1 Electronic Signature Capture: Signing Up for More Efficient and Compliant Healthcare Delivery Chris Joyce Director of Healthcare Solutions Engineering
2 Signing and manually managing paper consent and approval forms are costly and time consuming and can increase risks in legal cases and audits. Furthermore, paper forms are a roadblock to total system automation. That s why hospitals, clinics and physician offices are turning to electronic signature to improve efficiency, increase compliance and fill the automation gap. Introduction Healthcare organizations are increasingly committed to automating all aspects of their operations from clinical care to patient records to business and finance. Yet, as they seek to automate clinical, financial and administrative workflows, one function that has stubbornly barred the way is the need to capture signatures from patients and providers. 2 All too often, when a signature is required for consent or approval, a paper document is printed and manually routed and managed. Not only does this interrupt the automated workflow with manual processing that is inefficient and time-consuming, it can also severely jeopardize security and compliance with regulatory and legal requirements. That s why more and more healthcare organizations are turning to advanced forms automation with electronic signature capture to automate the consent and approval process. Basics of Electronic Signature Capture In the past, managing healthcare consent and approval forms was almost entirely a paper-based process. The patient or provider would sign a hard-copy document, and the signed document would subsequently be filed or scanned and manually indexed into a hospital s document management solution. Electronic signature capture solutions, on the other hand, create legally enforceable documents that are automatically indexed to the patient s electronic medical record (EMR) or automatically sent to the hospital information system (HIS) or a clinical data repository (CDR). This: Eliminates paper handling and scanning costs for improved staff satisfaction Reduces the liability of lost documents Fills the automation gap between systems Increases document integrity and availability Recently two trends have emerged that are helping electronic signature capture gain momentum in healthcare. First, the cost for electronic signature technology is declining. Second, there is a growing acceptance of electronic signatures by patients and providers due to retail consumer experience. The two most common types of electronic signatures used in healthcare applications are: Digitized or graphical signature: An electronic representation of a handwritten signature, this type of esignature is the one most people are familiar with from retail applications at point of purchase. It is the most common form used for patient signatures. Digital signature: This typically entails clicking a button or entering a unique personal identification number (PIN), electronic identification, token or biometric scan at the completion of an entry for the signature process. 1
3 3 Opportunities Span the Entire Continuum of Care Successfully implemented in a number of medical centers, ambulatory facilities and physician practices throughout the country, electronic signature capture is applicable throughout the entire continuum of care. Among the areas that are candidates for the application of esignature are: Patient admissions and registration Surgery Nursing units Radiology Laboratory Clinics Pharmacy Physician offices Given the growing number of consent forms required in healthcare today, moving to esignature can dramatically improve workflow and efficiency. The chart below shows the types of forms that are typically automated for electronic signature capture. Forms Requiring Patient Signatures Forms Requiring Physician Signatures Forms Co-signed by Patient and Physician Registration consent forms Registration financial documents Assessments/histories Care directives MRI screening questionnaires Physician orders Progress notes Medicare certifications Informed consents (for procedures) Discharge instructions Benefits of Electronic Signature Capture in Healthcare Operational Benefits Implementing electronic signature capture can provide a host of operational benefits for healthcare organizations. Better legal protection and regulatory compliance: esignatures provide better defense in legal and compliance cases because the system date- and time-stamps when the transaction occurred. This provides an audit trail that shows exactly when the document was signed and by whom. Improved confidentiality: Security of documents and patient confidentiality is improved when documents are electronically managed in secure healthcare systems. Reduced costs: Capturing signatures electronically eliminates the cost of Paper, printing, filing and faxing Labor and equipment required to scan signed documents into the EMR, HIS or clinical data repository Fines for noncompliance
4 Instant availability: Authorized users can instantly and concurrently access an electronic copy for patient care, patient billing or quality review. 4 Faster billing and fewer claim denials: Lost or hard-to-access consent forms can delay billing and result in denied claims. With esignature, documents are immediately available for processing when and where they are needed. Better patient safety: Improved record keeping and instant access to signed documents help promote better patient safety. FirstHealth Moore Regional Hospital Ends the Paper Chase with esignature FirstHealth Moore Regional Hospital, a 395-bed acute-care facility located in Pinehurst, North Carolina, was opening a new heart center and wanted to introduce a more efficient registration process that would match the state-of-the-art healthcare provided by the facility. Bottomline Technologies Inprotica solution provided the workflow and electronic signature capabilities needed to improve efficiency and remove paper from the registration process. Inprotica interfaces with the hospital s McKesson system and its Horizon Patient Folder so that data automatically flows between systems. When a patient registers, the person signs the required documents, including admission and Medicare forms, using an LCD signature pad attached to the registration workstation. Once completed, the forms are automatically sent via computer output to laser disk (COLD) to the Horizon Patient Folder, which is the repository for the electronic health record. FirstHealth management and staff have identified three key benefits from their electronic signature capture application: Improved patient satisfaction, including less time at the registration desk Increased efficiency Reduced costs due to the elimination of the expense of paper, printing and document scanning Based on the success in the Heart Center, Moore Regional Hospital is planning to roll out the Inprotica solution with electronic signature to the rest of the organization. To read more, please visit Bottomline Case Study.pdf. Better Patient and Provider Experience In addition to quantitative benefits such as decreased costs, increased compliance, and improved billing and claim support, electronic signature capture delivers qualitative improvements as well. Better patient experience: Signing forms and documents electronically is easy and familiar, and patients can receive an electronic copy of the signed document via if needed. In addition, the efficiency of the registration or consent experience reflects favorably on the overall competence of the institution. Better provider experience: Integrating electronic signatures into the provider workflow can improve efficiency, reduce errors, and allow the physician to spend more time on patient care and less time on administrative details. The provider can now sign documents at the bedside without having to retrieve and process paper forms manually. The result: better physician satisfaction.
5 5 Obstacles to Implementing Electronic Signature Capture The obstacles to electronic signature capture adoption are shrinking and today revolve mostly around device constraints. They generally fall into four categories: 1. Cost: This is less of an obstacle than it once was, because the cost of hardware has gone down dramatically in recent years. As you will see in the section that follows, there are many options and price points, ranging from a signature clipboard on the low end to an electronic tablet or Apple ipad on the high end. 2. Space: The form factor of different signature capture devices can pose challenges, depending on the application. Signature devices often attach to a workstation and there is limited space on a registrar s desk or a provider s cart-on-wheels (COW) at bedside. This can influence which signature-device option you select for an application. 3. Theft: Electronic tablets and other portable devices deliver mobility but also increase the risk of theft. 4. Mobility: You need to balance screen size and weight when selecting the best tablet for a particular application. Before selecting esignature technology, you need to analyze the cost, context and performance benefits of each option. Technology Options for Electronic Signature Capture Healthcare facilities can choose from a variety of electronic signature capture devices. Each has its advantages and disadvantages, and technology selection depends on the application that you are addressing. Many facilities and organizations use a mix of different signature capture devices, matching them to the particular application. The most popular options include: Retail Signature Pad: Well known from grocery and retail store use, a signature pad captures graphical signatures. Most signature pads feature an LCD display with an attached pen stylus and range in size from 1 x 5 to 4 x 5. In addition to its cost effectiveness, the principal advantage of a signature pad is its size it s small enough for even the most crowded registration desk. Its size is also its biggest drawback, since it limits the amount of information that can be displayed. As a result, the patient must read the signatory document on a workstation or on paper. Signature Clipboard: Designed for use in applications that demand both an electronic and a paper copy, letter- or legal-sized electronic clipboards are often used in healthcare for patient consent applications, particularly in admission and registration. The patient signs the paper copy and the signature clipboard automatically collects an electronic copy of that signature. The major benefit of the signature clipboard is its price. It is the least expensive graphical signature capture device. Its biggest drawback is the need to generate paper forms. Electronic Tablets: Electronic tablets including Microsoft Windows -based devices and Apple ipads can be used for automated forms management and electronic signature capture applications. Ideal for applications that require mobility, electronic tablets are often used by providers in clinical care settings or when bedside consents are required. In addition to mobility, benefits include screen size, interactive forms capabilities and the ability to capture multiple signatures. The biggest disadvantage is cost. Electronic tablets are by far the most expensive option. Web-based Digital Signature: While not as popular in healthcare as the other options, you can use Web forms to collect a PIN-based digital signature. Although a PIN-based digital signature might be confusing to some patients, it is starting to gain acceptance in other industries, including banking applications. This technology option offers the opportunity to use existing equipment, including mobile devices that support Web browsers. The disadvantage is potential confusion among users.
6 Device Type Applications Pros Cons 6 Retail LCD Signature Pad Admission and registration Cost Familiarity from retail experience Needs to be tethered to a workstation Limited display size Small footprint Captures only one signature at a time Signature Clipboard Admission and registration Cost Full-size document Can collect multiple signatures Needs to be tethered to a workstation Footprint limits its use where space is at a premium Patients can take hard copy Hard-copy paper generation Windowsbased Electronic Tablet Patient consent forms and provider clinical care applications Mobility Full-screen form Can collect multiple signatures Cost Weight of device Susceptible to theft Interactive: can capture discrete data from checkboxes and drop-down menus Can zoom in on text for easier reading Forms can be highlighted for emphasis ipad Patient consent forms and provider clinical care applications Mobility Cool factor Can collect multiple signatures Cost Size of display: may need to scroll Touch-screen offers some application challenges Susceptible to theft Easy to lose stylus pen Awkward for patients to use finger for signing
7 7 Griffin Hospital Automates Consent Forms Griffin Hospital, located in Derby, Connecticut, was determined to go paperless when it opened its new cancer center. The need for patient consent forms stood in the way of achieving this goal. Bottomline Technologies Logical Ink provided a mobile documentation solution that made management of paperless consent forms easy for both patients and staff. The solution eliminates paper from the consent process by managing a variety of forms electronically, including advanced beneficiary notices, authorization to use/disclose protected health information, outpatient acknowledgement and registration forms, and permission to undergo radiation therapy. Logical Ink leverages tablet computers, digital ink and a pen-based interface to provide a simple and intuitive experience. Color highlights on required fields ensure that all data and signatures are completed, and validation rules ensure all necessary information is present before the patient is registered. The patients really like the system. Even older patients, who may not typically use computers, get very excited, said Susan Anderson, director, registration. Logical Ink is also a big hit with our staff. It is definitely quicker, since most of the information is prepopulated. To learn more about this success story, please click here: Hospital Case Study.pdf. Meeting Legal Compliance Requirements Electronic signatures are admissible in court and meet legal and industry compliance requirements. Like paper-based signatures, acceptance is predicated on the proper validation of the patient s identity at the time of signature. To ensure that electronic signature capture applications meet legal standards, the system must embed the signature into the document when it is captured and simultaneously date- and time-stamp the event. The document then is locked, typically in PDF format, and cannot be edited from that point forward. Electronic signatures also meet healthcare compliance requirements, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and Joint Commission standards. HIPAA has not established an esignature standard, but electronic signatures support HIPAA regulations if the authenticity of the signature can be validated and the document meets HIPAA security requirements. The Joint Commission accepts the use of esignatures in hospitals and ambulatory care facilities, according to standard RC in the 2009 Accreditation Manual for Hospitals and Ambulatory Care Facilities. 2 Implementing Electronic Signature Capture Is as Simple as Be sure that your solution provider offers a full range of different technology options for signature capture, including LCD signature pads, signature clipboards, Windows-based tablets and ipads, and Web PIN-based signature capture. 2. The solution you select must be capable of date- and time-stamping the capture of the electronic signature in order to meet legal compliance requirements.
8 8 3. If you plan to implement electronic signature capture on a tablet, be sure that the system s software is robust enough to: Guide users through the process and highlight where to sign and/or initial Allow users to perform interactive functions like checking a box or making selections from drop-down menus Validate that all required signatures are present and other required information is completed Conclusion Automation is increasing in all areas of healthcare, spurred by the need for better cost efficiency, higher-quality care and mandates such as Meaningful Use that are driving the adoption of electronic health records. One area that has resisted automation is consent forms and other documents that require a patient and/or provider signature. Advanced forms management with electronic signature is helping fill this automation gap between systems. Electronic signature capture offers a host of benefits such as improved compliance and audit protection, increased efficiency, reduced costs, and an improved patient and provider experience. Several different esignature technologies are available, and healthcare facilities must carefully consider each application before deciding what technology and system to choose. Many facilities use a mix of signature capture technologies for different applications. Electronic signature capture not only meets legal requirements and healthcare regulations, but also offers better protection than paper does because of its precise date- and time-capture capabilities and traceable audit trail. More and more healthcare organizations agree: the time to transition to esignature is now. References 1. Electronic Signature, Attestation, and Authorship (Updated). Journal of AHIMA 80, no.11, November-December 2009): expanded online edition. 2. Joint Commission Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals (CAMH): The Official Handbook. About Bottomline Technologies Bottomline Technologies (NASDAQ: EPAY) provides collaborative payment, invoice and document automation solutions to corporations, financial institutions and banks around the world. The company s solutions are used to streamline, automate and manage processes involving payments, global cash management, transactional documents and invoice approval. Organizations trust these solutions to meet their needs for cost reduction, competitive differentiation and optimization of working capital. Headquartered in the United States, Bottomline also maintains offices in Europe and Asia-Pacific. For more information, visit
275 Tips About Medical Records: A Guide for Legal Nurse Consultants Pat Iyer, MSN, RN, LNCC The Pat Iyer Group, LLC 908-237-0278 The Pat Iyer Group Pat Iyer The Pat Iyer Group, LLC. 260 Route 202/31, Suite
2010 Cabinet NG, Inc. BY ANDREW BAILEY Introduction According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, lawyers are increasingly using various forms of technology to perform more efficiently. Although lawyers
Summary of Responses to an Industry RFI Regarding a Role for CMS with Personal Health Records Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 4 1. INTRODUCTON... 7 2. CMS ROLE WITH PHRs... 9 What PHR functionalities
Electronic Invoice Management A Move to the Middle Q1 2014 Featuring Insights on... Underwritten in part by ADP Ariba Basware Corcentric Coupa Direct Commerce ipayables Nipendo Taulia Barriers to einvoice
White Paper May 2006 Applying Electronic Records Management in the Document Management Environment: An Integrated Approach Written by: Bud Porter-Roth Porter-Roth Associates Table of Contents Introduction
Defining and Testing EMR Usability: Principles and Proposed Methods of EMR Usability Evaluation and Rating HIMSS EHR Usability Task Force June 2009 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 1 INTRODUCTION... 2 WHAT
Document Management Overview A guide to the benefits, technology and implementation essentials of digital document management solutions Run Smarter Document Management Overview A guide to the benefits,
records management Records Management Customer Support Guide Cover subhead 12pt., set in Interstate Light goes here. Second line. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Information Management Solutions................................................................
White Paper The Most Important Question in Your answer points the way to preventing medical identity theft and reducing fraud before it happens June 2012 Risk Solutions Health Care The most important question
Meeting the Need for a Global Identity Management System in the Life Sciences Industry White Paper Authored by: June 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 4 3. WHY A GLOBAL
The Definitive Guide To tm Identity Management Archie Reed Introduction Introduction By Sean Daily, Series Editor The book you are about to enjoy represents an entirely new modality of publishing and a
ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS Medical Protective Clinical Risk Management Department AUGUST 2013 For questions, products, or services, please contact 800 4MEDPRO or visit http://www.medpro.com/. This document
Microsoft Volume Licensing Reference Guide DECEMBER 2010 1 2 Contents CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Volume Licensing...4 Keys to Understanding Microsoft Volume Licensing... 5 Licensing Microsoft Cloud Services...
White Paper EMR Infrastructure Readiness Kathleen Gaffney June, 2012 Introduction An often-overlooked aspect to implementing an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system is the need for a solid, medical-grade
Management of patient information Trends and challenges in Member States Based on the findings of the second global survey on ehealth Global Observatory for ehealth series - Volume 6 WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication
A Qualitative Analysis of Electronic Medical Records in Correctional HealthCare Settings By Dr. James Wallace Coon, Jr. Chip This was a doctoral project submitted to the faculty of the Medical University
Information s and Electronic Medical s Corresponding Author: Kevin W. McEnery, MD Professor, Director, Innovation in Imaging Informatics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Key words: Workflow Electronic Medical
CEU Update A semi-annual publication of the National Association for Health Professionals June 2011 Issue #0611 Electronic Health Records An electronic health record (EHR) (also electronic patient record
FDA 21 CFR Part 11 Electronic records and signatures solutions for the Life Sciences Industry The Rule 21 CFR Part 11 Handwritten signature means the scripted name or legal mark of an individual handwritten
SYMANTEC ServiceDesk Customization Guide 7.0 Symantec ServiceDesk 7 The software described in this book is furnished under a license agreement and may be used only in accordance with the terms of the agreement.
Electronic Health Record (EHR) Solutions LTPAC Providers Need Today Version 1.0 A Whitepaper by the CIO Consortium & Nurse Executive Council June 12, 2013 You are encouraged to freely distribute this whitepaper
Cloud Computing: Transforming the Enterprise Cloud computing is not just a trend. It is changing the way IT organizations drive business value. THINK SMART. ACT FAST. FLEX YOUR BUSINESS. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
BEST PRACTICES WHITE PAPER Measuring Success Service Desk Evaluation Guide for the Midsized Business: How to Choose the Right Service Desk Solution and Improve Your ROI Table of Contents INTRODUCTION...1
CHAPTER 7 Information and communications technology (ICT) in small business WHY IT IS IMPORTANT We are currently living through a massive revolution in communications. Even in your lifetime so far, you