1 How U.S. Hotels Reduce Energy Use Dan Ruben Boston Green Tourism
2 Step One: Benchmark, Identify Opportunities Start with your own assessment Review this presentation and energy efficiency checklists Calculate your hotel s Energy Star score: track it over time Review the Hotels and Motels section of the Energy Star Building Upgrade Manual: Meters help hotels understand energy and water use for specific areas Get an energy audit: retro-commission or ASHRAE level 2 audit, if affordable; if not, get a less thorough audit
3 Where Can Hotels Save Energy? Address these areas of your property: Operations and maintenance Lighting Reduce plug load HVAC systems Kitchen Hot water Steam Other energy consuming systems Building shell Transformers Peak shaving, including Demand Response programs
4 Operations and Maintenance, 1 Some bldg managers energy use by 10% with a rigorous maintenance schedule. A few items on the list: clean coils clean PTAC units internally or with service companies replace filters calibrate controls lubricate and adjust equipment repair leaks in heating system ducts optimize fresh air economizer operations; assure outside air dampers on AHU s work well replace worn weather stripping and seals reset air handling unit static pressure to lowest pressure that operates the terminal boxes
5 Operations and Maintenance, 2 Turn off when not needed: HVAC lighting electronics Best option for shutting down HVAC and lighting: EMS s with occupancy sensors; if not available, have staff do it Program mechanical equipment to operate only when needed Schedule function rooms tightly to reduce their HVAC needs
6 Operations and Maintenance, 3 Drapes/Blinds: strategically open or close them; keep closed during cooling season to heat gain; keep open on sunny winter days to gain heat and free light De-lamp Towel and linen re-use program: design to be opt-out rather than opt-in Set guest room hot water at minimum necessary temp Building Operators Certification Program ( trains staff on optimal maintenance
7 Lighting, 1 Replace incandescent and fluorescent bulbs with LED s: energy, labor and a/c costs. Compared to fluorescents, LED s: last much longer, better dimming and color rendering. New products introduced monthly. Prices dropping. Avoid lemons: get Energy Star or DLC approved bulbs w/ long warranties from trusted companies. Test before purchasing. Tubes: replace T-12 s with T-8 s or T-5 s. LED tube lights are often best option now or will be soon.
8 Lighting, 2 Use natural light. Adjust lighting to daylight levels. Shut off unneeded lights with sensors or timers. Use photocells for exterior lights. Use dimmers. Give staff and guests personal lighting control. Stairwell motion detectors dim lights to 15% when unoccupied. ASHRAE : stairwell lighting must have control devices that lighting by 50% or more. Other advanced lighting controls: variable load shedding in response to energy price spikes, task timing ( lighting after hours, etc.).
9 Reduce Plug Load Reduce plug load by purchasing Energy Star equipment for guest rooms, kitchens, offices, common areas, etc.: bus_purchasing Choose the most energy efficient equipment that meets your needs.
10 HVAC Systems, 1 General Principles: Get an ASHRAE level 2 audit or a retro-commission study Proper size is important Schedule HVAC so it runs only when necessary, using both automation and daily management overview; most of the points below are about running the system less often or less wastefully Variable air volume (VAV) air handling systems Variable Speed Drives Common space automation (event rooms, restaurants, cafeteria, health club, lobby): demand control ventilation, temperature and lighting controls Guest Room Automation Systems: control temperature and lighting
11 HVAC Systems, 2 General Principles (continued) Set AHU s static pressure as low as feasible Low pressure drop high efficiency filters for AHU s: coming to market: energy needed to push air through filters; improves IAQ; lasts longer: waste and labor. Cost effective with incentives? Use free cooling from outside air Consider energy recovery ventilation if hotel is configured to take advantage of it Bathroom ventilation: replace fans with Energy Star units when renovating, or if there are problems: energy, quieter; motors last longer. Get controls with humidity or moisture sensors.
12 HVAC Systems, 3 General Principles (continued) Energy-efficient boilers: new condensing boilers are up to 97% efficient; existing boilers: upgrade burner controls so boilers run efficiently and match the building s needs. Energy-efficient magnetic bearing chillers; optimization software runs chillers at most efficient operating point. Chiller control valves: Pressure independent automatic balancing valves (FlowCon) prevent chiller plants from activating when it s unnecessary. More efficient than manual balancing valves. Combined heat and power (CHP, cogen): can be cost effective, with good incentives, for hotels with high hot water needs.
13 HVAC Systems, 4 General Principles (continued) Use energy-efficient PTAC s, VTAC s and motors; replace AC motors with ECM s in fan coil units when there is a favorable ROI. Consider replacing PTAC s with heat pumps; heat pumps might be sensible when boilers must be replaced or for new additions. Use ceiling fans to augment a/c and heating. Use gas-fired infra-red heating for outside (patios, front entrance, valet parking areas) and high-ceiling lobbies. Energy Mgt. Systems: make sure they have good user interfaces, occupancy sensors, and scheduling and setback capabilities. Insulate ducts, hot water pipes, etc.
14 Maintain and Replace Motors Most motors: suboptimal performance and longer run times than necessary. Biggest maintenance problems: improper refrigerant charge, expansion valves need adjusting, dirty air filters. A good maintenance plan reduces costs! Consider using a service to clean PTAC s, VTAC s, etc. For motors that operate frequently: replace old tech (shaded pole motors: 20-30% efficient; PSC motors: 40-60% efficient) with electronically commutated (ECM) motors (70-80% efficient). ECM s maintenance costs, too. Replace refrigeration motors often good ROI s, because they run 24/7. Replace guest room fan motors with long run times. ECM motor (and Energy Star) replacements for pool and spa filter pumps. To establish an ROI for motor replacement: have hotel motors assessed and identify the incentives. When replacing motors, consider ones that provide reports and alarms.
15 Kitchens, 1 Air balance Add variable speed fan control on kitchen ventilation hoods; add side panels to hoods Dishwasher exhaust should run only when unit is on New dishwashers use < ½ the hot water of older units Add strip curtains and automatic door closers to your walk-in refrigerator Maintain refrigerators: check and replace door gaskets, clean evaporator and condenser coils, check refrigerant charge, etc.
16 Kitchens, 2 Install ECM motors on refrigerator and freezer evaporator and condenser fans Don t set refrigerator and freezer temps too low each degree costs by 3-5% Buy Energy Star cooking appliances, refrigerators, ice machines; an example: new Energy Star broilers energy use by 25% Defrost meat in refrigerator--not under running water
17 Hot Water Use, 1 VFD water pumps slow down when there s little demand for hot water; see if they re compatible with your boiler system before installing Computerized Boiler Controls: adjust burner run patterns to match system s heat load Heat Recovery: use a heat exchanger to transfer waste heat from cooling, refrigeration and laundry equipment to water tank Guest room hot water: tank-less systems
18 Hot Water Use, 2 Laundry: Ozone (~80% less energy, uses cold water for most cycles, less water and fewer chemicals); can be problematic if not maintained well Tunnel washers and other modern equipment energy and water, too Wash full loads only Cold water detergents Dryers with sensors that stop the machines when laundry is dry; water extraction presses save drying time, too Outsourcing might be more efficient Swimming pools and hot tubs: use physical covers or liquid pool covers. Liquid pool covers reduce humidity, too. Very good ROI. Insulate hot water pipes and boilers
19 Hot Water Use, 3 Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Generate electricity and use the waste heat for hot water or space heating. Most economical for hotels with high hot water use One of best ways to energy use A source of back-up power during blackouts Consider Power Purchase Agreements (PPA s): vendor owns and maintains the CHP unit; they sell the hotel the power guaranteed discounts
20 Use of Steam Inspect and repair steam traps For systems with no condensate return, pump hot condensate water through a heat exchanger to preheat the bldg s hot water and domestic water systems need for steam water needed to temper the hot condensate water goes down the sewer
21 Other Energy Consuming Systems Elevators: new efficient elevators use 50+% less energy; that fact doesn t justify a new elevator on its own Computers: energy use by up to 50% by using Energy Star equipment, laptops, power management, web-based software, fewer servers; assure staff turn off at night Vending machines: use vending misers or EC motors
22 Building Shell solar gain with window film, awnings, overhangs, light shelves, reflective shades. EnerLogic window film adds insulation, too. Windows: consider high-performance windows if replacement is necessary. Insulate with energy-efficient shades that close at bottom, drapes, window film. Weather strip to eliminate air penetration. Revolving doors keep weather out. Infra-red analysis discovers insulation and moisture problems. Small properties, such as inns: improve air sealing and add insulation. Green roofs add insulation and beauty, extend roof life, storm water runoff ; the cost reduction doesn t justify this project on its own.
23 Transformers If transformers are >20 years old, consider replacing them before they die (their life expectancy is 32 yrs.); avoid a 1-3 day downtime without electricity New, energy efficient transformers electricity use; cast off less heat-- a/c bills
24 Peak Shaving / Demand Response Programs Electricity bills are based on total kwh s and kwh s during the highest use period of the month. Peak Shaving: Use batteries to store energy at night and release it during peak periods. Offered by Stem (so far only in CA) and Solar City for its solar customers. Demand Response: Agree to cut power on peak demand days (hottest days); in return, earn a monthly check.
25 Renewable Energy Solar electricity (PV): attractive ROI with right circumstances and strong incentives; need considerable amount of unshaded roof space to make a dent in property s electricity use PV decreasing in price quickly--but incentives will decrease, too Power Purchase Agreement might make PV economical now Solar thermal (hot water): more expensive than most efficiency measures; doesn t need as much roof space as PV to have an impact Purchasing renewable electricity: often more expensive; consider reverse auctions or purchasing a modest amount (10%); select green-e certified Solar panels and green energy purchases can be a marketing tool
26 Conclusion Hotels can sharply reduce their energy bills by making smart investments and using good management practices.
27 Contact Information Daniel Ruben Executive Director, Boston Green Tourism
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