Cloud computing: benefits, risks and recommendations for information security

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1 Cloud computing: benefits, risks and recommendations for information security Dr Giles Hogben Secure Services Programme Manager European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA)

2 Goals of my presentation Introduction to cloud computing and how it differs from other technologies. Explain the security benefits and risks of cloud computing Help you make an informed risk decision on whether to use cloud computing Explain an efficient way of selecting secure cloud services Propose criteria to help you select the most secure services.

3 Non goals of my presentation Persuade you to use cloud computing Sell you a cloud computing service Explain technicalities of migrating to cloud computing Tell you that IT departments are not needed any more

4 What is cloud computing Cloud computing is an on-demand service model for IT provision usually based on virtualization and distributed computing technologies. Computational resources are provided on demand as a service, much like a public utility

5 50,000 Machines for 1 Minute same investment and level of commitment 1 machine for 1 year 5

6 What is cloud computing ENISA s understanding Service On demand, usually with a pay as you go billing system Near instant scalability and flexibility Near instantaneous provisioning and deprovisioning.

7 Example traditional IT investment Resources used/purchased Investment in Infrastructure Wasted investment Demand for infrastructure

8 Resources used/purchased Investment in Infrastructure Demand for infrastructure

9 What is cloud computing ENISA s understanding Shared resources (hardware, database, memory, etc...) like buying a hotel room

10 Efficiency -Non-cloud utilisation

11 Cloud utilisation

12 What is cloud computing ENISA s understanding Highly abstracted hardware and software resources No need to understand what s going on behind the scenes

13 What is cloud computing ENISA s understanding Programmatic management (e.g. through Web Services API)

14 Summary Near instant scalability and flexibility Near instantaneous provisioning Service On demand, usually with a pay as you go billing system Highly abstracted hardware and software resources Shared resources (hardware, database, memory, etc...) Programmatic Management (through an API)

15 SaaS: Software as a service (e.g. Google Apps) PaaS: Platform as a service (e.g. Salesforce build your own CRM) IaaS: Infrastructure as a service (e.g. Amazon) (also storage, database) Types of cloud

16 Types of Cloud

17 Types of cloud Commodity Cost Assurance Liability Cost Commodity Liability Assurance Public Partner Private Non-cloud

18 Typical Small Government Agency/SME Use-cases

19 SaaS Web content delivery (portals etc ) Docs/office in a browser Stakeholder management Etc...

20

21 PaaS Stakeholder Relations (e.g. Salesforce) Web based APIs e.g. build your own survey tool

22

23 IaaS Application hosting Desktops via remote desktop Storage Backup Web hosting Research and Development Media hosting On-demand work force

24 24

25 ENISA Cloud Computing Objectives Help business and governments to gain the cost benefits of cloud computing. While maintaining service availability, data confidentiality and integrity, privacy, transparency, accountability and responsibility. 25

26 Reaching the objectives ENISA Deliverables and Ongoing Activities Cloud Computing: Benefits, Risks and Recommendations for Information security Assurance framework 2009 Research Recommendations 2009 Gov-Cloud security and resilience analysis (2010) Common Assurance Maturity Model (CAMM) consortium (proposed) procurement and monitoring guidance for government cloud contracts. 26

27 Benefits and Risks

28 SMEs Main Concerns

29 Cloud Computing: Benefits, Risks and Recommendations for Information security 29

30 Security Benefits of Cloud Computing 30

31 Economies of Scale

32 Economies of scale and Security All kinds of security measures are cheaper when implemented on a larger scale. (e.g. filtering, patch management, hardening of virtual machine instances and hypervisors, etc) The same amount of investment in security buys better protection.

33 Other benefits of scale Cloud providers Big enough to do background checks on their IT staff Staff specialization & experience Cloud providers big enough to hire specialists in dealing with specific security threats. Multiple locations by default -> redundancy and failure independence. Edge networks: content delivered or processed closer to its destination.

34 Improved management of updates and defaults Updates can be rolled out much more rapidly across a homogenous platform Default VM images and software modules can be updated with latest patches and security settings. Snapshots of virtual infrastructure (in IaaS) to be taken regularly and compared with a security baseline.

35 Is your current setup really better from a security standpoint? 35

36 The Risks

37 Very high value assets Most risks are not new, but they are amplified by resource concentration the asset values are high. o Trustworthiness of insiders. o Hypervisors- hypervisor layer attacks on virtual machines are very attractive. o More Data in transit (Without encryption?) o Management interfaces big juicy targets

38 Lock in o Few tools, procedures or standard formats for data and service portability. o Difficult to migrate from one provider to another, or to migrate data and services to or from an in-house IT environment. o Potential dependency of service provision on a particular CP.

39 Loss of Governance o The client cedes control to the Provider on a number of issues effecting security: o External pen testing not permitted. o Very limited logs available. o Usually no forensics service offered o Not possible to inspect hardware o No information on location/jurisdiction of data. o Outsource or sub-contract services to third-parties (fourth parties?)

40 Somebody else s problem (SEP) syndrome Appirio Cloud Storage fully encrypts each piece of data as it passes from your computer to the Amazon S3 store. Once there, it is protected by the same strong security mechanisms that protect thousands of customers using Amazon s services

41 Amazon AWS ToS o YOU ARE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR APPLYING APPROPRIATE SECURITY MEASURES TO YOUR DATA, INCLUDING ENCRYPTING SENSITIVE DATA. o You are personally responsible for all Applications running on and traffic originating from the instances you initiate within Amazon EC2. As such, you should protect your authentication keys and security credentials. Actions taken using your credentials shall be deemed to be actions taken by you.

42 Legal and contractual risks Data in multiple jurisdictions, some of which may be risky. Lack of compliance with EU Data Protection Directive o Potentially difficult for the customer (data controller) to check the data handling practices of the provider o Multiple transfers of data exacerbate the problem Risk Allocation and limitation of liability Compliance challenges how to provide evidence of compliance.

43 Co-tenancy and Isolation failure o Like a Hotel (California?) you may be able to hear your neighbours if the walls are not well insulated Storage (e.g. Side channel attacks) see Virtual machines Entropy pools ( Resource use (e.g. Bandwidth)

44 RESOURCE EXHAUSTION Overbooking Underbooking Caused by: Resource allocation algos Denial of Service Freak events

45 Credential management Key management is (currently) the responsibility of the cloud customer. Key provisioning and storage is usually off-cloud One key-pair per machine doesn t scale to multiple account holders/rbac. Credential recovery sometimes available through management interface (protected by UN/PWD by default).

46 Just encrypt your data in the cloud and you don t have to worry about a thing? Data processing on cloud Customer Cloud provider Unfortunately not... Practical processing operations on encrypted data are not possible

47 Example incident o First 3 days of having account, management interface down for 2 whole days with no reporting (resource exhaustion, isolation failure? High value assets) o Account compromised because forced to share credentials between multiple parties. (key/credential management) o Account cancelled without notice (loss of governance) o Could not get data out including backups (lock-in) o Customers lose data (legal risks)

48 So how do I figure out which provider to trust? 48

49 Cloud Information Assurance Framework Increasing transparency through a minimum baseline for: Comparing cloud offers Assessing the risk to go Cloud Reducing audit burden and security risks

50 From Cloud Information Assurance Framework Comparing Offerings To CAMM: Common Assurance Maturity Model

51 ENISA Assurance Framework/ Common Assurance Maturity Model MISSION An objective framework to rate the capability of a solution to deliver information security across the supply chain

52 Common Assurance Maturity Model A minimum baseline for: o Comparing cloud offers o Assessing the risk to go Cloud o Reducing audit/procurement burden and security risks

53

54 Example controls 6.1 Network architecture controls Well-defined controls are in place to mitigate DDoS (distributed denial of-service) attacks e.g. o o Defence in depth (traffic throttling, packet black-holing, etc..) Defences are in place against internal (originating from the cloud providers networks) attacks as well as external (originating from the Internet or customer networks) attacks Measures are specified to isolate resource usage between accounts for virtual machines, physical machines, network, storage (e.g., storage area networks), management networks and management support systems, etc. o The architecture supports continued operation from the cloud when the customer is separated from the service provider and vice versa (e.g., there is no critical dependency on the customer LDAP system).

55 In practice Our framework is being used For applying common procurement guidelines among European Agencies. See next presentation for other government usecases Next year we will expand it to other use cases. 55

56 ENISA materials ENISA Deliverables and Ongoing Activities Cloud Computing: Benefits, Risks and Recommendations for Information security Assurance framework 2009 Research Recommendations 2009 Common Assurance Maturity Model (CAMM) consortium 2010 Gov-cloud security and resilience analysis (2010) 2011 (proposed) procurement and monitoring guidance for government cloud contracts. 56

57 Contact and Questions Giles.hogben[?]enisa.europa.eu?

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