1 Organization Theory Challenges and Perspectives John McAuley, Joanne Duberley and Phil Johnson
2 This book is, to my knowledge, the most comprehensive and reliable guide to organisational theory currently available. What is needed is a text that will give a good idea of the breadth and complexity of this important subject, and this is precisely what McAuley, Duberley and Johnson have provided. They have done some sterling service in bringing together the very diverse strands of work that today qualify as constituting the subject of organisational theory. Whilst their writing is accessible and engaging, their approach is scholarly and serious. It is so easy for students (and indeed others who should know better) to trivialize this very problematic and challenging subject. This is not the case with the present book. This is a book that deserves to achieve a wide readership. Professor Stephen Ackroyd, Lancaster University, UK This new textbook usefully situates organization theory within the scholarly debates on modernism and postmodernism, and provides an advanced introduction to the heterogeneous study of organizations, including chapters on phenomenology, critical theory and psychoanalysis. Like all good textbooks, the book is accessible, well researched and readers are encouraged to view chapters as a starting point for getting to grips with the field of organization theory. Dr Martin Brigham, Lancaster University, UK McAuley et al. provide a highly readable account of ideas, perspectives and practices of organization. By thoroughly explaining, analyzing and exploring organization theory the book increases the understanding of a field that in recent years has become ever more fragmented. Organization theory is central to managing, organizing and reflecting on both formal and informal structures, and in this respect you will find this book timely, interesting and valuable. Peter Holdt Christensen, Associate Professor, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark McAuley et al. s book is thought-provoking, witty and highly relevant for understanding contemporary organizational dilemmas. The book engages in an imaginative way with a wealth of organizational concepts and theories as well as provides insightful examples from the practical world of organizations. The authors sound scholarship and transparent style of writing set the book apart, making it an ingenious read which invites reflexivity, criticalness and plurality of opinion from the audience. This is a book that will become a classic in organization studies. Mihaela L. Kelemen, Professor of Management Studies, Keele University, UK An unusually rich and deep philosophical book on organization theory with several new thinkers and ideas. Pedagogically a well-structured book with many clear learning objectives, cases, examples and good summaries for every chapter. Professor Martin Lindell, Hanken Business School, Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland This book makes it easier to understand the current stand of organization theory. I strongly recommend it to anyone seriously interested in the different intellectual traditions that contribute to our understanding of organizations. Professor Tomas Müllern, Jönköping International Business School, Sweden
3 McAuley, Duberley and Johnson s Organizational Theory takes you on a joyful ride through the developments of one of the great enigmas of our time How should we understand the organization? Jan Ole Similä, Assistant Professor, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Norway I really enjoyed this new text and I am sure my students will enjoy it, too. It combines rigorous theoretical argument with application and consideration of how managment practice is formed and shaped by ideas and concepts. The authors have brought their wealth of experience and understanding and provided the field with an imaginative resource to address the dynamics between theory and practice. Dr Susanne Tietze, Bradford University, UK The key to success for managers is not only to be result oriented but also to be wise in their decision making. This requires that they have a deeper than superficial understanding of management and organization issues. McAuley et al. helps student and managers understand organizational performance without having to go through extensive reading. It deepens their understanding of issues with which they are confronted in practice, by putting them into a larger context. This book really helps students and managers to become wiser. Professor René Tissen, Nyenrode Business University, The Netherlands This book will appeal to the student who seeks a thorough and critical understanding of organization theory. It is both rigorous and accessible, clearly and unashamedly pitched for readers who wish to engage with theoretical issues whilst also maintaining a practical focus on why organization theory matters. I felt in good hands here, confident that I was being offered a deeply informed, reliable and intelligently constructed account. The opening chapter carefully and helpfully explains terms, including theory and epistemology that can form an unexplored bedrock to texts in the field. It then offers thoughtful, scholarly and well-illustrated discussions of prominent theoretical perspective, including managerialism and postmodernity, supported by specified learning outcomes and guides to further reading. Dr Paul Tosey, University of Surrey, UK The field of organization theory is extremely fragmented and there is no agreement concerning the underlying theoretical dimensions nor methodological approach to be employed. With the recognition of different approaches to organization theory, there is a widely perceived need to bring some order to the field. This textbook offers a well-integrated synthesis of approaches to organization theory. It will be welcomed by organization theory scholars and reflective practitioners and is a valuable companion for scholars and students of organization theory. Henk W. Volberda, Chair of the Department of Strategic Management & Business Environment and Vice-Dean of the RSM Erasmus University, Netherlands At last, a text that brings organization theory into the 21st century! This is the first organization theory textbook to provide full and informed coverage of a range of contemporary developments in the field. Notably, it includes diverse contributions to organization theory made by critical management studies. It really is pathbreaking in terms of its inclusion of material that does not appear in other texts. Professor Hugh Willmott, Cardiff Business School, UK This is one of the most up-to-date and comprehensive texts in the field of organization studies. It takes the reader through different perspectives and various topics on management and organizing, discussing these in some depth and detail. It offers a historically grounded, critical-reflexive approach to studying organizations that will prove to be extremely helpful guidance to students. Dr Sierk Ybema, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4 Organization Theory Challenges and Perspectives John McAuley Faculty of Organization and Management, Sheffield Hallam University Joanne Duberley Birmingham Business School, The University of Birmingham Phil Johnson The Management School, The University of Sheffield
5 Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: First published 2007 Pearson Education Limited 2007 The rights of Joanne Duberley, Phil Johnson and John McAuley to be identified as authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6-10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners. ISBN-13: ISBN-10: British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data McAuley, John, FIPD. Organization theory : challenges and perspectives / John McAuley, Joanne Duberley, Phil Johnson. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: ISBN-10: Organizational sociology. I. Duberley, Joanne. II. Johnson, Phil, III. Title. HM786.M dc Typeset in 10/12.5 pt sabon by 72 Printed by Ashford Colour Press Ltd., Gosport The publisher s policy is to use paper manufactured from sustainable forests.
6 Brief Contents Preface List of figures List of tables Acknowledgements 1 Introducing organization theory: what is it, and why does it matter? 2 2 Modernist organization theory: back to the future? 54 3 Neo-modernist organization theory: putting people first? Neo-modernist organization theory: surfing the new wave? Postmodernist organization theory: new organizational forms for a new millennium? Postmodernism as a philosophy: the ultimate challenge to organization theory? Reflective organization theory: symbols, meanings and interpretations Reflexive organization theory: critical theory and psychoanalysis The evolution of management as reflected through the lens of modernist organization theory Perspectives and challenges 432 xiii xvii xix xx
8 Contents Preface List of figures List of tables Acknowledgements xiii xvii xix xx Chapter 1 Introducing organization theory: what is it, and why does it matter? 2 Introduction 2 What is organization theory? 4 Defining theory 5 What are organizations? 12 The relationship between organization theory and human activities 17 The relationship between organization theory and management practice 20 Social engineering and organization theory 22 Critical alternatives to managerialism in organization theory 25 Philosophical disputes and debates: explaining and understanding the diverse nature of organization theory 27 Mapping some aspects of organization theory s diversity 32 Positivist protagonists: the truth is out there, and we can objectively know it 33 Philosophical disputes around the role of the subjective in science 36 Epistemological and ontolological disputes: how can we ever know the truth and is there an out there? 38 A few words of warning about the term postmodernism 43 Overview of the structure and rationale of the book 43 Chapter summaries 45 Chapter 2: Modernist organization theory: back to the future? 45 Chapter 3: Neo-modernist organization theory: putting people first? 45 Chapter 4: Neo-modernist organization theory: surfing the new wave? 46 Chapter 5: Postmodernist organization theory: new organizational forms for a new millennium? 46 Chapter 6: Postmodernism as a philosophy: the ultimate challenge to organization theory? 47 Chapter 7: Reflective organization theory: symbols, meanings and interpretations 47 Chapter 8: Reflexive organization theory: critical theory and psychoanalysis 48 Chapter 9: The evolution of management as reflected through the lens of modernist organization theory 48 Chapter 10: Perspectives and challenges 48
9 viii Contents Chapter 2 Modernist organization theory: back to the future? 54 Introduction 54 Modernist organization theory in context 56 What is modernism? 56 Modernism and architecture 56 What is modernist organization theory? 58 The historical roots of modernist organization theory 58 Classical theory of organization 59 Modernist organization theory: an overview 60 The modernist ontology: the ordered world of the modernist organization 60 The epistemological level: the scientific approach to organization 63 The technologies: how modernists get things done 66 How modernist organization theory continues to influence the understanding and exploration of organizations: the organization as system 68 General Systems Theory 69 General Systems Theory builds hierarchies of knowledge that relate to different levels of sophistication in understanding organizations 70 The basic systems of the organization: what every organization must have to survive 72 The organization as simple machine 74 Level 3: Get the structure and systems right so that all is in balance 75 Level 4: The machine is alive! well, almost 77 How modernist organization theory underpins conventional understandings of the relationship between organizations and society 81 Is bureaucracy immoral? 83 Form fits function: how modernist organizational theory challenges the relationship between individuals, groups and the organization through bureaucracy and hierarchy 85 The virtuous bureaucracy 87 Modernist themes in organizational design 87 Modernist bureaucracy as a key challenge to organization design 87 Contingency theory and organization design 89 Organization culture as a key theme in organization theory 92 The modernist tradition in organization culture 92 Conclusions: does modernist organization theory still provide challenges for new visions of the organization? 94 Chapter 3 Neo-modernist organization theory: putting people first? 100 Introduction 100 Neo-modernist organization theory focuses attention on the human issues in organization 102 There is nothing so practical as a good theory 102 How Roethlisberger developed a practical organization theory 103 Column 1: The core contributing social sciences 105 Column 2: The techniques for analysis 105 Column 3: The neo-modernist perspective 106 Column 4: Contributions to business and management 107 Four combinations of science, scientific technique and the neo-modernist approach reach different parts of the organization 107 Level 1: Developing the organization 108 Level 2: Managing the human resource 109
10 Contents ix Level 3: We are a people-centred organization 110 Level 4: The world of the management guru 112 The human relations school as an example of neo-modernist organization theory 114 How human relations begins 114 What is the human relations school? 115 The human relations school develops 116 The Hawthorne Studies as a classic example of applied organizational research within the human relations tradition 118 The Relay Assembly Test Room 118 The Bank Wiring Observation Room 120 Research and the development of neo-modernist organization theory 120 Why the Hawthorne Studies were so important 122 How neo-modernist organization theory challenges understandings of the relationship between organizations and society 122 A puzzle is it is better to belong or to be an individual? 123 Longing to belong: too much commitment 126 A reminder the human relations approach is not the only neo-modernist story in town 127 How neo-modernist organization theory challenges understandings of organization culture 127 Creating a culture that gives meaning to work 129 Developing understanding of culture 130 Developing a practical theory of organizational culture 130 The vehicles of culture 132 The processes of the communication of culture 133 The heart of culture 135 A tale of two cultures 136 How neo-modernist organization theory develops challenges in the design of organizations 139 The processual perspective 139 Design and development 140 Conclusions: does neo-modernist organization theory exercise challenges for new visions of the organization? 142 Chapter 4 Neo-modernist organization theory: surfing the new wave? 148 Introduction 148 The origins of new-wave management 150 Control in organizations 152 Unpredictable behaviour 152 Informal control: organizational misbehaviour? 153 Complexity and the problem of implementation 156 Three types of formal control 159 Bureaucratic control 159 Output control 160 Cultural control 161 The new wave in action: managing cultural change 164 A theoretical explanation of a possible shift in control: A new historical configuration? 171 An alternative theoretical explanation: movements in managerial discourse? 176 The theoretical origins of new-wave theory 179 Conclusions 186
11 x Contents Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Postmodernist organization theory: new organizational forms for a new millennium? 198 Introduction 198 What is postmodernism? 200 Is postmodernism anything new? 202 The history 205 Post-industrialism and the information society 206 The virtual organization 211 Neo-fordism, flexible specialization and post-fordism 213 The regulation school 215 Institutionalist school 217 The managerialist school 220 The flexible firm critique 225 Postmodern organizations the work of Stewart Clegg and Paul Heydebrand 227 Conclusions 234 Postmodernism as a philosophy: the ultimate challenge to organization theory? 242 Introduction 242 What is postmodernism? 244 Postmodernism: the core elements 246 Postmodernism and organization theory 248 Poststructuralism and postmodernism 250 Three key thinkers of postmodernism 251 Jacques Derrida: the linguistic turn and deconstruction 251 J.F. Lyotard and the nature of knowledge 257 Foucault: postmodernism, discourse, knowledge and power 261 Organizational culture 268 The challenges of postmodernism to organization theory 271 Problematizing normal science 271 Problematizing truth 271 Problematizing representation 272 Problematizing writing 272 Problematizing generalizability 273 Postmodernism and the spectre of relativism 274 Conclusions 275 Chapter 7 Reflective organization theory: symbols, meanings and interpretations 282 Introduction 282 What it means to be reflective 284 Working and acting together: symbolic interactionism 286 The Chicago school 287 The processes of making and sharing meaning 288 The basic assumptions of symbolic interactionism 288 Strengths and weaknesses of the symbolic interactionist understanding of organizations 293 Phenomenology reaches the emotions 294 Ethnomethodology: understanding organizational common sense 298 Organizational symbolism 300 The ways in which individuals develop a sense of self in organizations 301
12 Contents xi The self as dramatic artful creation 301 Negotiating the way between the self and the organization s rules 302 Developing the organizational identity 304 Understanding organization culture through symbols 314 Introduction two ways of exploring culture 314 Communicating cultures 314 Negotiation of meaning influences organizational design 320 Ideology, rhetoric and negotiation 320 Arenas and games 323 Conclusions 324 Chapter 8 Reflexive organization theory: critical theory and psychoanalysis 330 Introduction 330 The development of critical theory as a challenging perspective in organization theory 332 Critical theory as seen by the Frankfurt school 332 Some key influences in the development of critical theory 332 Critical management studies: critical theory enters organization and management theory 339 Critical theory develops new understanding of the scientific approach 340 The sciences of the spirit 341 The models of natural science and the sciences of the spirit come together 342 Critical theory has practical organizational implications 342 The development of psychoanalysis as a challenging perspective in organization theory 344 Psychoanalysis gives insight into organizations as a practical theory 345 The challenge of psychoanalysis to organizations 347 The key challenges of psychoanalysis 347 Psychoanalysis and critical theory in action 349 The challenges of critical theory and psychoanalysis for understanding the individual, the group and the organization 354 A critique of critical theory 356 Critical theory and psychoanalysis develops challenging perspectives on organization culture 357 A psychoanalytic view of organization culture 357 The unhealthy organization culture: when there is conflict 359 The unhealthy organization culture: when there is insufficient conflict 360 Understanding the purpose of the organization and embedding it in the culture 361 Critical theory and psychoanalysis present challenging perspectives for organizational design 362 Social democracy and the democratic organization 367 Democracy, rationality and power 371 A psychodynamic perspective on design create the boundaries 373 Critical theory and psychoanalysis challenge understandings of leadership and management 374 Conclusions 375 Chapter 9 The evolution of management as reflected through the lens of modernist organization theory 382 Introduction 382 Conceptualizing management 384 The historical origins and development of management 385
13 xii Contents Technological change and the factory system 387 The impact of scientific management 392 The managerial revolution and the origins of managerialism 395 Redefining managerialism 399 Leadership and managerialism 401 Diffusion between institutions: the case of the UK public sector 404 New public management 405 Diffusion within organizations: the infiltration of the rank and file 408 Organizational democracy and a case against managerialism 412 The economic efficiency case for organizational democracy: a challenge to managerialism? 413 Destabilized capitalism 414 Employee alienation as the key problem 416 Conclusions 421 Chapter 10 Perspectives and challenges 432 Introduction 432 Comparing the different perspectives 434 A modernist perspective 434 A neomodernist perspective 434 A new-wave perspective 435 A postmodern perspective 436 A reflective perspective 437 A critical theory and psychoanalytic perspective 437 A managerialist perspective 438 The paradigm debate 438 The practical utility of organization theory 442 Current trends 446 Globalization 446 Institutional and neoinstitutional theory 450 Discourse 452 The aesthetics of organizing 453 One final look at organizational culture 457 Conclusions 459 Index 466 Supporting resources Visit to find valuable online resources For Instructors PowerPoint slides that can be downloaded and used for presentations Additional exercises For more information please contact your local Pearson Education sales representative or visit
14 Preface Introduction Over the past hundred years or so, Organization Theory has developed into a distinctive social science discipline. It is a body of thinking and writing that describes, explains and influences what goes on in organizations. It provides an underpinning body of knowledge that enables us to explore and develop management and leadership theory. In recent decades Organization Theory has become increasingly diverse in terms of the perspectives that writers use to study and understand organizations. These perspectives provide, in their different ways, profound challenges to the ways in which we live in and design organizations. They pose important challenges to organization members about issues such as: The relationship between organization control and freedom. The nature of power and authority in organizations. The relationship between individualism and collectivism in modern organizations. The relationship between organizations and society. The ways in which organizations are designed. The relationship between organizations and leadership and management. The development of understanding of organization culture as means of control or vehicle for development. The book explores approaches to Organization Theory from its origins through to the most recent debates. We show how the different traditions of organizational theory are intertwined, sometimes in sympathy, sometimes with profound disagreement. Chapter One provides an extended introduction to the nature and complexity of Organization Theory. This provides a springboard to the exploration, in each of the following chapters, of a distinctive epoch of organization theory. In these chapters we look at the fundamental issues that each of these theories of organization poses. In this spirit we examine the challenges of: Modernist theories of organization that form the controversial and challenging foundations of organization theory. The development of neo-modernist theories of organization that claim to put people first and then the ways that these theories have been transformed into
15 xiv Preface new wave approaches in which there is an emphasis on the control of organization members. We then explore the ways in which postmodern philosophies and theories of organization pose radical challenges for modernism and neo-modernism. We then explore theories and concepts which develop the idea that organization theory is a means by which members can gain deep understanding of their organizations. This is achieved through exploration of organizations as symbols, through critical theory and through psychoanalysis. In many respects the study of organizations is linked with the study of management, and in Chapter 9 we explore the ways in which theories of management have achieved such an important place in organization theory. The concluding chapter synthesizes many of the issues in the earlier chapters and then looks at some of the emergent trends in organization theory. We explore the strengths and limitations of these theories and perspectives and show how they continue to exert challenges to organizations. The three authors come from somewhat different standpoints in relation to their understandings about organization theory so there is a sense of dialogue between different perspectives, rather than the uniformity of view found in many books. This will enable the reader to see the issues as living, controversial and challenging. The aim of this book Our vision is that the book covers the core issues in organization theory in a manner which shows how various forms of organizational theory both underpin and challenge common sense ways of viewing (and managing) organizations. The aim of this book is to provide a clearly structured and interesting exploration of the ways in which the variety of theories and perspectives that constitute Organization Theory provide profound challenges for organizations in the twenty-first century. The book develops understanding of the increasing pressures created by heightened competition and processes of globalization by analysing their impact upon organizations with specific reference to the ways in which organization theory can help develop understanding and appropriate action. Who should use this book? The target audience is anticipated to be postgraduate students and undergraduate students for whom Organizational Analysis or Organizational Theory represents a core module, or is a significant part of a core module. Typically the audience would be students in Business Schools but could also be students in Departments of Sociology, Schools of Education and so on. The learning needs of these students is for a book that reflects the best of Anglo-American, European and other thinking on organization theory in a manner that shows that different sorts of theory are relevant and can be made interesting for an understanding of the organizational world.
16 Preface xv Distinctive features The structure of the book The historical epoch based approach enables students to see the relevance and challenge of all the different perspectives and theories that constitute organization theory. Because of the way the book was developed by its three authors, readers can see that there are differences in the way that its theories and challenges can be understood, that organization theory is not a monolithic subject but rather a rich resource for developing understanding of organizations. Each chapter begins with an Introduction which outlines the content and direction of the chapter, provides a clear guide to the structure of the chapter and then outlines the Learning outcomes. These learning outcomes provide a guide to the different sections of the chapter. Stop and think Each of the chapters contains stop and think boxes. These are designed to form the basis for brief discussion amongst group members or for personal reflection on some key issue raised in the text. Case studies These are designed to enable the reader to relate theoretical issues to organization practice, or to give a practical organizational example. Ideas and perspectives These are designed to provide an outline of a perspective, theory or key idea in organization theory. They provide the reader with an introduction to ideas that are developed within the chapter. The chapter so far These are provided at key points in the chapter. They provide the reader with a summary of the issues that have been covered in the chapter and a link with the next part. Biography These are designed to provide a brief intellectual history of key figures in organization theory. They provide an indication of the ways in which different theorists
17 xvi Preface developed their understanding of organization and social science theory as part of the background in which the different periods of organization theory developed. Concluding grid Most of the chapters conclude with a grid in which we return to the learning outcomes and then summarize the way in which these learning outcomes provide challenges to the organization in the twenty-first century. Annotated further reading Each chapter concludes with an indication of further reading. We have also included, wherever possible, indications of films and other media that provide insights into the issues covered in the chapter. Discussion questions Finally, each chapter concludes with a number of questions that have been developed for use in seminar discussions or would be suitable as the basis for assessments.
18 List of figures Figure 1.1 Relating cause and effect 8 Figure 1.2 How theory provides explanation 9 Figure 1.3 The double hermeneutic 19 Figure 1.4 The derivation of epistemology 29 Figure 1.5 What is this? 30 Figure 1.6 The derivation of ontology 31 Figure 1.7 Positivist philosophical assumptions the truth is out there and we can objectively know it 34 Figure 1.8 The role of the subjective in human behaviour 37 Figure 1.9 Critical theory: the truth is out there but we can never know it 40 Figure 1.10 Postmodernism: the truth cannot be out there since there is no out there 42 Figure 2.1 Modernist architecture 56 Figure 2.2 Three key aspects of modernism 61 Figure 2.3 Modernist medicine 65 Figure 2.4 Chinese medicine 65 Figure 2.5 What every organization needs: the functional imperatives 72 Figure 2.6 A systems model 78 Figure 3.1 From science to application a systems model 104 Figure 3.2 Designing and developing an organization 108 Figure 3.3 Managing the human resource 109 Figure 3.4 We are a people-centred organization 111 Figure 3.5 The world of the management guru 112 Figure 3.6 The experimental Relay Assembly Test Room used in the Hawthorne Studies 119 Figure 3.7 Neo-modernist open systems 131 Figure 3.8 Three layers of organization culture 132 Figure 4.1 A snapshot taken by a British Officer showing German and British troops fraternizing on the Western Front during the Christmas truce of Figure 4.2 The operation of three types of control in Figure 4.3 relation to an organizational task 157 Factors impacting on the viability of different forms of control 175 Figure 5.1 Postmodern pastiche architecture in Las Vegas 200 Figure 5.2 Business sponsoring sport 204 Figure 5.3 Atkinson s flexible firm 221 Figure 5.4 Dimensions of labour market segmentation 226
19 xviii List of figures Figure 5.5 Clegg s postmodern versus modern organizational forms 230 Figure 6.1 Duchamp s fountain 244 Figure 6.2 Pruitt-Igoe and the end of modernity 246 Figure 6.3 Panopticon blueprint by Jeremy Bentham, Figure 7.1 The process of making meaning a symbolic interactionist approach 290 Figure 7.2 A trajectory of change 311 Figure 8.1 Organic architecture: Harvard Graduate School, Figure 8.2 Aggressive capitalism: Canary Wharf, London 364 Figure 9.1 Cromford Mill in the 1830s 386 Figure 9.2 The effects of delayering upon organizational hierarchies 409 Figure 10.1 Burrell and Morgan s four paradigms 441 Figure 10.2 Different approaches to discourse in organization theory 453 Figure 10.3 The office 456 Figure 10.4 The interplay between different approaches to culture 458
20 List of tables Table 1.1 Knowledge constituting philosophical assumptions 44 Table 2.1 Hierarchy of science and organization theory 71 Table 2.2 Fatalism and optimism in the new modernist organization 90 Table 5.1 Bell s stages of societal development 207 Table 5.2 Fordism vs. post-fordism 214 Table 5.3 The incidence of part-time work in European Union member states 223 Table 6.1 Modernism versus postmodernism 248 Table 6.2 Affirmative versus sceptical postmodernism 249 Table 6.3 The changing condition of knowledge 258 Table 9.1 Pay and profits: Long run performance of FTSE 100 companies (2002 prices) Table 9.2 Five core points of transformational leadership 402 Table 9.3 Ideas and perspectives: alienation and anomie compared 418 Table 10.1 Two modes of knowledge production 443 Table 10.2 Contrasting types of isomorphism 452