethered Internet

More information

SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference

SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference Publication Date: May 27, 2015 KCF Technologies, Inc. Background The SmartDiagnostics wireless network is an easy to install, end-to-end machine

More information

Networking: Certified Wireless Network Administrator Wi Fi Engineering CWNA

Networking: Certified Wireless Network Administrator Wi Fi Engineering CWNA coursemonster.com/uk Networking: Certified Wireless Network Administrator Wi Fi Engineering CWNA View training dates» Overview This new market-leading course from us delivers the best in Wireless LAN training,

More information

Output Power (without antenna) 5GHz 2.4GHz

Output Power (without antenna) 5GHz 2.4GHz Dual Band High- PoE AP Router Dual Band Concurrent AP Router 11a + 11a/b/g Hi- Radios 802.3af PoE Port 7 Wireless Operation Modes 5/10/20 Variable Channel Width Home Digital Network Application School,

More information

Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna

Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna Document ID: 82068 Contents Introduction Prerequisites Requirements Components Used Conventions Basic Definitions and Antenna Concepts Indoor Effects Omni Antenna Pros

More information

http://www.sprint.com/landings/airave/files/airave_access_point_faqs.pdf?intmkt=mkt:ms:20131 030:AIR:MSU:EEE:FAQs

http://www.sprint.com/landings/airave/files/airave_access_point_faqs.pdf?intmkt=mkt:ms:20131 030:AIR:MSU:EEE:FAQs http://www.sprint.com/landings/airave/files/airave_access_point_faqs.pdf?intmkt=mkt:ms:20131 030:AIR:MSU:EEE:FAQs Sprint AIRAVE FAQs What is the Sprint AIRAVE and how does it work? The Sprint AIRAVE is

More information

NEW WORLD TELECOMMUNICATIONS LIMITED. 2 nd Trial Test Report on 3.5GHz Broadband Wireless Access Technology

NEW WORLD TELECOMMUNICATIONS LIMITED. 2 nd Trial Test Report on 3.5GHz Broadband Wireless Access Technology NEW WORLD TELECOMMUNICATIONS LIMITED 2 nd Trial Test Report on 3.5GHz Broadband Wireless Access Technology Issue Number: 01 Issue Date: 20 April 2006 New World Telecommunications Ltd Page 1 of 9 Issue

More information

The Ultimate Solution For Metro and Rural Wi-Fi. Wavion White Paper April 2008

The Ultimate Solution For Metro and Rural Wi-Fi. Wavion White Paper April 2008 For Metro and Rural Wi-Fi Executive summary The current generation of conventional Wi-Fi metro access points use commoditized chipsets originally designed specifically for indoor environments. When brought

More information

Wireless Ethernet LAN (WLAN) General 802.11a/802.11b/802.11g FAQ

Wireless Ethernet LAN (WLAN) General 802.11a/802.11b/802.11g FAQ Wireless Ethernet LAN (WLAN) General 802.11a/802.11b/802.11g FAQ Q: What is a Wireless LAN (WLAN)? Q: What are the benefits of using a WLAN instead of a wired network connection? Q: Are Intel WLAN products

More information

Measured Performance of 5-GHz a Wireless LAN Systems

Measured Performance of 5-GHz a Wireless LAN Systems Measured Performance of 5-GHz 802.11a Wireless LAN Systems IEEE 802.11a systems take advantage of higher data rates and more frequency spectrum to deliver good range and improved system capacity performance.

More information

Antenna Deployment Technical Brief

Antenna Deployment Technical Brief ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment Technical Brief Introduction... 2 Antenna types... 2 Omni directional antennas... 2 Directional antennas... 2 Diversity antennas... 3 High gain directional antennas...

More information

Carrier-Grade. Wi-Fi Solutions. Wi-Fi Solutions

Carrier-Grade. Wi-Fi Solutions. Wi-Fi Solutions Carrier-Grade Wi-Fi Solutions Wi-Fi Solutions Alvarion s Carrier-Grade Wi-Fi Solutions Today, with the widespread adoption of smartphones, iphones, ipads and the like, users expect reliable Wi-Fi services

More information

white paper Motorola s Wireless network Indoor/Outdoor Solution

white paper Motorola s Wireless network Indoor/Outdoor Solution Motorola s Wireless network Indoor/Outdoor Solution Executive Summary: IDC Research estimates that the mobile worker population will reach one billion worldwide by 2011, accounting for 30.4 percent of

More information

Crestron Best Practices for Installation and Setup of Crestron RF Products Reference Guide

Crestron Best Practices for Installation and Setup of Crestron RF Products Reference Guide Crestron Best Practices for Installation and Setup of Crestron RF Products Reference Guide The specific patents that cover Crestron products are listed at patents.crestron.com. Crestron, the Crestron logo,

More information

SkyWay-Mobile. Broadband Wireless Solution

SkyWay-Mobile. Broadband Wireless Solution SkyWay-Mobile Broadband Wireless Solution Wonderful World of Wireless The era of ubiquitous communication has arrived. Region by region, country by country and continent by continent, wireless connectivity

More information

Supporting Municipal Business Models with Cisco Outdoor Wireless Solutions

Supporting Municipal Business Models with Cisco Outdoor Wireless Solutions Supporting Municipal Business Models with Cisco Outdoor Wireless Solutions EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Outdoor wireless networks are playing a vital role in helping municipalities deliver critical services to citizens.

More information

Troubleshooting Problems Affecting Radio Frequency Communication

Troubleshooting Problems Affecting Radio Frequency Communication Troubleshooting Problems Affecting Radio Frequency Communication Document ID: 8630 Refer to the Cisco Wireless Downloads (registered customers only) page in order to get Cisco Aironet drivers, firmware

More information

WatchGuard AP Deployment Guide. WatchGuard AP. Deployment Guide AP100, AP200

WatchGuard AP Deployment Guide. WatchGuard AP. Deployment Guide AP100, AP200 WatchGuard AP Deployment Guide WatchGuard AP Deployment Guide AP100, AP200 About this Guide The WatchGuard AP Deployment Guide is a guide for deployment of a WatchGuard AP device with an XTM device. For

More information

Best Practices for Outdoor Wireless Security

Best Practices for Outdoor Wireless Security Best Practices for Outdoor Wireless Security This paper describes security best practices for deploying an outdoor wireless LAN. This is standard body copy, style used is Body. Customers are encouraged

More information

WHITE PAPER. WEP Cloaking for Legacy Encryption Protection

WHITE PAPER. WEP Cloaking for Legacy Encryption Protection WHITE PAPER WEP Cloaking for Legacy TM Encryption Protection Introduction Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is the encryption protocol defined in the original IEEE 802.11 standard for Wireless Local Area

More information

High-Density Wi-Fi. Application Note

High-Density Wi-Fi. Application Note High-Density Wi-Fi Application Note Table of Contents Background... 3 Description... 3 Theory of Operation... 3 Application Examples... Tips and Recommendations... 7 2 Background One of the biggest challenges

More information

Section 2: Overview of Wireless Broadband Networks

Section 2: Overview of Wireless Broadband Networks Section 2: Overview of Wireless Broadband Networks 2.1 Introduction to Broadband Network Elements Over the past decade, technological innovation and a motivation to deploy broadband in new, efficient ways

More information

Dynamic Spectrum Optimization

Dynamic Spectrum Optimization Dynamic Spectrum Optimization CONNECTIVITY IN CROWDED SPECTRUM Reliable connectivity is critical. Service providers and private network operators implement wireless solutions because of the cost advantage,

More information

Industrial Communication. WiFi in the 5 GHz Band

Industrial Communication. WiFi in the 5 GHz Band Industrial Communication Whitepaper WiFi in the 5 GHz Band Contents Introduction... 3 IEEE Standards... 3 ETSI Standards... 4 European Harmonization... 4 Dynamic Frequency Selection... 4 Transmission Power

More information

USB 3.0* Radio Frequency Interference Impact on 2.4 GHz Wireless Devices

USB 3.0* Radio Frequency Interference Impact on 2.4 GHz Wireless Devices USB 3.0* Radio Frequency Interference Impact on 2.4 GHz Wireless Devices White Paper April 2012 Document: 327216-001 INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED IN CONNECTION WITH INTEL PRODUCTS. NO LICENSE,

More information

INTERCEPTING INTERFERENCE

INTERCEPTING INTERFERENCE WHITE PAPER INTERCEPTING INTERFERENCE CAMBIUM S INDUSTRY LEADING WIRELESS BROADBAND EXPERTISE HELPS TO SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE THE EFFECTS OF INTERFERENCE FOR POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT WIRELESS ACCESS AND DISTRIBUTION

More information

Conducting a WLAN Site Survey and Implementation for the Cisco Unified Wireless Network

Conducting a WLAN Site Survey and Implementation for the Cisco Unified Wireless Network Conducting a WLAN Site Survey and Implementation for the Cisco Unified Wireless Network Author: Keven Dech, Director of Training Services, CCSI, CCDA All content is the property of GigaWave Technologies

More information

Site Survey Report MAH

Site Survey Report MAH Site Survey Report MAH Index 1. Introduction...3 1.1 Contact Information... 3 1.2 Scope of Survey and Spectrum... 3 1.3 Validity... 3 2. Report...4 2.1 Coverage... 4 2.1.1 Signal Strength vs. Signal to

More information

Cloud-based Wireless LAN for Enterprise, SMB, IT Service Providers and Carriers. Product Highlights. Relay2 Enterprise Access Point RA100 Datasheet

Cloud-based Wireless LAN for Enterprise, SMB, IT Service Providers and Carriers. Product Highlights. Relay2 Enterprise Access Point RA100 Datasheet Cloud-based Wireless LAN for Enterprise, SMB, IT Service Providers and Carriers The Relay2 Smart Access Point (RA100) is an enterprise-class access point designed for deployment in high-density environments

More information

TLPS. Understanding the Terrestrial Low Power Service

TLPS. Understanding the Terrestrial Low Power Service What is the Terrestrial Low Power Service? TLPS is a proposed new 802.11 based service that will significantly expand the effective data capacity of mobile networks. will enable a privately managed extension

More information

White Paper. Wireless Network Considerations for Mobile Collaboration

White Paper. Wireless Network Considerations for Mobile Collaboration White Paper Wireless Network Considerations for Mobile Collaboration Table of Contents I. Introduction... 3 II. Wireless Considerations... 4 Channel Selection... 4 Interference... 4 Coverage... 5 Covering

More information

Suruhanjaya Komunikasi Dan Multimedia Malaysia Malaysian Communications And Multimedia Commission

Suruhanjaya Komunikasi Dan Multimedia Malaysia Malaysian Communications And Multimedia Commission Suruhanjaya Komunikasi Dan Multimedia Malaysia Malaysian Communications And Multimedia Commission GUIDELINE ON THE PROVISION OF WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN) SERVICE This document is issued as a source

More information

Nokia FastMile Solution

Nokia FastMile Solution Nokia FastMile Solution Delivering fixed wireless broadband to suburban, rural and deep rural users Nokia white paper Nokia FastMile Solution Contents Introduction 3 FastMile Solution 4 FastMile Self-Tuning

More information

High Speed Multi Media Mesh Networking Using Commercial Off the Shelf Equipment. John Clements WB5SAL Corpus Christi

High Speed Multi Media Mesh Networking Using Commercial Off the Shelf Equipment. John Clements WB5SAL Corpus Christi High Speed Multi Media Mesh Networking Using Commercial Off the Shelf Equipment John Clements WB5SAL Corpus Christi Digital Radio? Original - CW Packet 600 baud, can saturate network Other Digital modes,

More information

Guide for Performing a Wireless Site Survey. 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.11g/802.11b/802.15.4

Guide for Performing a Wireless Site Survey. 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.11g/802.11b/802.15.4 Guide for Performing a Wireless Site Survey 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.11g/802.11b/802.15.4 1 Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 Wireless Characteristics 3 AMX Site Survey Tools 5 Creating a Channel

More information

Environmental Monitoring: Guide to Selecting Wireless Communication Solutions

Environmental Monitoring: Guide to Selecting Wireless Communication Solutions Environmental Monitoring: Guide to Selecting Wireless Communication Solutions By: Scott South Published in WaterWorld, January 2005 (Page 48) Rapidly growing demands for information and increased productivity

More information

Deploy WiFi Quickly and Easily

Deploy WiFi Quickly and Easily Deploy WiFi Quickly and Easily Table of Contents 3 Introduction 3 The Backhaul Challenge 4 Effortless WiFi Access 4 Rate Limiting 5 Traffic Filtering 5 Channel Selection 5 Enhanced Roaming 6 Connecting

More information

Wireless Technologies in Industrial Markets

Wireless Technologies in Industrial Markets SOLUTION PAPER Wireless Technologies in Industrial Markets An Examination of Mesh Technologies in Mining Executive Summary Consumers and enterprises around the globe use standards-based 802.11a/b/g/n WiFi

More information

The cost and performance benefits of 80 GHz links compared to short-haul 18-38 GHz licensed frequency band products

The cost and performance benefits of 80 GHz links compared to short-haul 18-38 GHz licensed frequency band products The cost and performance benefits of 80 GHz links compared to short-haul 18-38 GHz licensed frequency band products Page 1 of 9 Introduction As service providers and private network operators seek cost

More information

Wireless Internet. Is an system to provide connectivity to customers to the Internet. Service Provider (WISP) TECHNICAL INFO.

Wireless Internet. Is an system to provide connectivity to customers to the Internet. Service Provider (WISP) TECHNICAL INFO. Description The Service Provider System (WISP) is an integrated Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) system of connecting customers to the. High-speed wireless data links are used to provide access on a point-to-point

More information

Bridging the Last Mile California s Wireless Internet Providers

Bridging the Last Mile California s Wireless Internet Providers Bridging the Last Mile California s Wireless Internet Providers Lead Author: Adam Morrison, Intern, California Broadband Initiative: www.calink.ca.gov Disclaimer: This document is a working draft and intended

More information

HUAWEI Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure

HUAWEI Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure 01 Enterprise AP Series 802.11ac Brochure 1 Overview Release of 802.11ac standards has driven wireless technologies to the era of GE Wi-Fi. Enterprise Wi-Fi networks

More information

Motorola Wireless Broadband. Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) Access Network Solutions

Motorola Wireless Broadband. Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) Access Network Solutions Motorola Wireless Broadband Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) Access Network Solutions Motorola Technology is as Simple as it is Powerful Motorola Wireless Broadband Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) solutions are streamlined,

More information

VOICE OVER WI-FI CAPACITY PLANNING

VOICE OVER WI-FI CAPACITY PLANNING VOICE OVER WI-FI CAPACITY PLANNING Version 1.0 Copyright 2003 Table of Contents Introduction...3 Wi-Fi RF Technology Options...3 Spectrum Availability and Non-Overlapping Wi-Fi Channels...4 Limited

More information

ALLION USA INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER WIRELESS GATEWAY COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS

ALLION USA INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER WIRELESS GATEWAY COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS ALLION USA INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER WIRELESS GATEWAY COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS Date: 4/25/2013 Rev 1.0 Visit our Web Site at: www.allionusa.com 1 Introduction Internet Service Providers (ISP) have a number

More information

MERU WIRELESS SITE SURVEY

MERU WIRELESS SITE SURVEY MERU WIRELESS SITE SURVEY 1. SCOPE OF WORK The site survey is a key part of the planning and design process in preparation for the installation of a wireless network that addresses the customers design

More information

General Survey of Radio Frequency Bands 30 MHz to 3 GHz

General Survey of Radio Frequency Bands 30 MHz to 3 GHz General Survey of Radio Frequency Bands 30 MHz to 3 GHz Version 2.0 September 23, 2010 Prepared by: Shared Spectrum Company 1595 Spring Hill Road Suite 110 Vienna, VA 22182-2228 703-761-2818 Fax: 703-761-2817

More information

Understanding Range for RF Devices

Understanding Range for RF Devices Understanding Range for RF Devices October 2012 White Paper Understanding how environmental factors can affect range is one of the key aspects to deploying a radio frequency (RF) solution. This paper will

More information

Best Practices for Wireless Site Design

Best Practices for Wireless Site Design Best Practices for Wireless Site Design A Technology Whitepaper Table of ContentS Are Site Surveys Really Required? 1 AirMagnet Approach to Wireless Site Design 1 Phase I: Preparation Phase 1 Phase II:

More information

ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment

ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment Technical Brief Introduction... 2 Antenna types... 2 Omni directional antennas... 2 Directional antennas... 2 Diversity antennas... 3 High gain directional antennas...

More information

Technical White Paper Microwave Fundamentals Series Spectrum Analysis for Interference Detection and Interpretation

Technical White Paper Microwave Fundamentals Series Spectrum Analysis for Interference Detection and Interpretation Technical White Paper Microwave Fundamentals Series Spectrum Analysis for Interference Detection and Interpretation Abstract This technical paper describes in detail the tools and techniques used to conduct

More information

MOTOROLA CANOPY WIRELESS BROADBAND INTERNET ACCESS PLATFORM

MOTOROLA CANOPY WIRELESS BROADBAND INTERNET ACCESS PLATFORM MOTOROLA CANOPY WIRELESS BROADBAND INTERNET ACCESS PLATFORM October 2002 CONFIGURATION GUIDE TABLE OF CONTENTS Notice... iii Introduction... 1 Canopy System Overview... 1 Components... 2 Access Point (AP)

More information

WIRELESS BROADBAND SOLUTIONS FOR CABLE OPERATORS

WIRELESS BROADBAND SOLUTIONS FOR CABLE OPERATORS WIRELESS BROADBAND SOLUTIONS FOR CABLE OPERATORS »Wireless Broadband Solutions for Cable Operators Extending broadband coverage to reach new commercial and residential customers can pose major challenges.

More information

Virtual Cells: The Only Scalable Multi-Channel Deployment

Virtual Cells: The Only Scalable Multi-Channel Deployment As wireless LAN deployments and usage has increased, coupled with the near ubiquity of embedded Wi-Fi in laptops and smart phones, many enterprises are experiencing complaints from their users of slow

More information

Smart Planning for Smart Networks EDX Wireless

Smart Planning for Smart Networks EDX Wireless Smart Planning for Smart Grid AMI Mesh Networks Greg Leon EDX Wireless, LLC Eugene, Oregon USA May, 2011 Figure 1 - Sample AMI Mesh Network Smart Planning for Smart Networks 2 Introduction The evolution

More information

Demystifying Wireless for Real-World Measurement Applications

Demystifying Wireless for Real-World Measurement Applications Proceedings of the IMAC-XXVIII February 1 4, 2010, Jacksonville, Florida USA 2010 Society for Experimental Mechanics Inc. Demystifying Wireless for Real-World Measurement Applications Kurt Veggeberg, Business,

More information

Artisan Technology Group is your source for quality new and certified-used/pre-owned equipment

Artisan Technology Group is your source for quality new and certified-used/pre-owned equipment Artisan Technology Group is your source for quality new and certified-used/pre-owned equipment FAST SHIPPING AND DELIVERY TENS OF THOUSANDS OF IN-STOCK ITEMS EQUIPMENT DEMOS HUNDREDS OF MANUFACTURERS SUPPORTED

More information

ENGINEERING COMMITTEE Energy Management Subcommittee AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/SCTE 210 2015

ENGINEERING COMMITTEE Energy Management Subcommittee AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/SCTE 210 2015 ENGINEERING COMMITTEE Energy Management Subcommittee AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/SCTE 210 2015 Performance Metrics for Energy Efficiency & Functional Density of Cable Data Generation, Storage, Routing,

More information

Attenuation (amplitude of the wave loses strength thereby the signal power) Refraction Reflection Shadowing Scattering Diffraction

Attenuation (amplitude of the wave loses strength thereby the signal power) Refraction Reflection Shadowing Scattering Diffraction Wireless Physical Layer Q1. Is it possible to transmit a digital signal, e.g., coded as square wave as used inside a computer, using radio transmission without any loss? Why? It is not possible to transmit

More information

best practice design guide Deploying Very High Density Wi- Fi DESIGN AND CONFIGURATION GUIDE FOR STADIUMS

best practice design guide Deploying Very High Density Wi- Fi DESIGN AND CONFIGURATION GUIDE FOR STADIUMS best practice design guide Deploying Very High Density Wi- Fi DESIGN AND CONFIGURATION GUIDE FOR STADIUMS Table of Contents Intended Audience... 3 Overview... 4 Design Process Overview... 5 Discovery...

More information

12. INDOOR INSTALLATION

12. INDOOR INSTALLATION 12. INDOOR INSTALLATION 1. Introduction Previous editions of this book have focused on wide-area outdoor wireless as a means of connecting communities with each other and to the Internet. However, with

More information

Wireless Smart Single low cost Mesh

Wireless Smart Single low cost Mesh Wireless Smart Single low cost Mesh Solution: Mesh-Smart is an entry-level, outdoor, weather-proof, single radio, single antenna networking solution with 2 x SSID, one for backhaul (MESH SSID) and one

More information

Cisco Mobile Network Solutions for Commercial Transit Agencies

Cisco Mobile Network Solutions for Commercial Transit Agencies Cisco Mobile Network Solutions for Commercial Transit Agencies Overview Commercial transit agencies provide a vital service to our communities. Their goal is to provide safe, affordable, and convenient

More information

FSCJ Spectrum Information Memorandum Page 7 of 11 Attachment 1 to FSCJ ITN #2014-33 EDUCATIONAL BROADBAND SERVICE SPECTRUM INFORMATION MEMORANDUM: JACKSONVILLE, FL AND ENVIRONS April 30, 2014 Robert Finch

More information

Testing a Wireless LAN

Testing a Wireless LAN Chapter 17 Testing a Wireless LAN This chapter will introduce you to: Wireless LAN Testing Considerations Signal Coverage Testing Performance Testing In-Motion Testing Security Vulnerability Testing Acceptance/Verification

More information

*** Release Notes for Broadband-Hamnet 3.1.0 *** (Please Read and Consider Updating Soon)

*** Release Notes for Broadband-Hamnet 3.1.0 *** (Please Read and Consider Updating Soon) *** Release Notes for Broadband-Hamnet 3.1.0 *** (Please Read and Consider Updating Soon) This release is a foundation layer for resolving several issues widely discussed in the support forums for older

More information

RSSI LED IP-67. Virtual. HTTPS WISP Bridge

RSSI LED IP-67. Virtual. HTTPS WISP Bridge AirMax DUO 802.11a/b/g Dual Radio Base Station T he AirMax DUO is the latest generation of AirLive Outdoor Base Station that incorporates everything we know about wirelessa feat from the company that starts

More information

Telecommunications and the Information Age ET108B LM#13. Wireless Broadband. Broadband Cellular Protocols Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity WiMax Bluetooth

Telecommunications and the Information Age ET108B LM#13. Wireless Broadband. Broadband Cellular Protocols Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity WiMax Bluetooth Telecommunications and the Information Age ET108B LM#13 Wireless Broadband Broadband Cellular Protocols Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity WiMax Bluetooth Broadband Cellular Services Background First Cellular Broadband

More information

APC series overview. Copyright 2014 Deliberant LLC

APC series overview. Copyright 2014 Deliberant LLC APC series overview APC series - overview Deliberant s APC series product line includes a comprehensive variety of devices to meet the most demanding of applications. All the products utilize unlicensed

More information

Wi-Fi (IEEE b) and Bluetooth Coexistence Issues and Solutions for the 2.4 GHz ISM Band

Wi-Fi (IEEE b) and Bluetooth Coexistence Issues and Solutions for the 2.4 GHz ISM Band White Paper Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11b) and Bluetooth Coexistence Issues and Solutions for the 2.4 GHz ISM Band Matthew B. Shoemake, Ph.D. This white paper presents information related to the IEEE 802.11b Wireless

More information

Maximizing LTE MIMO Throughput Using Drive Test Measurements. PCTEL RF Solutions

Maximizing LTE MIMO Throughput Using Drive Test Measurements. PCTEL RF Solutions Maximizing LTE MIMO Throughput Using Drive Test Measurements PCTEL RF Solutions 1 James Zik, Senior Product Marketing Manager, PCTEL, Inc. Bruce Hoefler, Vice President Product Management, PCTEL, Inc.

More information

SECTION 2 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF BPL SYSTEMS

SECTION 2 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF BPL SYSTEMS SECTION 2 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS 2.1 INTRODUCTION Access equipment consists of injectors (also known as concentrators), repeaters, and extractors. injectors are tied to the backbone via fiber

More information

Solving the Wireless Mesh Multi-Hop Dilemma

Solving the Wireless Mesh Multi-Hop Dilemma Access/One Network White Paper Solving the Wireless Mesh Multi-Hop Dilemma 210-0008-01 Executive Summary 1 Introduction 2 Approaches to Wireless Mesh 4 The Multi-Hop Dilemma 6 Executive Summary A New Breed

More information

Toolkit: Tutorial: Comparing Wireless Broadband Technologies for the Enterprise Campus

Toolkit: Tutorial: Comparing Wireless Broadband Technologies for the Enterprise Campus Gartner for IT Leaders Publication Date: 22 September 2006 ID Number: G00143195 Toolkit: Tutorial: Comparing Wireless Broadband Technologies for the Enterprise Campus Robin Simpson Since early 2005, colleges

More information

Atheros extended Range XR Technology

Atheros extended Range XR Technology White Paper Atheros extended Range XR Technology Going the Distance Atheros extended Range XR Technology Executive Summary Wireless networking applications and services require an infrastructure that

More information

CONNECTING THE WIRELESS TO THE WIRED NETWORK. By: Russ Schomber VP Network Services, Backhaul Services Group

CONNECTING THE WIRELESS TO THE WIRED NETWORK. By: Russ Schomber VP Network Services, Backhaul Services Group CONNECTING THE WIRELESS TO THE WIRED NETWORK By: Russ Schomber VP Network Services, Backhaul Services Group Overview Todays Wireless Networks Cell Tower Density Nationally & Locally Typical Cell Tower

More information

What is DECT? DECT stands for Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications.

What is DECT? DECT stands for Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications. DECT 6.0 vs 900 MHz vs 2.4GHz vs 5.8 GHz DECT 6.0 (1.9 GHz) 900 MHz 2.4 GHz 5.8 GHz FCC approved frequency for cordless telecommunication Baby monitors, microwave oven Wi-Fi electronics (routers), wireless

More information

802.11ac Introduction with Mikrotik RouterOS. Brian Vargyas Baltic Networks USA MUM USA Sept 11, 2014

802.11ac Introduction with Mikrotik RouterOS. Brian Vargyas Baltic Networks USA MUM USA Sept 11, 2014 802.11ac Introduction with Mikrotik RouterOS Brian Vargyas Baltic Networks USA MUM USA Sept 11, 2014 1 Overview of this Presentation Brief Introduction Introduction to 802.11ac Benefits of ac over n Indoor

More information

Understanding TV White Spaces

Understanding TV White Spaces Understanding TV White Spaces On December 6, 2010, the Federal Communications Commission finalized the rules and regulations that will allow the unused spectrum in the TV bands to be available for unlicensed

More information

CBNL. High speed enterprise networks. VectaStar. Rapid ROI Intelligent QoS Easy installation

CBNL. High speed enterprise networks. VectaStar. Rapid ROI Intelligent QoS Easy installation CBNL Cambridge Broadband Networks High speed enterprise networks VectaStar The ultimate in multipoint microwave for enterprise access networks Rapid ROI Intelligent QoS Easy installation High speed enterprise

More information

Unmatched RF Spectrum Analysis

Unmatched RF Spectrum Analysis Datasheet: AirMagnet Spectrum XT AirMagnet Spectrum XT is the industry s first professional spectrum analyzer solution that combines in-depth RF analysis with real-time WLAN information for quicker and

More information

Optimizing Wireless Networks.

Optimizing Wireless Networks. from the makers of inssider Optimizing Wireless Networks. Over the past few years, MetaGeek has created tools to help users optimize their wireless networks. MetaGeek s tools help visualize the physical

More information

Guide for wireless environments

Guide for wireless environments Sanako Study Guide for wireless environments 1 Contents Sanako Study... 1 Guide for wireless environments... 1 What will you find in this guide?... 3 General... 3 Disclaimer... 3 Requirements in brief...

More information

LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum: European Regulation and Co-existence Considerations

LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum: European Regulation and Co-existence Considerations 3GPP workshop on LTE in unlicensed spectrum Sophia Antipolis, France, June 13, 2014 RWS-140002 LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum: European Regulation and Co-existence Considerations Sari Nielsen & Antti Toskala

More information

Wireless LAN Networks. Updated: 5/10/2011

Wireless LAN Networks. Updated: 5/10/2011 Wireless LAN Networks Updated: 5/10/2011 Introduction Refer to notes 802 Protocols The services and protocols specified in IEEE 802 map to the lower two layers Data Link and Physical IEEE 802 splits the

More information

LTE, WLAN, BLUETOOTHB

LTE, WLAN, BLUETOOTHB LTE, WLAN, BLUETOOTHB AND Aditya K. Jagannatham FUTURE Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Commonwealth of Learning Vancouver 4G LTE LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the 4G wireless cellular standard developed

More information

Technology Roadmap: Wi-Fi, WiMAX and Cellular Networks. Phil Belanger December 6, 2006

Technology Roadmap: Wi-Fi, WiMAX and Cellular Networks. Phil Belanger December 6, 2006 Technology Roadmap: Wi-Fi, WiMAX and Cellular Networks Phil Belanger December 6, 2006 Novarum Wireless Broadband Review Analyzes the performance of Metro Wi-Fi, Cellular and WiMAX Testing from user perspective

More information

Huawei WLAN Antenna Brochure

Huawei WLAN Antenna Brochure Huawei WLAN Antenna Brochure Huawei WLAN Antenna Brochure Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are deployed in a variety of ways to meet customer requirements, and specific WLAN antennas are key to successful

More information

FIBRE TO THE BTS IMPROVING NETWORK FLEXIBILITY & ENERGY EFFICIENCY

FIBRE TO THE BTS IMPROVING NETWORK FLEXIBILITY & ENERGY EFFICIENCY FIBRE TO THE BTS IMPROVING NETWORK FLEXIBILITY & ENERGY EFFICIENCY (Study Paper by FLA Division) Ram Krishna Dy. Director General (FLA) TEC New Delhi, DoT, Govt. of India. E-mail: ddgfla.tec@gov.in Mrs.

More information