Intelligent Traffic Control and Vehicle Tracking System Using RFID

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1 Intelligent Traffic Control and Vehicle Tracking System Using RFID Dr. B. Viswanathan Dean -SEEE, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract Radio Frequency identification is an upcoming method of tracking moving or stationary items. By extending this technology to traffic control and automation, Radio Frequency Identification (RF ID) can be used to reduce traffic congestion and avoid accidents efficiently. In this paper, the RFID technology current applications are outlined and are extended to be used in traffic and emergency systems. Specifically, a unique method has been suggested for flexible signaling. Traffic signals need not be static and can be made dynamic by intelligent use of RFID technology depending upon the road traffic conditions. This project suggests ways for handling emergency situations such as accidents. Also the intelligent traffic control system has been enhanced for future applications..a novel method is proposed to tackle transport related issues which includes implementation of traffic control using ANT Algorithm. Applications such as vehicle tracking, accident alert are also explained in this paper. V. Sukhadha Final Year, B.E. (ECE), Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India Additionally, vibration sensor activates air bags such that severe accident to the driver driving the vehicle can be avoided and transmits this emergency situation to owner, police control office and hospital through SMS. Whenever the vehicle crosses the particular road area, the data from Vehicle tag is read and based on the location, an SMS regarding location of the vehicle will be sent to the owner. Vibration/Impact sensors are added to trigger our system, when the vehicle is met with accident. Special zone information can be programmed in active tag and this information is transmitted to RFID reader connected with vehicle embedded kit, it alarms driver about the zone [9]. Keywords RFID Tag, Traffic Signals, Electronic Gadgets, Flexible Signaling, ANT Algorithm. I. INTRODUCTION This fast paced World is with number of transport related problems. RFID technology can be effectively used to solve some of them. Some of the problems that require immediate attention are traffic signal management, accident risk management, environment alert, traffic rule violation control, and vehicle theft identification. In the first part of the paper where novel ideas for traffic signal management are implemented requires installation of RFID tags on the vehicle and readers at required places on the road as in Fig 1. In continuation with this, methods to track vehicle movement and implementing accident alert systems are introduced in second part. This requires installing RFID reader in the vehicle and Tags on the road. RFID tags are placed on the road giving area information and environment alerts (such as school zone, industry, market, bridge etc.). One RFID tag is placed in vehicle with owner info, RC book, insurance details, service details etc. to send vehicle identification to traffic information database. RFID reader will be placed with embedded controller in vehicle, Toll Gates, Parking areas and also in traffic signal areas and other surveillance areas. GSM module with embedded unit in the moving vehicle is used to transmit accident information to different points. Whenever vehicle meets with an accident, the system reads area information from RFID tags placed on the road and transfers this information to embedded module. The details are transmitted to the specific numbers stored in database (Police station, Owner and Hospital). Fig.1. Model System for RFID Implementation A. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): Passive tags require no internal power source, whereas active tags require a power source. In a typical RFID system, individual objects are equipped with a small, inexpensive tag. The tag contains a transponder with a digital memory chip that is given a unique electronic product code. The interrogator, an antenna packaged with a transceiver and decoder, emits a signal activating the RFID tag so it can read and write data to it as in Fig 2. When an RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it detects the reader's activation signal. The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag's integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is passed to the host computer. II. SPECIFICATIONS OF RFID A. Frequencies: Low-frequency (LF: khz and khz) and high-frequency (HF: MHz) RFID tags can be used globally without a license. Ultra-high-frequency (UHF: 868 MHz-928 MHz) cannot be used globally as there is no single global standard. High-frequency devices can work at distances up to 250 feet and at relative speeds greater than 150 miles per hour. High-frequency passive 1472

2 systems are typically in the UHF range i.e. from 500 MHz and above, but usually in the 900 MHz band to 2.5 GHz. This high-frequency system works when a reader sends a signal to the transponder or ID tag via an antenna. The transponder's electronics return the ID code via a modulated signal being continuously reflected off the transponder's antenna, giving an impressively quick read. Since our application requires high speed of data transfer and considering the fact that data from tag has to be accessed at relatively larger distances and greater speeds we use High frequency tag and reader with range of 250 feet in 2.5 GHz spectrum [8]. case these high-frequency active RFID tags are capable of transmitting and receiving data at speeds of 110 miles per hour and at 300 kilobits per second. Fig.2 RFID Tag Description B. GSM: Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is a common European mobile telephone standard for a mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz In the current work, SIM300 GSM module is used. This is a Triband GSM/GPRS solution in a compact plug in module featuring an industry-standard interface. III. RFID FOR SPEED CHECK The applications of RFID will play a vital role in speed determination of vehicles. The root of this system is locating the vehicles with 100% accuracy and transmits the data with high speed for a moving vehicle. The basic structure of the RFID traffic control system is given in Fig 3. Here the signal from the vehicle tag read by the RFID reader on the road contains the data about the ability of vehicle (e.g. registration number, engine number, date and place of purchase, insurance, etc) and the detail about the owner/driver (e.g. driving license expiry date, validity, etc). This will be in the form of code numbers. Since the reader is inbuilt with GSM module, the code obtained from the tag is sent to the desired locations. Further details can be obtained from the data base using this code [3]. A. Ability: In high ways the speed of the vehicles will be high. So the data transmission should be an efficient one. By using a high-frequency active RFID tag the signals can be received from vehicles traveling at highway speeds. In this Fig.3. RFID Traffic Control System B. Speed Check: To calculate the speed of the vehicle, the vehicle must be tracked. This is done when the tag is identified by the reader at a specific distance. By using Doppler Effect, the speed of the car is monitored as in Fig 4. As the signals from the car are reflected by the RFID tags placed on the road, the speed is calculated by measuring and comparing the delay of reflected signals and the speed of light. A message can be transmitted to the driver whether his speed is within the limit or not. If speed limit is exceeded, the vehicle details, stored in the vehicle s RFID tag are transmitted to the traffic control centre [2]. Fig.4. Doppler Shift 1473

3 IV. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF VEHICLE THEFT AND ACCIDENT ALERT SYSTEM In the current work we have designed following operating points. One is road unit, the second is vehicle unit, the third is traffic signal controller unit, the fourth is parking slot controller unit, the fifth is tollgate unit and sixth is alert receiver unit. Section 1 On Road Unit: In this unit we can have N number of RFID tags to transmit general area information and alert on special zones like school, hospital, weak bridges and zigzag bends etc. UHF semi-passive tag is used in our application. Its coverage is a maximum of 250 feet with 64 Kbits of memory operating at 2GHz range. The location information and driver alert information are stored in this tag. The alert information can be dynamically changed like damage in bridge, condition of road and new changes in road (one way or two ways and other diversion indications) etc Section 2 Vehicle Unit: These units consist of RFID reader, vehicle information RFID Tag, 8051 embedded module and GSM module. Here we have used SIM 300 GSM module to transmit alert data to the mobile receivers already configured. RFID reader and GSM are connected to receive and transmit of the serial port in embedded module. The total controller program is developed in embedded C language and is downloaded into the memory for operation. Here we use semi passive tag to transmit vehicle database like insurance details (renewal date and expiry date), RC book and license etc., to traffic organizers. This data is collected in the RFID reader enabled traffic signal areas. This controls traffic issues like insurance non payment and also used to manage traffic signal in intelligent way. Digital camera also connected with our embedded module to take photos about accident and it can be sent as MMS. This will be useful for investigation and for security reasons to avoid theft in accident place. Section 3 Alert Receiver Unit: This unit is nothing but alert receiving mobile phones programmed in the embedded module. It may be owner of the vehicle, the hospital emergency care and the police station information number. Short script message or voice message will be sent to the receivers. power load at the reader end. It also offers increased range as compared to the passive tags. 2) Sensor Unit: The sensor unit is positioned on selected sensor stations taking into consideration the following parameters: a) For detection of a particular origin-destination (OD) trip i.e. route tracking. b) Taking into consideration the static database 3) Control Unit: The control unit consists of a GSM modem interfaced with a computer. A C++ compiler is installed to compile the congestion detection and control algorithms. The static database is stored on the computer. The dynamic vehicle database is formed from the sensor data received from the GSM modem using attention (AT) commands. These two databases serve as inputs for the traffic algorithms. After the congestion determination is done and the optimum paths are computed the control messages are sent to the sensor stations on the congested path. A. Proposed System: At the sensor station the reader reads the unique tag number that is programmed in every card and sends this information to the control station using the GSM service. This goes on for the testing time that is programmed into the microcontroller. The time at which the vehicle crosses a particular sensor and the vehicle ID form the dynamic database of the control station [3]. The static database consists of: a. The distance between the sensor stations along a path (OD). b. The sensor station IDs along a path. c. The free flow speed and the threshold speed for a route (OD). The number of the SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card serves as the sensor ID that identifies a sensor B. Working: As shown in the Fig 5, a vehicle with ID 271 takes the route N6-N4-N5 to reach the destination but after some time the route gets blocked which is determined by the control station from the sensor data received and an alternate route N6-N4-N3-N5 is then suggested to be followed by the vehicles at the sensor stations on the blocked path to prevent further inflow of vehicles until the congestion is resolved V. PROPOSED SYSTEM FOR CONGESTION DETECTION AND WORKING The proposed system has three main components: Active RFID tag Sensor Unit Control Unit 1) Active RFID tag: The RFID tag must be attached to the vehicle. An active tag is chosen because it has the capability of powering itself to send beacons to the reader, thus reducing the Fig.5. Congestion Detection 1474

4 VI. IMPLEMENTATION OF CONGESTION DETECTION The basis of the algorithm is the simple fact that in a blocked route the vehicles get queued when their velocity is less than a certain threshold. The control station computes the congested ODs by sorting the dynamic database in the ascending order of the vehicle IDs[1]. It then arranges all the occurrences of a vehicle sensed in the network into an array. From this data speed of the vehicle along that path is calculated by using the sensor crossing times of the vehicle and the distance between the origin and destination obtained from the static database. Using the time and distance speed is calculated. Also the density of vehicles (number of vehicles per hour) on an OD is calculated. The speed of the vehicles is then divided by the density to give the average vehicular speed on the path which is then compared with the threshold speed of the OD to determine congestion. The algorithm is presented in detail below: Inputs: T1, time when vehicle passes the first sensor T2, time when vehicle passes the last sensor D, the set of distances between ODs along all the paths ST, the set of threshold speeds for all the paths. Outputs: Dn, the set of vehicle densities in all the paths T, the set of average travelling times for all the path S, the set of average speeds for all the paths Variables: Dynamic database of the traffic flow. Static database of the road network. START While (new vehicle in dynamic database) loop Read T1 for all path static data if (sensor ID in dynamic database == sensor ID in static database) Increment D for that path Read T2 T= T2-T1 end if end for S = D/T End loop if (S < ST) Display congestion in this path end if end VII. CONGESTION CONTROL The ant optimization algorithm follows a probabilistic determination of optimum path. It is modeled on the behavior of ants travelling paths between a food source and their colonies or nests. The ants deposit pheromones (chemical secretions) as they travel along a path. The strengthening of the path due to the deposition of pheromones makes the other ants choose that path over the others [1]. The positive feedback from the repeated deposition of pheromones by the ants helps in selection of that path as the optimum path. The evaporation of pheromone trails on other less travelled paths helps in avoiding those paths in future. The communication between ants achieved via pheromone secretions is called as stigmergy. It is analogous to the vehicle to roadside communication discussed in the project. The vehicles are analogous to ants. The two factors to be considered are amount of pheromone deposition and weight of the edges. The amount of pheromone deposition is a function of density of vehicles. The weight of the edges is a function of time taken by the vehicles to travel the edge which varies in a dynamic real-time environment. The probability of choosing a particular path is denoted by Pij. It is inversely proportional to the weight of the edges (time) and directly proportional to the amount of pheromone deposition (density) on a path [1]. Let q ij be the density of vehicles on the path connecting i and j, w ij be the travel time of the path between i and j. The probability that an ant chooses the path i to j is: Where, k is the set of other paths for the same origin-destination including j α, β are constants and α=1, β=3.the numerator specifies the product of the parameters for a path divided by the sample set which consists of summation of the product of these parameters for all the paths. The path with the highest probability is chosen as the optimum path. After the selection of the path the travelling time of a vehicle along that path is calculated and compared with the average travelling time. If the travelling time of the vehicle is less than the average travelling time the path is optimum. As the congestion along a route increases, its travelling time increases and the probability of its selection decreases. The algorithm allows for dynamic updation of weights to suit real-time environments [5]. Where, ρ= weight updation constant between 0 and 1 qij(new)= density after weight updation qij(old)= density before weight updation. Inputs: A ij, the set of all the possible paths between origin i to destination j w ij, time to travel between origin i to destination j qij, vehicle densities between origin i to destination j ρ, the weight updation constant between 0 and 1 Outputs: P, the optimum path p ij, probability of path selection between origin i to destination j tant, travelling time of a vehicle on the selected path START for all path Aij Compute pij Select the path P with higher probability using (1) 1475

5 While -(Moving from i to j) loop Wait during the time w ij Calculate tant time of travelling across the path End loop if ( tant<w ij ) Display P else Update value using (2) end if end for END VIII. SIMULATION OF ROAD NETWORK USING MITSIM Fig.6 Simulation of road network MITSIM is an open source software developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The source code of MITSIM is written in C++ language. The source code files that get compiled are: master.mitsim file and master.smc file. The various components of MITSIM are organized in two modules: 1. SIMulation LABoraratory (SIMLAB) 2. Graphical User Interface (GUI) 1) SIMLAB The simulation laboratory takes master.smc file as the input where the master.mitsim file is defined. The master.mitsim file then links all the input files to produce the output file. The master.mitsim file consists of the definitions of all input files and output files. The path for the input and output directories are also specified in it. The types of sensors employed are also defined. The time for which the simulation is performed by the software is also decided from this file. It controls the allocation of processor resources for the various processes running on the system, for example the graphical user interface. It is basically used to define parameters that control the overall simulation [7]. The master.smc file is used to identify the master.mitsim file and defines the host machine and display settings various components of MITSIM. a) Input Files i) Paralib.dat: This file is used to specify the values of parameters required for the simulation environment. It involves the definition of constants such as the commonality factor (CF) which is a constant used for route selection and free way bias (FWB) that governs the routing of vehicles to freeways as well as valid path factor (VPF) for selection of paths for vehicles in comparison with the shortest path. The parameter specifications help in imitating the real world traffic scenarios as closely as possible with features like lane changing, delays, optimum speed of vehicles, vehicle types used, gaps acceptable in queues on congested paths, etc. Also the time interval after which the updation of sensor data is done is also determined from the file. ii) Network.dat: This file represents the physical representation of the network. The file is generated using the java road network editor as shown in Fig 7. The editor is used to model the road network using five main components namely: (1) Node: The nodes in the network are the important junctions. A node may be of the type, entry/exit that is usually situated at the periphery of the network or intersection where two or more paths meet. (2) Links: The roads connecting nodes are termed as links. The roads are classified into four types mainly, urban, construction, freeway, ramp. The links are defined using the up-node ID and the down-node ID. (3) Segments: The links contain segments which are mainly used when there is a change in the geometry of the road. The segments can be defined with a free flow speed and a gradient speed (4) Lanes: The segments are subdivided into lanes. The lanes are characterized by lane rules that dictate the lane changing phenomenon and the allowable movements for route guidance of vehicles. (5) Sensors: The sensors used for the project are Vehicle to roadside communication (VRC) sensors. They time of vehicle sensing is recorded along with the vehicle ID. The output file of the sensor i.e. vrc.out specifies the time, sensor, key for the sensor, vehicle ID. iii) OD.dat: In this file, all the paths in the network are specified which consists of the origin and destination node IDs in addition to the vehicle density. The IDs of the alternate paths for a particular OD as specified in the path.dat file are also mentioned. iv) Path.dat: In this file all the paths in one OD are defined. The paths are characterized by the path ID, origin and destination node IDs, the link IDs that form the path and the average travel time of the path. b) Output Files: VRC.out: This file lists the data for all the vehicles that have completed their trips in the road network. It lists the entries of the vehicles in ascending order of the time of sensing of the vehicles. It provides information about the time, sensor ID and the vehicle ID. From this file information can be derived about the average time taken by a vehicle to traverse a path and the density of vehicles 1476

6 on a particular path. This forms the dynamic database of the control station. IX. SIMULATION RESULT OF PATCH ANTENNA been suggested by just placing passive high frequency RFID tags and readers on road and the vehicle. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS In future using the same RFID network, the analysis of traffic, selecting the signal and time allocation for the signals can be done by an artificial intelligent network. And by embedding a controlling system on the vehicle s engine, it can be controlled automatically and zero accident rate can be obtained. Fig.7. Simulation of Patch Antenna REFERENCES Fig.8. Simulation of Frequency of Patch Antenna [1] Lim, Jiwhan, Kim, Sangjin, Oh, Heekuck, Kim, Donghyun, A designated query protocol for serverless mobile RFID systems with reader and tag privacy, Tsinghua Science and Technology, Vol.17, No.5, pp , Oct [2] Kromer, P., Martinovic, J., Radecky, M., Tomis, R., Snasel, V., Ant colony inspired algorithm for adaptive traffic routing,, Third World Congress Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC) 2011, pp , Oct [3] S. Shepard, RFID Radio Frequency Identification, McGraw Hill Professional, USA, [4] R. Weinstein, "RFID: A technical overview and its application to the enterprise", IT Professional, Vol. 7, pp , May-June [5] Urachada Ketprom, Chaichana Mitrpant, Putchapan Lowjun, Closing Digital Gap on RFID Usage for Better Farm Management, Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET 2007), 5-9 August [6] X. Zhang and M. Tentzeris, Applications of Fast- Moving RFID Tags in High-speed Railway Systems, International Journal of Engineering Business Management, 3(1), pp , [7] MITSIMLab Manual, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, [8] Lehlou, N.; Buyurgan, N.; Chimka, J.R., An Online RFID Laboratory Learning Environment, IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, Vol.2, No.4, pp , Oct.-Dec [9] Lee, H., Kim, J., Privacy threats and issues in mobile RFID, Proceedings of the First IEEE International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, Vienna, Austria, April 20-22, AUTHOR S PROFILE X. CONCLUSION For location and tracking of vehicles, systems like GPS Dr. B. Viswanathan obtained his Bachelor of Engineering from the require a high cost of installation and government/ Coimbatore Institute of Technology (CIT), international regulations. GPS is also not completely Coimbatore, India. He completed his post graduation accurate due to security reasons. For speed checking, (M.Sc.- Engineering) and later was awarded his traffic officers need to be present at particular points to Ph.D. from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi. He has nearly 40 years of teaching and monitor speed using speed guns. Speed governors can be administrative experience having served in leading Institutions. He modified illegally or removed. CCTV installation at every served as Principal, Institute of Road Transport and Technology, Erode, point is expensive and not always practical to implement. Tamil Nadu. He also worked with Anna University, Coimbatore as Hence ways for calculating the speed of vehicle, Director Academics. He is currently working with SASTRA University, Thanjavur as Dean, School of Electrical & Electronics mechanism for intelligent traffic control, and Engineering. implementation of accident and theft alert system have 1477

7 He is also the recipient of the Tata- Rao Gold Medal award for best paper by the Institution of Engineers India for excellence in research. He has several research publications in reputed international and national journals to his credit. He is an active member of the IEEE. His areas of research include Power Electronics & Control and Power Systems Engineering. V. Sukhadha born in Manipal is currently pursuing her final year Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Communication Engineering at Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai. She has currently undertaken a project on Design of Low Power FPGA based Viterbi Decoder under the guidance of Dr. S. Rajaram, Associate Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Thiagarajar College, Madurai. Her areas of interest include FPGA Implementation for Wireless Applications and Digital Systems. 1478

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