The Role of Fair Treatment and Rewards in Perceptions of Organizational Support and Leader Member Exchange

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Role of Fair Treatment and Rewards in Perceptions of Organizational Support and Leader Member Exchange"

Transcription

1 Journal of Applied Psychology Copyright 2002 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 2002, Vol. 87, No. 3, /02/$5.00 DOI: // The Role of Fair Treatment and Rewards in Perceptions of Organizational Support and Leader Member Exchange Sandy J. Wayne University of Illinois at Chicago Lynn M. Shore and William H. Bommer Georgia State University Lois E. Tetrick University of Houston This study examined a model of the antecedents and consequences of perceived organizational support (POS) and leader member exchange (LMX). It was predicted that organizational justice (procedural and distributive justice) and organizational practices that provide recognition to the employee (feelings of inclusion and recognition from upper management) would influence POS. For LMX, it was predicted that leader reward (distributive justice and contingent rewards) and punishment behavior would be important antecedents. Results based on a sample of 211 employee supervisor dyads indicated that organizational justice, inclusion, and recognition were related to POS and contingent rewards were related to LMX. In terms of consequences, POS was related to employee commitment and organizational citizenship behavior, whereas LMX predicted performance ratings. Social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) has recently been applied in organizational settings to provide a basis for understanding the roles that organizations and managers play in creating feelings of employee obligation and pro-organizational behaviors such as performance and citizenship. Two streams of research applying social exchange theory in organizations have developed separately: leader member exchange (LMX; Graen & Cashman, 1975; Graen & Scandura, 1987; Liden, Sparrowe, & Wayne, 1997) and perceived organizational support (POS; Eisenberger, Fasolo, & Davis-LaMastro, 1990; Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986). LMX focuses on the quality of exchange between the employee and the manager and is based on the degree of emotional support and exchange of valued resources. In contrast, POS focuses on the exchange relationship between the employee and the organization. It has been conceptualized as employees general perception of the degree to which the organization values their Sandy J. Wayne, Department of Managerial Studies, University of Illinois at Chicago; Lynn M. Shore, Department of Management and W. T. Beebe Institute of Personnel and Employment Relations, Georgia State University; William H. Bommer, Department of Management, Georgia State University; Lois E. Tetrick, Department of Psychology, University of Houston. This study was funded by grants from the Center for Human Resource Management (CHRM) at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Urbana Champaign campuses and the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) Foundation. The interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations, however, are ours and do not necessarily represent those of the CHRM or the SHRM Foundation. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Sandy J. Wayne, Department of Managerial Studies, Mail Code 243, University of Illinois at Chicago, 601 South Morgan Street, Chicago, Illinois contribution and cares about their well-being; in other words, the employer s commitment to the employee (Eisenberger et al., 1986). Because LMX and POS are both based on social exchange theory, the question has been raised as to whether they are conceptually distinct. Recent studies integrating these literatures have found that POS and LMX are distinct and that they are differentially related to employee attitudes and behaviors (Masterson, Lewis, Goldman, & Taylor, 2000; Settoon, Bennett, & Liden, 1996; Wayne, Shore, & Liden, 1997). One key component of social exchange theory that is incorporated in POS and LMX research is the norm of reciprocity, which suggests that individuals who are treated favorably by others feel a sense of obligation to respond positively or return the favorable treatment in some manner (Blau, 1964; Gouldner, 1960). Surprisingly few studies have empirically examined what forms of treatment create a sense of obligation or indebtedness in employee organization (i.e., POS; Shore & Shore, 1995) and employee supervisor (i.e., LMX) relationships (Sparrowe & Liden, 1997). Theory on POS and LMX suggests that fair treatment and favorable rewards may influence these exchanges (Liden et al., 1997; Shore & Shore, 1995). One purpose of this study is to examine specific types of treatment and rewards that are related to POS and LMX and, thus, determine whether these exchanges have unique and common antecedents. In addition to what creates a sense of obligation in employee organization and employee supervisor relationships, there is the question of whether and how employees reciprocate for favorable treatment. On the basis of the norm of reciprocity, employees who are treated favorably by others feel a sense of indebtedness to the exchange partner and are motivated to repay the partner (Blau, 1964; Gouldner, 1960; Greenberg, 1980). Thus, employees who perceive a high level of organizational support or who have a high-quality exchange with their supervisor feel a sense of indebt- 590

2 RESEARCH REPORTS 591 edness and reciprocate in terms of attitudes and behaviors that benefit the exchange partner. Because the exchange partners differ for POS and LMX, the attitudes and behaviors that fulfill the sense of obligation for these exchange relationships tend to be different (Masterson et al., 2000; Settoon et al., 1996; Wayne et al., 1997). As an extension of this research, a second purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which POS and LMX are related to citizenship behavior and differentially related to employee commitment and performance rating. The model of POS and LMX tested in this study is shown in Figure 1. We focus on what creates a sense of obligation in employee organization and employee supervisor relationships by examining antecedents of POS and LMX. By focusing on what types of treatment and rewards are related to POS and LMX, we contribute to the limited research devoted to identifying antecedents of these exchange relationships. On the basis of the norm of reciprocity from social exchange theory, we explore how employees reciprocate for favorable treatment by investigating the relation between POS and LMX and employee attitudes and behaviors. This study contributes to an emerging literature on the social exchange process by incorporating multiple referents (both the leader and the organization). Model Development and Hypotheses Antecedents of POS and LMX One aspect of treatment that may be relevant to both POS and LMX is organizational justice, or fairness. With respect to POS, Shore and Shore (1995) argued that both distributive and procedural justice should contribute to POS. POS theory supports this view by suggesting that (a) treatment by the organization contributes to employee perceptions of organizational motives underlying such treatment and (b) positive discretionary activities by the organization that benefit the employee are interpreted by employees as evidence that the organization cares about the employee s well-being (Eisenberger et al., 1986, 1990). Justice perceptions may well be one aspect of an employee s evaluation of discretionary actions taken by the organization that is indicative of the degree of organizational support (Moorman, Blakely, & Niehoff, 1998). Initial empirical support has been found for the relation between justice and POS. Fasolo (1995) found that both distributive and procedural justice dimensions of performance appraisals explained unique variance in POS when the other type of justice (either procedural or distributive) was controlled for. Masterson et al. (2000) and Moorman et al. (1998) found that POS mediated the Figure 1. Hypothesized model. H hypothesis; POS perceived organizational support; LMX leader member exchange; OCB organizational citizenship behavior.

3 592 RESEARCH REPORTS relationship between procedural justice and outcomes. Therefore, we expect procedural and distributive justice to be positively related to POS. Hypothesis 1. Procedural justice is positively related to POS. Hypothesis 2. Distributive justice is positively related to POS. We propose that subordinate perceptions of distributive justice but not procedural justice are related to LMX. Although employees are likely to perceive the fairness of procedures as primarily based on organizational policies over which the supervisor has little control, the supervisor and the organization are likely to be perceived as jointly responsible for the distributive fairness of outcomes. Masterson et al. (2000) found some support for this contention, as procedural justice was related to POS but not LMX. However, they did not examine distributive justice in their model. Thus, we expect distributive justice to be related to LMX because subordinates are reluctant to maintain a high-quality exchange with supervisors who they feel do not allocate rewards fairly. Hypothesis 3. Distributive justice is positively related to LMX. In addition to fairness, rewards have been discussed in relation to POS and LMX, but in different ways. The POS literature argues that discretionary rewards that imply investment by the organization in the employee or that are interpreted by the employee as symbolic of appreciation and recognition contribute to POS (Eisenberger, Cummings, Armeli, & Lynch, 1997; Shore & Shore, 1995). In contrast, the leadership literature discusses leader reward behavior. In general, employees respond more positively to supervisors who administer rewards on the basis of performance (contingent reward behavior; Podsakoff, Todor, Grover, & Huber, 1984). With respect to POS, a number of studies have examined the relation between human resource practices and POS, with the view that discretionary practices that imply employer commitment should lead to perceptions of organizational support (M. W. Allen, 1992; Eisenberger et al., 1986; Guzzo, Noonan, & Elron, 1994; Tetrick, Shore, & Malatesta, 1997). In this study, we examine two sets of discretionary practices, inclusion and recognition, as antecedents of POS. Opportunities to be involved in important decision-making processes in the organization and to receive privileged communication from management, which we refer to as inclusion, contribute to employee perceptions that they are trusted to serve the organization s best interests. Social exchange relationships are based on trust (Blau, 1964), so practices that imply trust in the employee should be associated with POS. Positive recognition and visibility to top management are important discretionary rewards that are likely to be given to a small group of employees. Recognition implies that the employee has a bright future with the organization and also that the employer cares about and values the employee (Shore & Shore, 1995; Wayne et al., 1997). Consistent with this view, Buchanan (1974) found that organizational recognition of contributions was associated with greater affective commitment. Furthermore, M. W. Allen (1992) found that perceived quality and sincerity of communication from top management predicted POS. Thus, we expect that employees who have received more recognition from and visibility to top management than their peers will perceive higher levels of organizational support. Hypothesis 4. Inclusion is positively related to POS. Hypothesis 5. Recognition is positively related to POS. As noted, rewards, and leader reward behavior in particular, have played a dominant role in leadership research. Graen and Uhl-Bien (1995) noted that LMX has a transactional component based on equitable social exchange. A primary means by which supervisors can fulfill this social exchange is to exhibit contingent reward behavior toward an employee. Podsakoff et al. (1984) asserted that leaders who administer rewards and punishments contingently will be more effective than leaders who administer them noncontingently, or not at all (p. 23). Podsakoff and his colleagues have found noncontingent punishment to be associated with employee dissatisfaction (Podsakoff et al., 1984), decreased employee performance (Podsakoff et al., 1984), and reduced levels of certain organizational citizenship behaviors (Podsakoff, Mac- Kenzie, & Fetter, 1993). It is likely that supervisors who subject employees to noncontingent punishment also cause harm to the exchange relationship with the employee by eroding trust in the manager. Thus, we expect contingent rewards to be positively related and noncontingent punishment to be negatively related to LMX. Hypothesis 6. Supervisor-contingent rewards are positively related to LMX. Hypothesis 7. Noncontingent punishment is negatively related to LMX. Reciprocal Nature of POS and LMX Although we have argued that POS and LMX are conceptually distinct, we expect that they are reciprocally related. Employees who have been well supported by the organization over a period of time, as assessed by POS, are more likely to desire and accept a high-quality exchange with their supervisor. Furthermore, a supervisor is more likely to engage in behaviors that contribute to a high-quality exchange with employees who are successful, as represented by having been supported by the organization over a period of time. There is also reason to expect that LMX may influence POS. Because leaders tend to allocate more rewards to employees with whom they have high-quality exchanges, over time LMX may influence employees perceptions of organizational support. The reciprocal relationship between POS and LMX was empirically supported by Wayne et al. (1997). Hypothesis 8. There is a positive and reciprocal relationship between POS and LMX. Consequences of POS and LMX Empirical evidence supports the view that the social exchange relationship underlying POS creates feelings of obligation to support the organization through both attitudes such as affective commitment (Eisenberger et al., 1990; Guzzo et al., 1994; Randall, Cropanzano, Bormann, & Birjulin, 1994; Settoon et al., 1996; Shore & Tetrick, 1991; Shore & Wayne, 1993; Tetrick & Sinclair, 1994; Wayne et al., 1997) and behaviors such as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB; Masterson et al., 2000; Moorman et al., 1998; Wayne et al., 1997) and safety communication (Hof-

4 RESEARCH REPORTS 593 mann & Morgeson, 1999). In an attempt to replicate prior research, we examine POS as a predictor of commitment and OCB. Hypothesis 9. POS is positively related to employee commitment. Hypothesis 10. POS is positively related to OCB. From a social exchange perspective, a high-quality exchange may create a sense of obligation on the part of the subordinate to reciprocate in terms of behaviors valued by the supervisor. Consistent with this perspective, high-quality exchanges tend to be associated with employee behavior that benefits the supervisor and goes beyond the formal job duties (Liden & Graen, 1980). Subordinates may engage in OCB and perform at a high level to reciprocate for rewards and support provided by the supervisor, thus maintaining a balanced or equitable social exchange with the supervisor. A number of field studies have found support for the relation between LMX and OCB (Settoon et al., 1996; Wayne & Green, 1993; Wayne et al., 1997) and strong support for the relation between LMX and performance ratings (e.g., Howell & Hall-Merenda, 1999; Liden & Graen, 1980; Settoon et al., 1996; Wayne et al., 1997). Hypothesis 11. LMX is positively related to OCB. Hypothesis 12. LMX is positively related to in-role performance ratings. Even though a large majority of the research on OCB has focused on its antecedents, a growing amount of literature has recognized the positive consequences that accrue to individuals who engage in OCB. A number of studies suggest that OCB has a significant impact on employee performance appraisals (T. D. Allen & Rush, 1998; Avila, Fern, & Mann, 1988; MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Fetter, 1991, 1993; Werner, 1994). In fact, in two experimental studies (T. D. Allen & Rush, 1998; Werner, 1994), researchers manipulated task performance and OCB to assess whether employee OCB influences managers ratings of employee performance. Both studies found support for the view that supervisors value OCB and thus use it in their performance appraisals. Although the empirical research primarily focuses on OCB s effects on overall performance evaluations, it is quite likely that the image-enhancing role of OCB (Bolino, 1999) also impacts supervisors ratings of in-role performance. Hypothesis 13. OCB is positively related to manager-rated employee in-role performance. Control Variables Consistent with Wayne et al. (1997), we included organizational tenure as a control variable for POS and dyad tenure as a control variable for LMX. Organizational tenure and dyad tenure, representing the duration of each exchange relationship, have been positively related to POS and LMX, respectively. Alternative Models As a challenge to our hypotheses regarding the uniqueness of the proposed antecedents of POS and LMX, we examine in our tests of alternative models whether the paths that are not included in the model (e.g., a path from procedural justice to LMX) are nonsignificant. For the outcomes of POS and LMX, we contend that employees reciprocate in terms of behaviors that are valued by the particular exchange partner. Our alternative models examine whether the paths from POS to in-role performance and from LMX to commitment are nonsignificant. Sample Method Participants were 211 employees and their direct supervisors from two metal fabricating plants that are subsidiaries of a Fortune 500 company. A total of 294 employees completed surveys, representing a 90.7% employee response rate. Thirty-one supervisors completed performance ratings, resulting in matched surveys for 211 of the 294 respondents (71.8% of those who participated in the employee survey). On average, supervisors evaluated 10 employees (range 1 to 30 employees). Of the 211 employees in the sample, 85% were men, the average tenure was 3.07 years (SD 3.15), and the average dyad tenure was 1.52 years (SD 1.86). The average employee was 36 years old (SD 9.94) and had (SD 1.75) years of education. Procedure The data were collected on site, during work hours and in the presence of one of us. The participants were provided with a letter describing the study s purpose and ensuring the confidentiality of their responses. Measures Unless noted, all responses were made on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree. Procedural justice. Procedural justice was measured with Niehoff and Moorman s (1993) six-item scale (.88). The items assess whether work-related decisions are based on the gathering of accurate and unbiased information, employee voice, and an appeals process. Distributive justice. Price and Mueller s (1986) six-item Distributive Justice Index was used (.92). The items assess the extent to which employees have been fairly rewarded given their job responsibilities, experience, effort, good performance, education and training, and stresses and strains of the job. Inclusion. We developed four items on which respondents indicated how well their company fulfilled its obligations to them. The items are making important decisions in your company, implications of decisions are discussed with you, being asked for your opinions on important issues, and receiving privileged communication from management being in the loop. The response scale ranged from 1 not at all fulfilled to 5 very highly fulfilled (.90). Recognition. We developed three items on which respondents were asked to compare themselves with others with about the same tenure at the company and indicate how much of the following they had received: visibility to upper management, personal attention from management, and recognition from upper level management. The response scale ranged from 1 much less to 5 much more (.87). Contingent rewards. A five-item scale developed by Podsakoff, Todor, and Skov (1982;.90) was used, on which employees rated the degree to which they received contingent rewards from their immediate supervisor. A sample item is My supervisor personally compliments me when I do outstanding work. Noncontingent punishment. Podsakoff et al. s (1982) four-item scale was used; it follows the same format as the contingent reward measure (.79). An example item is My supervisor frequently punishes me without my knowing why.

5 594 RESEARCH REPORTS Tenure. Organizational tenure was reported by employees as the number of years they had been employed with the company. For dyad tenure, employees reported the number of years they had worked with their direct supervisor. POS. The nine-item, shortened version of the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (Eisenberger et al., 1986, 1990) was used (.92). LMX. Seven items reported by Scandura and Graen (1984) were used to measure LMX (.89) and were modified to use a 7-point (1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree) scale. Commitment. Meyer, Allen, and Smith s (1993) six-item measure of affective commitment was used (.82). OCB. Employees direct supervisor completed the four-item Altruism subscale of Podsakoff and MacKenzie s (1989) OCB scale (.83). Performance rating. The four-item in-role performance scale asked supervisors to rate the degree to which subordinates met the formal requirements of their job (.85; Williams & Anderson, 1991). Results Table 1 shows the means, standard deviations, and intercorrelations among the variables. Before testing the hypothesized model, we first examined the measurement model, as recommended by Anderson and Gerbing s (1988) two-step approach. For the measurement and structural models, the analyses were conducted with LISREL 8.30 (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1993). All analyses used the covariance matrix and maximum likelihood estimation. Measurement Model Except for the tenure variables, we created two indicators for each latent construct in the model. Items were randomly assigned to item parcels, and then the items for each item parcel were averaged. The use of item parcels rather than individual items as manifest indicators of the latent constructs allowed us to maintain an adequate sample-size-to-parameter ratio (Bentler & Chou, 1988; Russell, Kahn, Spoth, & Altmaier, 1998). For each latent construct, we set the path from the latent construct to one of the indicators equal to 1 to scale the latent variable (Bollen, 1989). For the tenure variables, we used single indicators and assumed that they were measured without error. The measurement model provided an acceptable fit to the data when we considered all of the fit statistics, 2 (176, N 211) , p.01; goodness of fit index (GFI).92; adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI).86; root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA).04; normed fit index (NFI).94; comparative fit index (CFI).98; parsimony normed fit index (PNFI).60. All of the estimated parameters were statistically significant ( p.05). Hypothesized Model The hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data on the basis of the fit statistics, 2 (209, N 211) , p.01; GFI.91; AGFI.87; RMSEA.03; NFI.93; CFI.98; PNFI.71. Standardized parameter estimates for this model are shown in Figure 2. Procedural justice, distributive justice, inclusion, and recognition were significantly related to POS. Organizational tenure was not significantly related to POS. Contingent rewards and dyad tenure were significantly related to LMX. The paths from distributive justice to LMX and from noncontingent Table 1 Means, Standard Deviations, and Correlations Variable M SD Procedural justice (.88) 2. Distributive justice ** (.92) 3. Inclusion **.55** (.90) 4. Recognition **.44**.60** (.87) 5. Organizational tenure Supervisor-contingent rewards **.41**.34**.26**.07 (.90) 7. Noncontingent punishment **.27**.15*.20**.08.60** (.79) 8. Dyad tenure **.11.24**.20**.45** POS **.69**.72**.62**.06.42**.29**.20** (.92) 10. LMX **.48**.44**.39**.01.77**.51**.22**.51** (.89) 11. Commitment **.56**.58**.57**.09.29**.19**.21**.75**.41** (.82) 12. OCB *.13.17*.19** **.22**.20**.18* (.83) 13. Performance rating **.21**.16*.19**.11.22**.18*.10.27**.31**.17*.71** (.85) Note. N 211. Values in parentheses represent the reliability (Cronbach s alpha) for the scale. POS perceived organizational support; LMX leader member exchange; OCB organizational citizenship behavior. * p.05. ** p.01.

6 RESEARCH REPORTS 595 Figure 2. Maximum likelihood estimates for the hypothesized model. POS perceived organizational support; LMX leader member exchange; OCB organizational citizenship behavior. *p.05. **p.01. punishment to LMX were not significant. In terms of the reciprocal relationship between POS and LMX, the path from POS to LMX was significant, but the path from LMX to POS was not significant. In predicting the outcomes, POS was significantly related to commitment and OCB. LMX was significantly related to performance but not to OCB. Consistent with prior research, the path from OCB to performance was significant. The amount of variance explained for the endogenous variables was 81% for POS, 77% for LMX, 71% for commitment, 8% for OCB, and 73% for performance. Alternative Models Alternative Model 1 consisted of the addition of a path from procedural justice to LMX. As shown in Table 2, the difference in chi-square between Alternative Model 1 and the hypothesized Table 2 Chi-Square Difference Test for the Alternative Models Model Paths added to hypothesized model 2 df 2 df Hypothesized ** 209 Alternative 1 Procedural justice to LMX ** Alternative 2 Inclusion to LMX and recognition to LMX ** Alternative 3 Supervisor-contingent rewards to POS and noncontingent punishment to POS ** Alternative 4 POS to performance rating and LMX to commitment ** Note. N 211 for all analyses. LMX leader member exchange; POS perceived organizational support. ** p.01.

7 596 RESEARCH REPORTS model was not significant, 2 (1, N 211) 0.02, ns. This indicates that the additional path from procedural justice to LMX was not significant; thus, procedural justice was not a common antecedent to both POS and LMX. For Alternative Model 2, paths were added from inclusion to LMX and from recognition to LMX. The difference in chi-square between Alternative Model 2 and the hypothesized model was not significant, 2 (2, N 211) 1.30, ns, which again does not support the common antecedents thesis. Alternative Model 3 included the addition of paths from contingent rewards to POS and from noncontingent punishment to POS. The difference in chi-square between Alternative Model 3 and the hypothesized model again was not significant, 2 (2, N 211) 2.49, ns. Alternative Model 4 included the addition of paths from POS to performance and from LMX to commitment. The difference in chi-square between Alternative Model 4 and the hypothesized model was not significant, 2 (2, N 211) 0.27, ns. Overall, none of the additional paths included in the alternative models were significant, and the parsimonious fit indices indicated that the hypothesized model was slightly more parsimonious (PNFI.71) compared with the alternative models (PNFI for all alternative models.70). Therefore, these results provide additional support for the hypothesized model. Discussion This research investigates two aspects of social exchange theory as applied to POS and LMX. First, by focusing on antecedents of POS and LMX, we explored what creates a sense of obligation in employee organization and employee supervisor relationships. Second, by investigating the relation between POS and LMX and employee attitudes and behaviors, we examined how employees reciprocate for favorable treatment. Our study suggests that POS and LMX have distinct antecedents and outcomes, as has prior research (Settoon et al., 1996; Wayne et al., 1997). However, our study explores a new set of antecedents by focusing on the effect of fair treatment and favorable rewards on POS and LMX. In terms of the antecedents, we found that (a) procedural and distributive justice were antecedent to POS but not to LMX, (b) top management actions, in the form of inclusion and recognition, were antecedent to POS but not to LMX, and (c) contingent rewards were antecedent to LMX but not to POS. In terms of outcomes, POS was related to commitment and OCB, whereas LMX was related to in-role performance. Even though we found support for the distinctiveness of POS and LMX, we found that POS was related to LMX. However, consistent with the findings of Masterson et al. (2000), the reverse path from LMX to POS was not significant. This finding is contrary to Wayne et al. (1997), who found support for the reciprocal relationship between POS and LMX. These mixed results suggest that organizational context may play a role in determining whether LMX influences POS. For example, in organizations in which supervisors rather than upper management have wide control over numerous discretionary rewards, LMX may impact perceptions of organizational support. Future research is needed to explore this contention. In terms of the results for fairness, procedural and distributive justice were significantly related to POS. As did Fasolo (1995), we found that procedural justice was more strongly related than was distributive justice to POS. Eisenberger et al. s (1986) conceptualization of POS may help to explain this finding. They argued that actions taken by the organization in relation to the employee must be viewed as discretionary and as reflective of positive evaluations by the organization for POS to be enhanced (Eisenberger et al., 1997). Employees are likely to assume that greater discretion is possible in procedures than in outcomes (Shore & Shore, 1995). When work-related decisions are based on accurate and unbiased information and when employee voice mechanisms are in place (i.e., procedural justice), this communicates concern for employee well-being, which clearly influences POS. Although it is possible for organizations to have fair procedures for all employees, many valued outcomes are competitive (e.g., not everyone who is qualified can get promoted), so organizations may not be able to provide adequate support for employees through such outcomes. Thus, our results suggest that organizations that want to enhance perceptions of support may do so more effectively by establishing fair procedures. It is surprising that distributive justice was related to POS but not LMX. Perhaps participants viewed decision outcomes as primarily influenced by factors outside of the supervisor s control and, thus, as representative of organizational support. The relationship between distributive justice and both POS and LMX should be evaluated in follow-up studies to determine whether the same pattern occurs in other types of organizations. Compared with many other types of organizations, the manufacturing organization that participated in this study may be more likely to have established rules and procedures that contribute to employee justice perceptions as being organizationally based rather than supervisor based. Additional support was found for the argument that discretionary rewards that are symbolic of trust and recognition are related to POS (Eisenberger et al., 1997; Shore & Shore, 1995). In particular, inclusion and recognition by top management were related to POS. This suggests that if management wants to increase perceptions of support, they need to use rewards that enhance feelings of trust and provide recognition. We found that contingent rewards were a significant antecedent of LMX. This is consistent with a large body of research suggesting the importance of contingent rewards for leadership effectiveness (Graen & Cashman, 1975; Graen & Scandura, 1987; Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995; Podsakoff et al., 1984). However, noncontingent punishment was not found to be a significant predictor in the hypothesized model, though it did have a significant zero-order correlation with LMX. Perhaps the relevant portions of contingent rewards and noncontingent punishment were redundant with one another in relation to LMX, as they were highly correlated. In terms of the outcomes, POS was positively related to employee commitment and OCB. It is surprising that POS but not LMX was related to OCB. Past research has suggested that LMX but not POS was related to OCB (Settoon et al., 1996) or that both were related to OCB (Wayne et al., 1997). One potential reason that LMX was not associated with OCB in this study is the operationalization of OCB used. Organ s (1988) conceptualization of OCB includes five dimensions of OCB and altruism is only one of these dimensions. Thus, a more supervisor-focused form of OCB (i.e., sportsmanship) might be more likely to be associated with LMX than the more organizationally focused form we used (i.e., altruism; Masterson et al., 2000).

8 RESEARCH REPORTS 597 Consistent with past research (Settoon et al., 1996; Wayne et al., 1997), our results support the view that LMX, and not POS, contributes to in-role performance. This pattern of results suggests that employees view in-role performance as the fulfillment of the exchange relationship with the supervisor rather than with the organization. These results highlight the criticality of good supervisor employee relationships for enhancing job performance. This study contributes to the literature in several ways. First, the pattern of antecedents and outcomes provides additional support for the distinctiveness of POS and LMX. This pattern also suggests the value of both forms of social exchange for contributing uniquely to important outcomes. Second, our results provide strong support for the conceptualization of POS as a form of social exchange (Eisenberger et al., 1986) in which discretionary treatment leads to POS. However, we add to this literature by showing that POS is influenced by social comparison processes (distributive justice and recognition), fulfillment of organizational obligations pertaining to inclusion, and procedural justice. In light of the relatively few studies that have been published on antecedents of POS, these findings are important. Of particular note is the finding that POS influenced LMX but that LMX did not influence POS. This finding is consistent with Masterson et al. (2000) but not consistent with Wayne et al. (1997), and it needs to be explored in future studies to determine what factors may influence the reciprocity of these relationships. Organizational leaders need to be aware that perceptions of support influence LMX and that both forms of exchange influence employee attitudes and behaviors. There are a number of limitations of this study. The crosssectional design did not allow us to test causal relationships among antecedents and outcomes. Future research tracking changes in POS and LMX over time would strengthen our ability to make causal inferences. Another limitation is the use of self-report data for the antecedents of POS and LMX. On the other hand, confirmatory factor analyses showed that the antecedent variables and POS and LMX were distinct. The fact that this study was conducted in a single organization limits the generalizability of the results to other organizations. Finally, because some of the variables were measured from the same source, such as OCB and performance rating, common method variance may be an explanation for some of the results. In summary, this study provides further support for the view that POS and LMX are related but distinct social exchange processes. POS appears to be influenced by variables that communicate organizational value and trust in the employee, whereas LMX is related to supervisor reward behavior. This suggests that both top management and direct supervisors may have an influence on the development of social exchange relationships, which, in turn, may increase levels of affective commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and in-role performance. References Allen, M. W. (1992). Communicational and organizational commitment: Perceived organizational support as a mediating factor. Communication Quarterly, 40, Allen, T. D., & Rush, M. C. (1998). The effects of organizational citizenship on performance judgments: A field study and a laboratory experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, Avila, R. A., Fern, E. F., & Mann, O. K. (1988). Unraveling the criteria for assessing the performance of salespeople: A causal analysis. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 8, Bentler, P. M., & Chou, C. (1988). Practical issues in structural modeling. In J. S. Long (Ed.), Common problems/proper solutions: Avoiding error in quantitative research (pp ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley. Bolino, M. C. (1999). Citizenship and impression management: Good soldiers or good actors? Academy of Management Review, 24, Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley. Buchanan, B. (1974). Building organizational commitment: The socialization of managers in work organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19, Eisenberger, R., Cummings, J., Armeli, S., & Lynch, P. (1997). Perceived organizational support, discretionary treatment, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, Fasolo, P. M. (1995). Procedural justice and perceived organizational support: Hypothesized effects on job performance. In R. Cropanzano & K. M. Kacmar (Eds.), Organizational politics, justice, and support: Managing social climate at work (pp ). Westport, CT: Quorum Press. Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25, Graen, G., & Cashman, J. (1975). A role-making model of leadership in formal organizations: A developmental approach. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership frontiers (pp ). Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. Graen, G. B., & Scandura, T. A. (1987). Toward a psychology of dyadic organizing. Research in Organizational Behavior, 9, Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multilevel multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6, Greenberg, M. S. (1980). A theory of indebtedness. In K. Gergen, M. S. Greenberg, & R. Willis (Eds.), Social exchange: Advances in theory and research (pp. 3 26). New York: Plenum Press. Guzzo, R. A., Noonan, K. A., & Elron, E. (1994). Expatriate managers and the psychological contract. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, Hofmann, D. A., & Morgeson, F. P. (1999). Safety-related behavior as a social exchange: The role of perceived organizational support and leader member exchange. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, Howell, J. M., & Hall-Merenda, K. E. (1999). The ties that bind: The impact of leader member exchange, transformational and transactional leadership, and distance on predicting follower performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: User s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International. Liden, R. C., & Graen, G. (1980). Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage model of leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 23, Liden, R. C., Sparrowe, R. T., & Wayne, S. J. (1997). Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 15, MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Fetter, R. (1991). Organizational citizenship behavior and objective productivity as determinants of man-

9 598 RESEARCH REPORTS agerial evaluations of salesperson s performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Fetter, R. (1993). The impact of organizational citizenship behavior on evaluations of salesperson performance. Journal of Marketing, 57, Masterson, S. S., Lewis, K., Goldman, B. M., & Taylor, M. S. (2000). Integrating justice and social exchange: The differing effects of fair procedures and treatment on work relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 43, Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, Moorman, R. H., Blakely, G. L., & Niehoff, B. P. (1998). Does perceived organizational support mediate the relationship between procedural justice and organizational citizenship behavior? Academy of Management Journal, 41, Niehoff, B. P., & Moorman, R. H. (1993). Justice as a mediator of the relationship between methods of monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 36, Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1989). A second generation measure of organizational citizenship behavior (Indiana University Working Paper). Bloomington: Indiana University. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Fetter, R. (1993). Substitutes for leadership and the management of professionals. Leadership Quarterly, 4, Podsakoff, P. M., Todor, W. D., Grover, R. A., & Huber, V. L. (1984). Situational moderators of leader reward and punishment behavior: Fact or fiction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, Podsakoff, P. M., Todor, W. D., & Skov, R. (1982). Effects of leader contingent and noncontingent reward and punishment behaviors on subordinate performance and satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 25, Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1986). Handbook of organizational measurement. Marshfield, MA: Pittman. Randall, M. L., Cropanzano, R., Bormann, C. A., & Birjulin, A. (1994, August). The relationship of organizational politics and organizational support to employee attitudes and behavior. Paper presented at the meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas, TX. Russell, D. W., Kahn, J. H., Spoth, R., & Altmaier, E. M. (1998). Analyzing data from experimental studies: A latent variable structural equation modeling approach. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, Scandura, T. A., & Graen, G. B. (1984). Moderating effects of initial leader member exchange status on the effects of a leadership intervention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., & Liden, R. C. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, Shore, L. M., & Shore, T. H. (1995). Perceived organizational support and organizational justice. In R. Cropanzano & K. M. Kacmar (Eds.), Organizational politics, justice, and support: Managing social climate at work (pp ). Westport, CT: Quorum Press. Shore, L. M., & Tetrick, L. E. (1991). A construct validity study of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, Shore, L. M., & Wayne, S. J. (1993). Commitment and employee behavior: Comparison of affective commitment and continuance commitment with perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, Sparrowe, R. T., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Process and structure in leadermember exchange. Academy of Management Review, 22, Tetrick, L. E., Shore, L. M., & Malatesta, R. L. (1997, November). Antecedents and outcomes of perceived organizational support and affective commitment. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southern Management Association, Atlanta, GA. Tetrick, L. E., & Sinclair, R. R. (1994, August). The relation of benefit coverage to establishing and maintaining the employment relationship. Paper presented at the meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas, TX. Wayne, S. J., & Green, S. A. (1993). The effects of leader member exchange on employee citizenship and impression management behavior. Human Relations, 46, Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40, Werner, J. M. (1994). Dimensions that make a difference: Examining the impact of in-role and extrarole behaviors on supervisory ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17, Received June 27, 2000 Revision received September 7, 2001 Accepted September 16, 2001

MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH IMPORTANT WORK OUTCOMES. Wei Liu

MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH IMPORTANT WORK OUTCOMES. Wei Liu PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT: LINKING HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH IMPORTANT WORK OUTCOMES By Wei Liu Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland,

More information

Social Exchange in Organizations: Perceived Organizational Support, Leader-Member Exchange, and Employee Reciprocity

Social Exchange in Organizations: Perceived Organizational Support, Leader-Member Exchange, and Employee Reciprocity Journal of Applied Psychology 1996, Vol. 81, No. 3,219-227 Copyright 1996 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0021-90IO/96/S3.00 Social Exchange in Organizations: Perceived Organizational Support,

More information

ABUSIVE SUPERVISION AND PROSOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: A STUDY OF WORKERS IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

ABUSIVE SUPERVISION AND PROSOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: A STUDY OF WORKERS IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA ABUSIVE SUPERVISION AND PROSOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: A STUDY OF WORKERS IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA Abstract Ike E. Onyishi University of Nigeria, Nsukka The study examined the relationship

More information

Yolanda B. Truckenbrodt

Yolanda B. Truckenbrodt Leader-Member Exchange and Commitment RESEARCH and Organizational Citizenship Behavior THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE AND COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR Yolanda B.

More information

Antecedents and consequences of justice perceptions in performance appraisals

Antecedents and consequences of justice perceptions in performance appraisals Human Resource Management Review 12 (2002) 555 578 www.hrmanagementreview.com Antecedents and consequences of justice perceptions in performance appraisals Berrin Erdogan* School of Business, Portland

More information

The role of leadership between the employees and the organization: a bridge or a ravine? -an empirical study from China1

The role of leadership between the employees and the organization: a bridge or a ravine? -an empirical study from China1 Abstract Journal of Management and Marketing Research The role of leadership between the employees and the organization: a bridge or a ravine? -an empirical study from China1 Pan Jing-zhou Qufu Normal

More information

The Role of Rewards and Recognition in Customer-oriented Citizenship Behaviors

The Role of Rewards and Recognition in Customer-oriented Citizenship Behaviors The Role of Rewards and Recognition in Customer-oriented Citizenship Behaviors Scott A. Jeffrey Monmouth University Guillermo Wilches-Alzate University of Waterloo January 6, 2009 1 Introduction Customer

More information

The effect of perceived organizational support on employee s organizational citizenship behavior: A study of hotel employees in Turkey

The effect of perceived organizational support on employee s organizational citizenship behavior: A study of hotel employees in Turkey Vol. 7(34), pp. 3281-3286, 14 September, 2013 DOI: 10.5897/AJBM12.159 ISSN 1993-8233 2013 Academic Journals http://www.academicjournals.org/ajbm African Journal of Business Management Full Length Research

More information

Organizational citizenship behavior: The role of organizational justice and leader member exchange

Organizational citizenship behavior: The role of organizational justice and leader member exchange Organizational citizenship behavior: The role of organizational justice and leader member exchange Farzin Farahbod * 1, Mohammadreza Azadehdel 2, Morad Rezaei-Dizgah 3, Maryam Nezhadi-Jirdehi 4 1,2,3 Islamic

More information

2007, Vol. 92, No. 3, 745 756 0021-9010/07/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.3.745. Wei Liu. Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business

2007, Vol. 92, No. 3, 745 756 0021-9010/07/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.3.745. Wei Liu. Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business Journal of Applied Psychology Copyright 2007 by the American Psychological Association 2007, Vol. 92, No. 3, 745 756 0021-9010/07/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.3.745 Employee Self-Enhancement Motives

More information

Recent Research on Leader- Member Exchange: Development, Measurement, and Context. Robert C. Liden University of Illinois at Chicago

Recent Research on Leader- Member Exchange: Development, Measurement, and Context. Robert C. Liden University of Illinois at Chicago Recent Research on Leader- Member Exchange: Development, Measurement, and Context Robert C. Liden University of Illinois at Chicago Introduction Definition of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Relationship

More information

Organisational Citizenship Behaviour

Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Organisational Citizenship Behaviour White Paper 2011 Deww Zhang Contents Executive Summary.......1 Introduction 2 What is OCB?. 3 The Benefits of OCB..4 Antecedents of OCB...6 OCB in Practice: Encouraging

More information

Determinants of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Its Outcomes

Determinants of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Its Outcomes Determinants of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Its Outcomes Ung Hee Lee 1, Hye Kyoung Kim 2*, and Young Hyung Kim 3 1 Cluster operation team, Korea Industrial Complex Corp., S. Korea 2 Occupational

More information

SEM Analysis of the Impact of Knowledge Management, Total Quality Management and Innovation on Organizational Performance

SEM Analysis of the Impact of Knowledge Management, Total Quality Management and Innovation on Organizational Performance 2015, TextRoad Publication ISSN: 2090-4274 Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences www.textroad.com SEM Analysis of the Impact of Knowledge Management, Total Quality Management and Innovation

More information

Building a business case for developing supportive supervisors

Building a business case for developing supportive supervisors 324 Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (2013), 86, 324 330 2013 The British Psychological Society www.wileyonlinelibrary.com Author response Building a business case for developing supportive

More information

Psychological contract breach and work performance Is social exchange a buffer or an intensifier?

Psychological contract breach and work performance Is social exchange a buffer or an intensifier? The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0268-3946.htm JMP 25,3 252 Received October 2008 Revised January 2009 January 2009 Accepted January 2009 Psychological

More information

LMX as a Predictor of Performance Behaviour: Empirical Evidence from Life Insurance Sector of Pakistan

LMX as a Predictor of Performance Behaviour: Empirical Evidence from Life Insurance Sector of Pakistan Journal of Human Resource Management 2015; 3(1): 1-5 Published online May 8, 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/jhrm) doi: 10.11648/j.jhrm.20150301.11 ISSN: 2331-0707 (Print); ISSN: 2331-0715

More information

Management Science Letters

Management Science Letters Management Science Letters 4 (2014) 1685 1692 Contents lists available at GrowingScience Management Science Letters homepage: www.growingscience.com/msl Workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship

More information

Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Another Perspective on the Leadership Process

Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Another Perspective on the Leadership Process VOLUME 13, NUMBER 1, 2010 Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Another Perspective on the Leadership Process Fred C. Lunenburg Sam Houston State University ABSTRACT The basic idea behind the leader-member exchange

More information

Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions

Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions The Leadership Quarterly 15 (2004) 329 354 Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions Alannah E. Rafferty*, Mark A. Griffin School of Management, Queensland University

More information

Department of Education Administration, School of Humanities, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Saveh, Iran

Department of Education Administration, School of Humanities, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Saveh, Iran Int. J. Manag. Bus. Res., 4 (4), 247-254, Autumn 2014 IAU The Relationship between Servant Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Employees at Valiasr Academic Complex, Islamic Azad University-Central

More information

The relationship between the leadership styles and Organizational citizenship behavior

The relationship between the leadership styles and Organizational citizenship behavior Available online at www. behaviorsciences. com Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper ISSN: 1607-7393 RRAMT 2014- Vol. 40, 2014, 1 The relationship between the styles and Organizational

More information

The Effects of Parent Trust on Perceived Influence and School Involvement

The Effects of Parent Trust on Perceived Influence and School Involvement The Effects of Parent Trust on Perceived Influence and School Involvement Laura L. B. Barnes, Roxanne M. Mitchell, Patrick B.Forsyth, & Curt M. Adams Oklahoma State University A Paper Presented at the

More information

The Importance of Job Autonomy, Cognitive Ability, and Job-Related Skill for Predicting Role Breadth and Job Performance

The Importance of Job Autonomy, Cognitive Ability, and Job-Related Skill for Predicting Role Breadth and Job Performance Journal of Applied Psychology Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association 2005, Vol. 90, No. 2, 399 406 0021-9010/05/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.2.399 The Importance of Job Autonomy,

More information

Claudio M. Rocha a & Packianathan Chelladurai a a Sport Management Program, The Ohio State University, USA. Available online: 29 Jun 2011

Claudio M. Rocha a & Packianathan Chelladurai a a Sport Management Program, The Ohio State University, USA. Available online: 29 Jun 2011 This article was downloaded by: [USP University of Sao Paulo], [Claudio Rocha] On: 29 June 2011, At: 10:12 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered

More information

MAGNT Research Report (ISSN. 1444-8939) Vol.2 (Special Issue) PP: 213-220

MAGNT Research Report (ISSN. 1444-8939) Vol.2 (Special Issue) PP: 213-220 Studying the Factors Influencing the Relational Behaviors of Sales Department Staff (Case Study: The Companies Distributing Medicine, Food and Hygienic and Cosmetic Products in Arak City) Aram Haghdin

More information

Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction

Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction ADVANCES IN EDUCATION VOL.1, NO.1 JANUARY 2012 4 Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction Soleiman Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar 1 Fatemeh Lotfi-Goodarzi 2 Abstract- The study was

More information

Linking Climate, Job Satisfaction and Contextual Performance to Customer Experience

Linking Climate, Job Satisfaction and Contextual Performance to Customer Experience Linking Climate, Job Satisfaction and Contextual Performance to Customer Experience Peter M Hart & Rachael H Palmer Insight SRC and Department of Psychology, University of Melbourne Stephanie Christie

More information

How Transformational Leadership is related to Organizational Citizenship Behavior? The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence

How Transformational Leadership is related to Organizational Citizenship Behavior? The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence Pak J Commer Soc Sci Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences 2014, Vol. 8 (2), 413-425 How Transformational Leadership is related to Organizational Citizenship Behavior? The Mediating Role of

More information

Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions

Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions This article was downloaded by: [George Mason University] On: 14 November 2012, At: 07:12 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office:

More information

Strategic Human Resource Management: Influences on Perceived Organizational Support and Job Attitudes

Strategic Human Resource Management: Influences on Perceived Organizational Support and Job Attitudes Strategic Human Resource Management: Influences on Perceived Organizational Support and Job Attitudes Glenn G. Glarino, PhD Department of Psychology, University of San Carlos Nasipit Road, Talamban, Cebu

More information

Leadership style, organizational politics, and employees performance An empirical examination of two competing models

Leadership style, organizational politics, and employees performance An empirical examination of two competing models The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at wwwemeraldinsightcom/0048-3486htm, organizational politics, and employees performance An empirical examination of two competing models

More information

Abusive Supervision and Subordinates Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Abusive Supervision and Subordinates Organizational Citizenship Behavior Journal of Applied Psychology Copyright 2002 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 2002, Vol. 87, No. 6, 1068 1076 0021-9010/02/$5.00 DOI: 10.1037//0021-9010.87.6.1068 Abusive Supervision and

More information

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research Journal of Management 2000, Vol. 26, No. 3, 513 563 Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research Philip M. Podsakoff,

More information

Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level

Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level psyct.psychopen.eu 2193-7281 Research Articles Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level Shalini Sisodia* a, Ira Das a [a] Department of Psychology,

More information

Chieh-Peng Lin * and Hua Chun Ma ** (received May 2003; revision received October 2003; accepted December 2003) Abstract

Chieh-Peng Lin * and Hua Chun Ma ** (received May 2003; revision received October 2003; accepted December 2003) Abstract Asia Pacific Management Review (2004) 9(1), 79-99 Effects of leader-member exchange, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on diagnosing employee job performance using career stage as a moderator

More information

Human Resource Diversity Management Practices and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Conceptual Model

Human Resource Diversity Management Practices and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Conceptual Model Human Resource Diversity Management Practices and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Conceptual Model Ahmad Nizan Mat Noor Lecturer, Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perlis,

More information

Attitude, Behavioral Intention and Usage: An Empirical Study of Taiwan Railway s Internet Ticketing System

Attitude, Behavioral Intention and Usage: An Empirical Study of Taiwan Railway s Internet Ticketing System Attitude, Behavioral Intention and Usage: An Empirical Study of Taiwan Railway s Internet Ticketing System Wen-Hung Wang Department of Shipping and Transportation Management National Taiwan Ocean University,

More information

Pragmatic Perspectives on the Measurement of Information Systems Service Quality

Pragmatic Perspectives on the Measurement of Information Systems Service Quality Pragmatic Perspectives on the Measurement of Information Systems Service Quality Analysis with LISREL: An Appendix to Pragmatic Perspectives on the Measurement of Information Systems Service Quality William

More information

Supervisor Psychological Contract Management

Supervisor Psychological Contract Management Maida Petersitzke Supervisor Psychological Contract Management Developing an Integrated Perspective on Managing Employee Perceptions of Obligations With a Foreword by Prof. Dr. Michel E. Domsch GABLER

More information

Influence of Fair and Supportive Leadership Behavior on Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Influence of Fair and Supportive Leadership Behavior on Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Swiss Journal of Psychology 67 (3), 2008, 131 141 Original Communication Influence of Fair and Supportive Leadership Behavior on Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Diana Meierhans, Brigitte

More information

What increases employees security compliance intentions?

What increases employees security compliance intentions? What increases employees security compliance intentions? 1 Youngkeun Choi, 2 Heejoong Hwang 1, First Author Assistant Professor, Division of Business Administration, College of Business, Sangmyung University,

More information

Kittipat Laisasikorn Thammasat Business School. Nopadol Rompho Thammasat Business School

Kittipat Laisasikorn Thammasat Business School. Nopadol Rompho Thammasat Business School A Study of the Relationship Between a Successful Enterprise Risk Management System, a Performance Measurement System and the Financial Performance of Thai Listed Companies Kittipat Laisasikorn Thammasat

More information

Individual- and Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis

Individual- and Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis Journal of Applied Psychology 2009 American Psychological Association 2009, Vol. 94, No. 1, 122 141 0021-9010/09/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0013079 Individual- and Organizational-Level Consequences of Organizational

More information

Applications of Structural Equation Modeling in Social Sciences Research

Applications of Structural Equation Modeling in Social Sciences Research American International Journal of Contemporary Research Vol. 4 No. 1; January 2014 Applications of Structural Equation Modeling in Social Sciences Research Jackson de Carvalho, PhD Assistant Professor

More information

IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan

IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan ABSTRACT The focus of this research is to determine the impact of

More information

A Multi-component View of Procedural Justice: Effects on Satisfaction and Performance

A Multi-component View of Procedural Justice: Effects on Satisfaction and Performance A Multi-component View of Procedural Justice: Effects on Satisfaction and Performance Autoria: Thomas G. Brashear ABSTRACT Previous studies suggested that perceptions of procedural justice can enhance

More information

The Influence of Trust In Top Management And Attitudes Toward Appraisal And Merit Systems On Perceived Quality Of Care

The Influence of Trust In Top Management And Attitudes Toward Appraisal And Merit Systems On Perceived Quality Of Care The Influence of Trust In Top Management And Attitudes Toward Appraisal And Merit Systems On Perceived Quality Of Care Michael J. Vest and David L. Duhon Department of Management and Marketing College

More information

A Social Exchange Model of Employee Reactions to Electronic Performance Monitoring

A Social Exchange Model of Employee Reactions to Electronic Performance Monitoring Human Performance, 22:204 224, 2009 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 0895-9285 print/1532-7043 online DOI: 10.1080/08959280902970385 A Social Exchange Model of Employee Reactions to Electronic

More information

Manufacturing Service Quality: An Internal Customer Perspective

Manufacturing Service Quality: An Internal Customer Perspective International Conference on E-business Management and Economics IPEDR vol. () () IACSIT Press Hong Kong Manufacturing Service Quality: An Internal Customer Perspective Gyan Prakash ABV-Indian Institute

More information

Which is a Better Predictor of Job Performance: Job Satisfaction or Life Satisfaction? Michelle D. Jones Providence College ABSTRACT

Which is a Better Predictor of Job Performance: Job Satisfaction or Life Satisfaction? Michelle D. Jones Providence College ABSTRACT Which is a Better Predictor of Job Performance: Job Satisfaction or Life Satisfaction? Michelle D. Jones Providence College ABSTRACT Will people who are happy with their jobs exhibit superior job performance?

More information

Job Satisfaction as a Predictor of Organizational Citizenship Behavior A Study of Faculty Members at Business Institutes

Job Satisfaction as a Predictor of Organizational Citizenship Behavior A Study of Faculty Members at Business Institutes Job Satisfaction as a Predictor of Organizational Citizenship Behavior A Study of Faculty Members at Business Institutes Farhan Mehboob* Niaz A Bhutto** FarhanMehboob*, is MS Scholar at Sukkur Institute

More information

Organizational Commitment among Public and Private School Teachers

Organizational Commitment among Public and Private School Teachers The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348-5396 (e) ISSN: 2349-3429 (p) Volume 2, Issue 3, Paper ID: B00381V2I32015 http://www.ijip.in April to June 2015 ABSTRACT: Organizational Commitment

More information

Enhancing Employees Service Recovery Performance through Trust- Based Management

Enhancing Employees Service Recovery Performance through Trust- Based Management Enhancing Employees Service Recovery Performance through Trust- Based Management Working Paper In recent years, researchers have paid particular interests in brand orientation, which is the inside-out

More information

Refining individualized consideration: Distinguishing developmental leadership and supportive leadership

Refining individualized consideration: Distinguishing developmental leadership and supportive leadership 37 Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (2006), 79, 37 61 q 2006 The British Psychological Society The British Psychological Society www.bpsjournals.co.uk Refining individualized consideration:

More information

CHAPTER 5: CONSUMERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONLINE MARKETING OF INDIAN RAILWAYS

CHAPTER 5: CONSUMERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONLINE MARKETING OF INDIAN RAILWAYS CHAPTER 5: CONSUMERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONLINE MARKETING OF INDIAN RAILWAYS 5.1 Introduction This chapter presents the findings of research objectives dealing, with consumers attitude towards online marketing

More information

The Technology Acceptance Model with Online Learning for the Principals in Elementary Schools and Junior High Schools

The Technology Acceptance Model with Online Learning for the Principals in Elementary Schools and Junior High Schools The Technology Acceptance Model with Online Learning for the Principals in Elementary Schools and Junior High Schools RONG-JYUE FANG 1, HUA- LIN TSAI 2, CHI -JEN LEE 3, CHUN-WEI LU 4 1,2 Department of

More information

Jacqueline A-M. Coyle-Shapiro. A psychological contract perspective on organizational citizenship behaviour

Jacqueline A-M. Coyle-Shapiro. A psychological contract perspective on organizational citizenship behaviour LSE Research Online Article (refereed) Jacqueline A-M. Coyle-Shapiro A psychological contract perspective on organizational citizenship behaviour Originally published in Journal of organizational behavior,

More information

WHICH LEADERSHIP ROLES MATTER TO WHOM? AN EXAMINATION OF RATER EFFECTS ON PERCEPTIONS OF EFFECTIVENESS

WHICH LEADERSHIP ROLES MATTER TO WHOM? AN EXAMINATION OF RATER EFFECTS ON PERCEPTIONS OF EFFECTIVENESS WHICH LEADERSHIP ROLES MATTER TO WHOM? AN EXAMINATION OF RATER EFFECTS ON PERCEPTIONS OF EFFECTIVENESS Robert Hooijberg* Jaepil Choi Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Using a 360-degree feedback

More information

LIST OF TABLES. 4.3 The frequency distribution of employee s opinion about training functions emphasizes the development of managerial competencies

LIST OF TABLES. 4.3 The frequency distribution of employee s opinion about training functions emphasizes the development of managerial competencies LIST OF TABLES Table No. Title Page No. 3.1. Scoring pattern of organizational climate scale 60 3.2. Dimension wise distribution of items of HR practices scale 61 3.3. Reliability analysis of HR practices

More information

Does Trust Matter to Develop Customer Loyalty in Online Business?

Does Trust Matter to Develop Customer Loyalty in Online Business? Does Trust Matter to Develop Customer Loyalty in Online Business? Pattarawan Prasarnphanich, Ph.D. Department of Information Systems, City University of Hong Kong Email: pprasarn@cityu.edu.hk Abstract

More information

Presentation Outline. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) for Dummies. What Is Structural Equation Modeling?

Presentation Outline. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) for Dummies. What Is Structural Equation Modeling? Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) for Dummies Joseph J. Sudano, Jr., PhD Center for Health Care Research and Policy Case Western Reserve University at The MetroHealth System Presentation Outline Conceptual

More information

Follower-Focused Leadership: Effect of Follower Self-Concepts and Self- Determination on Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Follower-Focused Leadership: Effect of Follower Self-Concepts and Self- Determination on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Follower-Focused Leadership: Effect of Follower Self-Concepts and Self- Determination on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Michelle Vondey Regent University The purpose of this study is to suggest a

More information

Organizational Change Management: A Test of the Effectiveness of a Communication Plan

Organizational Change Management: A Test of the Effectiveness of a Communication Plan Communication Research Reports Vol. 28, No. 1, January March 2011, pp. 62 73 Organizational Change Management: A Test of the Effectiveness of a Communication Plan Cynthia B. Torppa & Keith L. Smith In

More information

Traditional Attitudinal Variables matters for Organizational Citizenship Behaviour among Middle Level Managers

Traditional Attitudinal Variables matters for Organizational Citizenship Behaviour among Middle Level Managers 255 Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology July 2010, Vol.36, No.2, 255-261. A Traditional Attitudinal Variables matters for Organizational Citizenship Behaviour among Middle Level Managers

More information

The Emotional Intelligence of Leaders as Antecedent to Leader-Member Exchanges: A Field Study

The Emotional Intelligence of Leaders as Antecedent to Leader-Member Exchanges: A Field Study The Emotional Intelligence of Leaders as Antecedent to Leader-Member Exchanges: A Field Study John E. Barbuto, Jr. Associate Professor of Leadership 300 Ag Hall University of Nebraska - Lincoln Lincoln,

More information

The Influence of Training Reputation, Managerial Support, and Self-Efficacy on Pre-Training Motivation and Perceived Training Transfer

The Influence of Training Reputation, Managerial Support, and Self-Efficacy on Pre-Training Motivation and Perceived Training Transfer Applied H.R.M. Research, 2005, Volume 10, Number 1, 21-34 The Influence of Training Reputation, Managerial Support, and Self-Efficacy on Pre-Training Motivation and Perceived Training Transfer Kelly C.

More information

Examining the Marketing - Sales Relationships and its Implications for Business Performance

Examining the Marketing - Sales Relationships and its Implications for Business Performance Page 1 of 8 ANZMAC 2009 Examining the Marketing - Sales Relationships and its Implications for Business Performance Ken Grant*, Monash University, Ken.Grant@buseco.monash.edu.au Hanny Nasution, Monash

More information

Full-Time versus Part-Time Employees: Understanding the Links between Work Status, the Psychological Contract, and Attitudes

Full-Time versus Part-Time Employees: Understanding the Links between Work Status, the Psychological Contract, and Attitudes Journal of Vocational Behavior 61, 279 301 (2002) doi:10.1006/jvbe.2001.1857 Full-Time versus Part-Time Employees: Understanding the Links between Work Status, the Psychological Contract, and Attitudes

More information

BRAND TRUST AND BRAND AFFECT: THEIR STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE ON BRAND LOYALTY

BRAND TRUST AND BRAND AFFECT: THEIR STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE ON BRAND LOYALTY BRAND TRUST AND BRAND AFFECT: THEIR STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE ON BRAND LOYALTY ABSTRACT Ebru Tümer KABADAYI Alev KOÇAK ALAN Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey This paper elucidates the relevance of brand

More information

Performance appraisal satisfaction: the role of feedback and goal orientation

Performance appraisal satisfaction: the role of feedback and goal orientation This is the author s final, peer-reviewed manuscript as accepted for publication. The publisher-formatted version may be available through the publisher s web site or your institution s library. Performance

More information

INTERNAL MARKETING ESTABLISHES A CULTURE OF LEARNING ORGANIZATION

INTERNAL MARKETING ESTABLISHES A CULTURE OF LEARNING ORGANIZATION INTERNAL MARKETING ESTABLISHES A CULTURE OF LEARNING ORGANIZATION Yafang Tsai, Department of Health Policy and Management, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taiwan, (886)-4-24730022 ext.12127, avon611@gmail.com

More information

COMPARISONS OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY: PUBLIC & PRIVATE INSURANCE COMPANIES.

COMPARISONS OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY: PUBLIC & PRIVATE INSURANCE COMPANIES. 277 CHAPTER VI COMPARISONS OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY: PUBLIC & PRIVATE INSURANCE COMPANIES. This chapter contains a full discussion of customer loyalty comparisons between private and public insurance companies

More information

VITA DANA L. JOSEPH. Orlando, FL 32816-1390 updated through 6/1/2011

VITA DANA L. JOSEPH. Orlando, FL 32816-1390 updated through 6/1/2011 University of Central Florida 4000 Central Florida Blvd. VITA DANA L. JOSEPH (213) 509-8362 (phone) danajoseph30@gmail.com (email) Orlando, FL 32816-1390 updated through 6/1/2011 Education Ph.D. University

More information

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE AND WORK OUTCOMES: A MULTIPLE LEADERSHIP PERSPECTIVE. BYRON M. BADER Bachelor of Arts, University of Lethbridge, 2007

LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE AND WORK OUTCOMES: A MULTIPLE LEADERSHIP PERSPECTIVE. BYRON M. BADER Bachelor of Arts, University of Lethbridge, 2007 LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE AND WORK OUTCOMES: A MULTIPLE LEADERSHIP PERSPECTIVE BYRON M. BADER Bachelor of Arts, University of Lethbridge, 2007 A Research Project Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies

More information

Performance appraisal politics and employee turnover intention

Performance appraisal politics and employee turnover intention Performance appraisal politics and employee turnover intention Rusli Ahmad Camelia Lemba Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development Universiti Malaysia Sarawak arusli@fcs.unimas.my Wan Khairuzzaman

More information

The Relationship of Paternalistic Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Effect of Upward Communication

The Relationship of Paternalistic Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Effect of Upward Communication The Relationship of Paternalistic Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Effect of Upward Communication Chu Paoching, Assistant professor of Department of Creative Fashion Design

More information

High Commitment Performance Management: The Roles of Justice and Trust

High Commitment Performance Management: The Roles of Justice and Trust Personnel Review, 2010, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 5-23 This article is Emerald Group Publishing and permission has been granted for this version to appear here (https://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/index.jsp).

More information

A New Look at Psychological Climate and Its Relationship to Job Involvement, Effort, and Performance

A New Look at Psychological Climate and Its Relationship to Job Involvement, Effort, and Performance Journal of Applied Psychology 1996, Vol. 81, No. 4, 358-368 Copyright 1996 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0021-9010/96/S3.00 A New Look at Psychological Climate and Its Relationship to

More information

o and organizational data were the primary measures used to

o and organizational data were the primary measures used to The Role of Relevant Experience and Intellectual Ability in Determining the Performance of Military Leaders: A Contingency Model Explanation Patrick J. Bettin United States Military Academy Abstract A

More information

THE EFFECT OF THE SERVANT LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR: CASE STUDY OF A UNIVERSITY

THE EFFECT OF THE SERVANT LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR: CASE STUDY OF A UNIVERSITY THE EFFECT OF THE SERVANT LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR: CASE STUDY OF A UNIVERSITY Cem GÜÇEL Turkish Armed Forces Ph.D. cemgucel@hotmail.com Suat BEGEÇ Turkish Armed Forces Ph.D. suatbegec@hotmail.com

More information

INVESTIGATING BUSINESS SCHOOLS INTENTIONS TO OFFER E-COMMERCE DEGREE-PROGRAMS

INVESTIGATING BUSINESS SCHOOLS INTENTIONS TO OFFER E-COMMERCE DEGREE-PROGRAMS INVESTIGATING BUSINESS SCHOOLS INTENTIONS TO OFFER E-COMMERCE DEGREE-PROGRAMS Jean Baptiste K. Dodor College of Business Jackson State University HTUjeandodor@yahoo.comUTH 601-354-1964 Darham S. Rana College

More information

Organizational Justice Perceptions as Predictor of Job Satisfaction and Organization Commitment

Organizational Justice Perceptions as Predictor of Job Satisfaction and Organization Commitment International Journal of Business and Management September, 2009 Organizational Justice Perceptions as Predictor of Job Satisfaction and Organization Commitment Arti Bakhshi Associate Professor, P.G. Department

More information

Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning in Food Manufacturing Industry

Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning in Food Manufacturing Industry Proceedings Book of ICEFMO, 2013, Malaysia Handbook on the Economic, Finance and Management Outlooks ISBN: 978-969-9347-14-6 Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning in Food Manufacturing Industry

More information

Editorial Manager(tm) for Asia Pacific Journal of Management Manuscript Draft

Editorial Manager(tm) for Asia Pacific Journal of Management Manuscript Draft Editorial Manager(tm) for Asia Pacific Journal of Management Manuscript Draft Manuscript Number: Title: How do cultural types affect work-related attitudes? The mediating role of perceived organizational

More information

The Relationships between School Organizational Health and Teachers In-Role and Extra-Role Behaviors

The Relationships between School Organizational Health and Teachers In-Role and Extra-Role Behaviors International J. Soc. Sci. & Education 2012 Vol. 3 Issue 1, ISSN: 2223-4934 E and 2227-393X Print The Relationships between School Organizational Health and Teachers In-Role and Extra-Role Behaviors Ahmet

More information

EXPLORING THE CASUAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR, TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT, AND PERFORMANCE

EXPLORING THE CASUAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR, TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT, AND PERFORMANCE EXPLORING THE CASUAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR, TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT, AND PERFORMANCE Oscar Buentello, Jr. University of Texas-Pan American 1201 West University Drive,

More information

The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy in the Development of Entrepreneurial Intentions

The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy in the Development of Entrepreneurial Intentions Journal of Applied Psychology Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association 2005, Vol. 90, No. 6, 1265 1272 0021-9010/05/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1265 The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy

More information

Same Behavior, Different Consequences: Reactions to Men s and Women s Altruistic Citizenship Behavior

Same Behavior, Different Consequences: Reactions to Men s and Women s Altruistic Citizenship Behavior Journal of Applied Psychology Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association 2005, Vol. 90, No. 3, 431 441 0021-9010/05/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.431 Same Behavior, Different Consequences:

More information

Elements of Strategic Management Process and Performance Management Systems in U.S. Federal Agencies: Do Employee Managerial Levels Matter?

Elements of Strategic Management Process and Performance Management Systems in U.S. Federal Agencies: Do Employee Managerial Levels Matter? International Journal of Business and Management; Vol. 8, No. 9; 2013 ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Elements of Strategic Management Process and

More information

Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: Its Outcomes and Detriments in Pakistani Organizations

Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: Its Outcomes and Detriments in Pakistani Organizations Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: Its Outcomes and Detriments in Pakistani Organizations Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan E-mail:

More information

Practical Application of Five Leadership Theories on a U.S. Naval Vessel

Practical Application of Five Leadership Theories on a U.S. Naval Vessel Practical Application of Five Leadership Theories on a U.S. Naval Vessel Leadership Advance Online Issue XI, Fall 2007 by Matthew Paul Earnhardt On a United States naval vessel, task accomplishment and

More information

Retaining counseling staff at substance abuse treatment centers: effects of management practices

Retaining counseling staff at substance abuse treatment centers: effects of management practices Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003) 129 135 Regular article Retaining counseling staff at substance abuse treatment centers: effects of management practices Hannah K. Knudsen, M.A. a, *, J.

More information

Ethical Leadership: A Multifoci Social Exchange Perspective

Ethical Leadership: A Multifoci Social Exchange Perspective The Journal of Business Inquiry 2011, 10, 1, 41-55 http:www.uvu.edu/woodbury/jbi/articles ISSN 2155-4056 (print)/issn 2155-4072 (online) Ethical Leadership: A Multifoci Social Exchange Perspective By S.

More information

A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL ASSESSMENT OF LEAN MANUFACTURING PERFORMANCE

A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL ASSESSMENT OF LEAN MANUFACTURING PERFORMANCE A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL ASSESSMENT OF LEAN MANUFACTURING PERFORMANCE Tipparat Laohavichien Department of Operations Management, Faculty of Business Administration Kasetsart University, Thailand fbustrl@ku.ac.th

More information

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN & SOCIAL NORMS ON ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN & SOCIAL NORMS ON ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS 169 EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN & SOCIAL NORMS ON ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS Joshi Pradeep Assistant Professor, Quantum School of Business, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India joshipradeep_2004@yahoo.com

More information

The Relationships between Perceived Quality, Perceived Value, and Purchase Intentions A Study in Internet Marketing

The Relationships between Perceived Quality, Perceived Value, and Purchase Intentions A Study in Internet Marketing The Relationships between Quality, Value, and Purchase Intentions A Study in Internet Marketing Man-Shin Cheng, National Formosa University, Taiwan Helen Cripps, Edith Cowan University, Australia Cheng-Hsui

More information

Social Exchange Theory: An Interdisciplinary Review

Social Exchange Theory: An Interdisciplinary Review 10.1177/0149206305279602 ARTICLE Journal Cropanzano, of Management Mitchell / Social / December Exchange 2005Theory Social Exchange Theory: An Interdisciplinary Review Russell Cropanzano* Department of

More information

THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE ON TEAM CREATIVITY, JOB SATISFACTION, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT, AND WORK PERFORMANCE

THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE ON TEAM CREATIVITY, JOB SATISFACTION, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT, AND WORK PERFORMANCE THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE ON TEAM CREATIVITY, JOB SATISFACTION, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT, AND WORK PERFORMANCE Angela Shin-yih Chen National Chung-Hsing University, Taiwan, ROC angela@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

More information

The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers

The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers Kamla-Raj 2012 Int J Edu Sci, 4(3): 209-213 (2012) The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers Soleiman Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar 1 and Fatemeh Lotfi-Goodarzi 2

More information