Concept and Model for a Concurrent Engineering Consulting Software System

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Concept and Model for a Concurrent Engineering Consulting Software System"

Transcription

1 In: Proceedings of the 7th European Concurrent Engineering Conference (ECEC 2000), Leicester, United Kingdom, April 17-19, Concept and Model for a Concurrent Engineering Consulting Software System Kulwant Pawar, Svetan Ratchev, René Stach, Frithjof Weber Bremen Institute of Industrial Technology and Applied Work Science at the University of Bremen Hochschulring Bremen, Germany Phone: Fax: Keywords Concurrent Engineering, Consulting Software,, Solution Identification, Tool and Method Selection Abstract Concurrent Engineering has been successfully implemented in mainly large companies. CEPRA aims to introduce and optimise Concurrent Engineering in small and medium companies. Therefore, a methodology and a software system has been developed. The paper outlines the CEPRA methodology to establish Concurrent Engineering in small and medium companies; in addition an overview of the CEPRA consulting software system will be given. Introduction Many success stories describe the benefits which have been gained by introducing Concurrent Engineering in aircraft development. However, most cases focus on the implementation in large organisations. Only few descriptions about application of CE in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can be found, although SMEs have to cope with the same challenges as large enterprises have to (e.g. complex product structures, distributed development, long product life cycle, etc.). To close this gap, the CEPRA project is carried out. The CEPRA project Concurrent Engineering in Practice which is funded by the European Commission's ESPRIT and BRITE EuRam program, developed a methodology and software system which provides CE knowledge for SMEs especially in aeronautics. Three consulting steps are performed by CEPRA: assessing companies product development practice, suggesting possible solutions, and proposing formal methods and tools for overcoming retrieved weaknesses. The CEPRA Software System is currently being evaluated within several pilot projects in three European countries. A detailed survey identified that several approaches for assessment, solution identification, and tool and method identification have been developed in the past (Holsten et al. 1999). Different good approaches are available but an integration of assessment, solution identification, and tool and method selection is missing completely. Thus, the outcome of one step cannot be used as input for the next one. As integration is seen as essential for achieving more comprehensive consulting results, CEPRA aims to develop an integrated software system. The paper will outline the methodical approaches for the single modules and their integration; a prototype of the software system will be presented. CEPRA Methodology Overview The CEPRA Consulting Methodology and Software System is to assist in introducing and optimising CE in small and medium enterprises. The system consists of three basic steps (cf. Figure 1). CEPRA Consulting Software Solution Identifier Tool Selection Figure 1 The structure of the CEPRA Consulting Software System The assessment will assess the company s CE activities. Interactive questioning will lead to the company s as-is status contrary to the wished to-be status. The user can decide which area of his company to improve. The outcome of this interactive questioning are the strengths and

2 weaknesses of a company, where a benchmarking is possible. The strengths and weaknesses are transformed into data and visualised by a profile (the so-called Concurrent Engineering Profile CEP ). This profile is used to map the assessment to the following steps, i.e. the solution identification and the tool and method selection. Solution Identification The solution identification uses success and failure cases of CE solutions and past solution cases for suggesting potential solutions for specific problems. The solutions are assessed by a Concurrent Engineering Profile (CEP, see above) in the same way the companies are. Thus, the company s assessment can be mapped to potential solutions by retrieving similar CE profiles. The user will get detailed information about the retrieved solutions and cases and can use predefined criteria for rating as well as he can define own criteria to rate the retrieved solutions. The best solution (or the chosen one) will provide detailed information and will name methods and/or tools that have been applied within this solution case. The methods/tools as well as the solution s CEP are the input for the tool selection. Tool and Method Selection The tool and method selection will provide detailed information about formal methods and tools that have been applied within the retrieved solution case. This includes descriptions, guidelines, sources of supply and so on. Moreover, similar tools and methods can be found. To make a decision between several retrieved tools and methods, the user will get some criteria for ranking, whereas he can define own criteria. In this case, the software supports the decision making process of the user by calculating a rating for the retrieved tool/methods. If there is no tool/method provided by the Solution Identifier, the Tool Selection can identify appropriate tools/methods by the solution s CEP. If no solution can be found appropriate for the assessment, the Tool Selection can use the assessment s CEP and will try to find tools/methods that can support the company s situation, i.e. that can improve the company s weaknesses. Integration The integration of assessment, solution identification, and tool and method selection is mainly done by the Concurrent Engineering Profile (called CEP). This profile has been developed to firstly map assessment to solution identification and secondly to map solution identification to tool and method selection. For the case that solution identification is skipped, assessment can be mapped to tool and method selection directly. The rationale for the development of the CEP is based on the following hypothesis: CEPRA aims to bring Concurrent Engineering to small and medium enterprises. Thus, CEPRA has two focuses: CE and SMEs, and assessment, solution identification, and tool and method selection have to concentrate on these two aspects: CE and SMEs. But how can these be brought together? Each aspect can be divided into sub areas. CE is divided into single CE principles. These are: Standardisation, Integration, Continuous Improvement, Customer Supplier Focus, and Parallelism. These principles have to be applied to the entire company, especially to the product development process (Walker and Weber, 1997). SMEs are described by key process areas. The key process areas focus on the product development process. They are: Organisational Structure, Business Strategy, Manufacturing Processes and Equipment, Technology Deployment, Knowledge and Skill Base, and Human Empowerment. In order to ensure that CE can be established successfully in the entire company, all of these areas have to be confronted with the CE principles. I.e. every principle has to be realised in every area of the company. Visualising this concept results a matrix of CE principles and the company s areas. These are the reasons, why the Concurrent Engineering Profile has been developed (see also Wunram 1999). Each point of intersection between CE principle and company area can be assessed. If the principle is applied within this area there is a good rating, if the principle is not applied within the company area there is a bad rating. Solution cases are described by a Concurrent Engineering Profile as well. Every solution case has two situations: one before and one after applying the solution. Assuming that each time an assessment has been carried out, two Concurrent Engineering Profiles are available. The difference of these profiles shows which areas have been improved with respect to each CE principle and which have not. Having an assessment s profile the best fitting solution is the one that can improve the most weakest areas, i.e. the one can improve the lowest ratings. The layouts for the profiles of assessment and the solution identification are the same and the comparison can be carried out easily. This is very important for integration. and Solution Identification tools that are already available do not have a common interface and thus it is not possible to map the assessment s outcome to the solution identifier s data. Applying tools and methods correctly has an impact on the company s areas and CE principles likewise. Assuming that there has been an assessment of the

3 company before and after implementing and applying a new tool or method, the difference of both assessments shows the impact of the tool or method on the company with respect to CE. In order to map solutions to tools and methods, similar CEPs have to be found as tools and methods are needed that can improve the areas that have been or shall be improved within the solution. The probability is quite high that the retrieved tools and methods match the solution. Thus, it is possible to compare solution cases with tools and methods. Furthermore, solution cases often name specific tools and methods that have been applied. Then, there is no mapping needed. Appropriate tools and methods can be derived directly from the solution case and the tool selection can give further information about the named tools and methods and find similar ones. CEPRA Software The CEPRA software has been developed with a major focus on variability and the customers, namely small and medium enterprises. The software will support the users in creating their company assessment especially in creating a Concurrent Engineering Profile of their company, in mapping the profile to solution cases and finally in mapping the solution cases to tools and methods. The software comes along with a questionnaire to create the assessment s profile, with a repository of CE solution cases of SMEs and with a repository of information about CE tools and methods. The CEPRA software has been developed in Java with a client server architecture (applets and servlets) to ensure that it is applicable on many operating systems and can easily be applied via Internet access without installation of software. The three modules, Solution Identifier, and Tool Selection can be used as stand-alone-software. The of CEPRA Software enables the user to carry out an assessment of his company, to carry out a benchmarking and to create the Concurrent Engineering Profile. The software starts with a short tutorial in order to raise the user s awareness of Concurrent Engineering. Basic CE terminology is introduced to the novice user. In a first step, users can answer some basic questions. These questions aim to rate the process areas of the company. This step is called Initial Screening. The rating gives a quick overview over the company s strengths and weaknesses. Figure 2 Initial Screening Results The user can carry out internal and external benchmarking and finally decide on which areas he would like to concentrate. For a detailed assessment, the Target Data Collection will go deeper into the chosen company areas. Again, the user has to answer questions, that now go deeper into detail. The questions have two answers. One is the user s target value (what he would like to have) and one is the user s current situation (what he thinks that he is having actually). The difference between these values will be processed to the Concurrent Engineering Profile. This profile does not cover all company areas but the chosen ones from the user. Thus, the user is not forced to answer a lot of questions that do not refer to his interests or problems. The now available CEP is handed over to the solution identifier. Solution Identification The Solution Identifier processes the Concurrent Engineering Profile and brings out problems and solution cases that are similar to the assessed company s situation. Every solution case is described and broken down into single problem causes and intervention activities. This helps to understand the solution case and to adapt it to the user s situation. Figure 3 Solution Case, List of Causes The retrieved solutions can be compared and rated, to decide which one fits in order to the user s needs

4 the most. Predefined criteria including rating values for every solution are available. The user can add own criteria himself whereas he has to rate every retrieved solution on his own. As mentioned above, every solution case has assigned an own Concurrent Engineering Profile. This can be handed over to the tool selection to find appropriate tools and methods to put the chosen solution into reality. As solution cases often name tools and methods that have been applied, the names are sent to the tool selection as well to get further information about them. Tool and Method Selection The Tool Selection offers basic information and past experiences about Concurrent Engineering related tools and methods. All tools and methods are appropriate for aeronautics and SMEs. The tool selection starts with a list of tools and methods. These are related to the Concurrent Engineering Profile of an assessment, or to the CEP of a solution, or to the names of tools and methods within a solution case. The list offers basic descriptions to the tools and methods as well as assessment criteria and values for the user as e.g. price, quality, time effort for implementation, etc. Figure 4 Main Screen of Tool Selection The list can be sorted by these criteria, so that the user can quickly decide which tools or methods to chose. By clicking a selected tool or method a second window will open presenting a website with additional detailed information. This information comprises detailed descriptions, CE oriented descriptions, manuals, guides, tutorials, manuals, as well as sources for supply and links to further information. This supports the user to decide whether or not the selected tool or method is suitable for his needs. Figure 5 Extended Description (Website) for a Tool If the user has identified some suitable tools and methods he will get a quick decision support for he can define own criteria and weights for his decision. The tools and methods will the be rated to the user s criteria. To ensure, that the software can be used as standalone-tool a natural language search engine lets the user find appropriate tools and methods to his questions and keywords. Furthermore, there is a simplified kind of Concurrent Engineering Profile that tells in which CE and company areas a tool or method can be sensibly used (cf. Figure 4, lower right corner). So the user can browse through CE principles and company areas simultaneously. Conclusion First scenarios have shown that integration of assessment, solution identification and tool selection is very important for the consulting process. Every single step can help towards solving problems but only support for the complete problem solving process will help especially small and medium companies to become aware of their situation, to find solutions and to apply tools and methods to improve their situation. It has to be emphasised that the proposal for the CEP as a means to integrate the three different modules is based on theoretical reasoning and has not been evaluated yet. The authors expect to receive first results about the appropriateness of the approach from populating the repository and from the evaluation in the pilot Projects. CEPRA focuses on Concurrent Engineering in SMEs in aeronautics. Thorough considerations have shown that the developed methodology and software can easily be adapted to large companies and to companies outside aeronautics (Stach 2000). E.g. over 85% of the collected tools and methods are relevant outside aeronautics even in large companies. The same is expected to the solutions. If it is possible to define another profile for integrating assessment, solution identification, and

5 tool selection, the CEPRA approach could develop to a general consulting methodology and software. The six CEPRA pilot projects have started in February At the time of writing this paper, no results about the pilots were available yet. Nevertheless, the project is still open for external pilot partners that can use and test the software for free and get assisting consultancy form the project consortium. The consortium itself hopes to get feedback to improve CEPRA methodology and software. If you would like to become an external pilot partner or if you would like to have further information about the project, please do not hesitate to contact the author. Also, the author welcomes any comments about the theoretical approach. References Holsten; Arione; Barone; Weber CEPRA Deliverable 2.1: Capitalisation of existing Approaches. Available at Stach, René CEPRA Deliverable 3.4: Development of CE Tool Selection. Available at Walker, Roy; Weber, Frithjof A Practical Approach to Concurrent Engineering in Proceedings of the European Workshop held at Marinha Grande (Portugal, 15 th May 1997), pp Wunram, Michael Development of a Methodology and Mapping Mechanism for Assessing and Improving the Product Development Practice of Small and Medium Enterprises towards Concurrent Engineering Study Report. Available at

MyCloudLab: An Interactive Web-based Management System for Cloud Computing Administration

MyCloudLab: An Interactive Web-based Management System for Cloud Computing Administration MyCloudLab: An Interactive Web-based Management System for Cloud Computing Administration Hoi-Wan Chan 1, Min Xu 2, Chung-Pan Tang 1, Patrick P. C. Lee 1 & Tsz-Yeung Wong 1, 1 Department of Computer Science

More information

Introduction. Topic I: description of topics in work programmes. First experiences with Horizon 2020

Introduction. Topic I: description of topics in work programmes. First experiences with Horizon 2020 First experiences with Horizon 2020 Topic: Feedback from questionnaires and expert workshop Date: 27November 2014 Introduction This note provides a set of recommendations 1 stemming from the IGLO questionnaire

More information

PREDICTIVE INSIGHT ON BATCH ANALYTICS A NEW APPROACH

PREDICTIVE INSIGHT ON BATCH ANALYTICS A NEW APPROACH WWW.WIPRO.COM PREDICTIVE INSIGHT ON BATCH ANALYTICS A NEW APPROACH Floya Muhury Ghosh Table of contents 01 Abstract 01 Industry Landscape 02 Current OM Tools Limitations 02 Current OM Tools Potential Improvements

More information

NETSTOCK a web based approach for stock control in a heterogeneous IT world

NETSTOCK a web based approach for stock control in a heterogeneous IT world NETSTOCK a web based approach for stock control in a heterogeneous IT world Klaus MOELLER 1 and Frank WERNER 2 1 University of Applied Sciences Pforzheim, Tiefenbronner Strasse 65, D-75175 Pforzheim, Germany

More information

GAP ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTATION OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

GAP ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTATION OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE QUALITY AND LEADING INNOVATION 2014 GAP ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTATION OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS DOI: 10.12776/QALI.V1.#5 MIROSLAV HRNIAR ABSTRACT Purpose:

More information

ESPRIT 29938 ProCure. ICT at Work for the LSE ProCurement Chain:

ESPRIT 29938 ProCure. ICT at Work for the LSE ProCurement Chain: ESPRIT 29938 ProCure ICT at Work for the LSE ProCurement Chain: Putting Information Technology & Communications Technology to work in the Construction Industry The EU-funded ProCure project was designed

More information

Chapter 2 The Need for a Common Ground for the IoT: The History and Reasoning Behind the IoT-A Project

Chapter 2 The Need for a Common Ground for the IoT: The History and Reasoning Behind the IoT-A Project Chapter 2 The Need for a Common Ground for the IoT: The History and Reasoning Behind the IoT-A Project Alessandro Bassi and Sebastian Lange The Internet of Things concept has evolved rapidly in recent

More information

Higher Certificate in Information Systems (Network Engineering) * (1 year full-time, 2½ years part-time)

Higher Certificate in Information Systems (Network Engineering) * (1 year full-time, 2½ years part-time) Higher Certificate in Information Systems (Network Engineering) * (1 year full-time, 2½ years part-time) Module: Computer Literacy Knowing how to use a computer has become a necessity for many people.

More information

Statistisches Bundesamt

Statistisches Bundesamt Statistisches Bundesamt Annette Pfeiffer, Thomas Riede Federal Statistical Office Press Service, Central Information Services, Library United Nations Statistical Commission - Seminar on Innovations in

More information

zen Platform technical white paper

zen Platform technical white paper zen Platform technical white paper The zen Platform as Strategic Business Platform The increasing use of application servers as standard paradigm for the development of business critical applications meant

More information

Implementing SharePoint 2010 as a Compliant Information Management Platform

Implementing SharePoint 2010 as a Compliant Information Management Platform Implementing SharePoint 2010 as a Compliant Information Management Platform Changing the Paradigm with a Business Oriented Approach to Records Management Introduction This document sets out the results

More information

ADOPTION OF OPEN SOURCE AND CONVENTIONAL ERP SOLUTIONS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN MANUFACTURING. Mehran G. Nezami Wai M. Cheung Safwat Mansi

ADOPTION OF OPEN SOURCE AND CONVENTIONAL ERP SOLUTIONS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN MANUFACTURING. Mehran G. Nezami Wai M. Cheung Safwat Mansi Proceedings of the 10 th International Conference on Manufacturing Research ICMR 2012 ADOPTION OF OPEN SOURCE AND CONVENTIONAL ERP SOLUTIONS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN MANUFACTURING Mehran G.

More information

Ming Sun 1, Ghassan Aouad, Nick Bakis, Stuart Birchall, William Swan

Ming Sun 1, Ghassan Aouad, Nick Bakis, Stuart Birchall, William Swan The ASCE 8th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building EngineeringStandford University California, USA, August 14-17, 2000, pp130-137 Integrated Information Management and Exchange for

More information

DBMS / Business Intelligence, Business Intelligence / DBMS

DBMS / Business Intelligence, Business Intelligence / DBMS DBMS / Business Intelligence, Business Intelligence / DBMS Orsys, with 30 years of experience, is providing high quality, independant State of the Art seminars and hands-on courses corresponding to the

More information

E-mail archiving for Microsoft Outlook and Exchange Server

E-mail archiving for Microsoft Outlook and Exchange Server windream Exchange E-mail archiving for Microsoft Outlook and Exchange Server 2 E-mail archiving for Microsoft Outlook and Exchange Server The steadily growing volume of electronic messages requires an

More information

Intelligent Use of Metadata in the Questionnaire Design Process

Intelligent Use of Metadata in the Questionnaire Design Process Intelligent Use of Metadata in the Questionnaire Design Process Karen BRANNEN Centre for Educational Sociology University of Edinburgh St John s Land Holyrood Road Edinburgh EH8 8AQ United Kingdom e-mail:

More information

Scalable End-User Access to Big Data http://www.optique-project.eu/ HELLENIC REPUBLIC National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Scalable End-User Access to Big Data http://www.optique-project.eu/ HELLENIC REPUBLIC National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Scalable End-User Access to Big Data http://www.optique-project.eu/ HELLENIC REPUBLIC National and Kapodistrian University of Athens 1 Optique: Improving the competitiveness of European industry For many

More information

Improving Interoperability in Mechatronic Product Developement. Dr. Alain Biahmou, Dr. Arnulf Fröhlich, Dr. Josip Stjepandic

Improving Interoperability in Mechatronic Product Developement. Dr. Alain Biahmou, Dr. Arnulf Fröhlich, Dr. Josip Stjepandic International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management 1 Improving Interoperability in Mechatronic Product Developement Dr. Alain Biahmou, Dr. Arnulf Fröhlich, Dr. Josip Stjepandic PROSTEP AG Dolivostr.

More information

Introduction to the ARIS Platform

Introduction to the ARIS Platform Chapter 2 Introduction to the ARIS Platform In this chapter we give an overview over the ARIS Platform and the ARIS products. The structure of the book is described with advice for different reader groups.

More information

A PROCESS BROKER ARCHITECTURE FOR SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

A PROCESS BROKER ARCHITECTURE FOR SYSTEMS INTEGRATION A PROCESS BROKER ARCHITECTURE FOR SYSTEMS INTEGRATION BACKGROUND Organisations and their IT-support have traditionally been structured around business functions as is depicted in Fig. 1, which shows each

More information

BS 7 SIS Safety Information System Green Light for Your Production

BS 7 SIS Safety Information System Green Light for Your Production BS 7 SIS Safety Information System Green Light for Your Production SIS - GreCon Safety Information System The Challenge The Solution In big industrial plants, such as wood based panel productions, there

More information

user experience interaction design web design web development web: www.meda.co.uk email: martin@meda.co.uk

user experience interaction design web design web development web: www.meda.co.uk email: martin@meda.co.uk We believe User Experience (UX) is at the heart of any project providing the necessary focus to produce truly engaging user driven solutions like no one else. Our strategy is to help you identify your

More information

ITAG RESEARCH INSTITUTE

ITAG RESEARCH INSTITUTE ITAG RESEARCH INSTITUTE Control and Governance Maturity Survey Establishing a reference benchmark and a self-assessment tool Erik Guldentops Wim Van Grembergen Steven De Haes Control and Governance Maturity

More information

TOPdesk Professional. Service Management Simplified

TOPdesk Professional. Service Management Simplified Service Management Simplified TOPdesk develops, markets, implements and supports software that helps organisations to efficiently manage the services they provide. Our vision is to create a user-friendly

More information

8th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA Symposium on Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Human-Machine Systems, September 18 th -20 th, 2001

8th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA Symposium on Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Human-Machine Systems, September 18 th -20 th, 2001 APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES TO THE FORMALISATION OF A SYSTEM- BASED MODELLING FRAMEWORK : APPLICATION TO ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS F. Mayer and J.P. Lavigne LRGSI (Industrial System Engineering Research

More information

Supply Chain Management with ADOlog. Product of the BOC Management Office

Supply Chain Management with ADOlog. Product of the BOC Management Office Supply Chain Management with ADOlog Product of the BOC Management Office Towards the creation of transparency in the Supply Chain and the Process Synchronisation Transparency in the Supply Chain Documentation

More information

UML SUPPORTED SOFTWARE DESIGN

UML SUPPORTED SOFTWARE DESIGN UML SUPPORTED SOFTWARE DESIGN Darko Gvozdanović, Saša Dešić, Darko Huljenić Ericsson Nikola Tesla d.d., Krapinska 45, HR-0000 Zagreb, Croatia, tel.: +385 365 3889, faks: +385 365 3548, e-mail: darko.gvozdanovic@etk.ericsson.se

More information

Process Benchmarking at the German Fraunhofer Information Centre Benchmarking (ICB)

Process Benchmarking at the German Fraunhofer Information Centre Benchmarking (ICB) Reprinted from NPC Best Practice Digest Process Benchmarking at the German Fraunhofer Information Centre Benchmarking (ICB) By: Dipl.-Ing. Holger Kohl, Head of Information Centre Benchmarking Introduction

More information

Dynamism and Data Management in Distributed, Collaborative Working Environments

Dynamism and Data Management in Distributed, Collaborative Working Environments Dynamism and Data Management in Distributed, Collaborative Working Environments Alexander Kipp 1, Lutz Schubert 1, Matthias Assel 1 and Terrence Fernando 2, 1 High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart,

More information

CTI Short Learning Programme in IT Enigneering

CTI Short Learning Programme in IT Enigneering CTI Short Learning Programme in IT Enigneering Module Descriptions 2015 CTI is part of Pearson, the world s leading learning company. Pearson is the corporate owner, not a registered provider nor conferrer

More information

Web-based Multimedia Content Management System for Effective News Personalization on Interactive Broadcasting

Web-based Multimedia Content Management System for Effective News Personalization on Interactive Broadcasting Web-based Multimedia Content Management System for Effective News Personalization on Interactive Broadcasting S.N.CHEONG AZHAR K.M. M. HANMANDLU Faculty Of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia,

More information

Deliverable D 6.1 Website

Deliverable D 6.1 Website MFC4Sludge : Microbial fuel cell technologies for combined wastewater sludge treatment and energy production FP7-SME-2013, Grant Agreement No. 605893 Deliverable D 6.1 Website Project details Start date:

More information

aloe-project.de White Paper ALOE White Paper - Martin Memmel

aloe-project.de White Paper ALOE White Paper - Martin Memmel aloe-project.de White Paper Contact: Dr. Martin Memmel German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence DFKI GmbH Trippstadter Straße 122 67663 Kaiserslautern fon fax mail web +49-631-20575-1210 +49-631-20575-1030

More information

DBMS / Business Intelligence, Business Intelligence / Big Data

DBMS / Business Intelligence, Business Intelligence / Big Data DBMS / Business Intelligence, Business Intelligence / Big Data Orsys, with 30 years of experience, is providing high quality, independant State of the Art seminars and hands-on courses corresponding to

More information

REFLECTING ON EXPERIENCES OF THE TEACHER INDUCTION SCHEME

REFLECTING ON EXPERIENCES OF THE TEACHER INDUCTION SCHEME REFLECTING ON EXPERIENCES OF THE TEACHER INDUCTION SCHEME September 2005 Myra A Pearson, Depute Registrar (Education) Dr Dean Robson, Professional Officer First Published 2005 The General Teaching Council

More information

Developing tools for a quality improvement adapted approach to Higher Education Institutions

Developing tools for a quality improvement adapted approach to Higher Education Institutions QACEP CONFERENCE Presentation of QACEP findings Developing tools for a quality improvement adapted approach to Higher Education Institutions Dr. Norma Ryan, UCC Brussels, 23 rd September 2011 QACEP Project

More information

isotravel.com Customer Relationship Management for Tourism Companies

isotravel.com Customer Relationship Management for Tourism Companies isotravel.com Customer Relationship for Tourism Companies Hier Emerald With Emerald, ISO has developed a tailor-made CRM solution for the needs of the tourism market. Emerald supports the whole process

More information

ACS2001 1 DRAFT. full paper published in: proc. of 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems. October 17-19, 2001 Mielno, Poland

ACS2001 1 DRAFT. full paper published in: proc. of 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems. October 17-19, 2001 Mielno, Poland ACS2001 1 DRAFT full paper published in: proc. of 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems October 17-19, 2001 Mielno, Poland Paper published in the proceedings and presented at the conference

More information

Setting Processes for Electronic Signature

Setting Processes for Electronic Signature Setting Processes for Electronic Signature Dr. Joachim Schiff On behalf of the SPES Consortium Workgroup City of Saarbruecken IKS Nell-Breuning-Allee 1 D-66115 Saarbruecken Germany Tel. 0049 681 905 5000

More information

Towards a cost modelling framework for outsourcing ERP systems

Towards a cost modelling framework for outsourcing ERP systems Towards a cost modelling framework for outsourcing ERP systems E. Shehab a, M. Thomassin and M. Badawy Decision Engineering Centre, Manufacturing Department, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedford, MK43

More information

Physical Security Information Management Software - Concepts - Solutions

Physical Security Information Management Software - Concepts - Solutions Physical Security Information Management Software - Concepts - Solutions A system is only as secure as its weakest link Technical Management Security Information Management ViPRO.solutions Communications

More information

Oracle SQL Developer Migration

Oracle SQL Developer Migration An Oracle White Paper May 2010 Oracle SQL Developer Migration Overview... 3 Introduction... 3 Oracle SQL Developer: Architecture and Supported Platforms... 3 Supported Platforms... 4 Supported Databases...

More information

Impact of IT Outsourcing on Business & IT Alignment

Impact of IT Outsourcing on Business & IT Alignment x Impact of IT Outsourcing on Business & IT Alignment Summary IT outsourcing does not matter from an alignment perspective This dissertation is the end result of over four years of research, and over fifteen

More information

Improving Bid Preparation in Supply Chains in the Construction Industry

Improving Bid Preparation in Supply Chains in the Construction Industry Improving Bid Preparation in Supply Chains in the Construction Industry Frithjof Weber, 1 C.-Andreas Dalluege 2, TayyabA. Shamsi 3, Franco Menconi 4 1 Bremen Institute of Industrial Technology and Applied

More information

ERP project manager. Plan and manage your ERP project in a way that creates business impact, while making user experience a safe transition.

ERP project manager. Plan and manage your ERP project in a way that creates business impact, while making user experience a safe transition. ERP project manager Plan and manage your ERP project in a way that creates business impact, while making user experience a safe transition. ERP project manager A tailor-made education for ERP project managers

More information

Enterprise Integration: operational models of business processes and workflow systems *

Enterprise Integration: operational models of business processes and workflow systems * Enterprise Integration: operational models of business processes and workflow systems. 1 Enterprise Integration: operational models of business processes and workflow systems * G.Bruno 1, C.Reyneri 2 and

More information

DESMET: A method for evaluating software engineering methods and tools

DESMET: A method for evaluating software engineering methods and tools DESMET: A method for evaluating software engineering methods and tools by Barbara Kitchenham, Stephen Linkman and David Law Abstract DESMET was a DTI-backed project with the goal of developing and validating

More information

USE OF OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE AT THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA

USE OF OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE AT THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA USE OF OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE AT THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA Reports on Special Subjects ABSTRACT The National Library of Australia has been a long-term user of open source software to support generic

More information

GRIPS. Global Editing and Information Planning System. STAR Group Your single-source partner for information services & tools

GRIPS. Global Editing and Information Planning System. STAR Group Your single-source partner for information services & tools GRIPS Global Editing and Information Planning System STAR Group Your single-source partner for information services & tools Staying in control making the right decision Every customer that you empower

More information

IT Architecture and Service Management with ADOit. Product of the BOC Management Office

IT Architecture and Service Management with ADOit. Product of the BOC Management Office IT Architecture and Service Management with ADOit Product of the BOC Management Office Moving Towards Sustained Control of Business Architecture and IT Processes: IT Governance Define the Objectives The

More information

Supporting Active Database Learning and Training through Interactive Multimedia

Supporting Active Database Learning and Training through Interactive Multimedia Supporting Active Database Learning and Training through Interactive Multimedia Claus Pahl ++353 +1 700 5620 cpahl@computing.dcu.ie Ronan Barrett ++353 +1 700 8616 rbarrett@computing.dcu.ie Claire Kenny

More information

Mail Archive and Management System. Product White Paper

Mail Archive and Management System. Product White Paper Mail Archive and Management System Product White Paper Regulatory Compliance Greater Emphasis of Information Security Regulations Placed on Emails Email has been widely adopted by worldwide enterprises

More information

Agile Project Portfolio Management

Agile Project Portfolio Management C an Do GmbH Implerstr. 36 81371 Munich, Germany AGILE PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT Virtual business worlds with modern simulation software In view of the ever increasing, rapid changes of conditions,

More information

REVIEW ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AGILE UNIFIED PROCESS IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT WITH VAGUE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

REVIEW ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AGILE UNIFIED PROCESS IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT WITH VAGUE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS REVIEW ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AGILE UNIFIED PROCESS IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT WITH VAGUE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Lisana Universitas Surabaya (UBAYA), Raya Kalirungkut, Surabaya, Indonesia E-Mail: lisana@ubaya.ac.id

More information

Taking Advantage of the Internet

Taking Advantage of the Internet Taking Advantage of the Internet Anna Munday Greg Wogan-Browne July 2006 Our Background Statistical and mathematical consulting firm Need to provide innovative and unique IT solutions Ability to combine

More information

Program Visualization for Programming Education Case of Jeliot 3

Program Visualization for Programming Education Case of Jeliot 3 Program Visualization for Programming Education Case of Jeliot 3 Roman Bednarik, Andrés Moreno, Niko Myller Department of Computer Science University of Joensuu firstname.lastname@cs.joensuu.fi Abstract:

More information

STUDENT CENTERED INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FOR E-LEARNING CONTENT LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS)

STUDENT CENTERED INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FOR E-LEARNING CONTENT LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS) Proceedings of the 2 nd International Conference of Teaching and Learning (ICTL 2009) INTI University College, Malaysia STUDENT CENTERED INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FOR E-LEARNING CONTENT LEARNING MANAGEMENT

More information

A SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY FOR ERP SYSTEM IN SMEs OF MALAYSIAN MANUFACTURING SECTORS

A SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY FOR ERP SYSTEM IN SMEs OF MALAYSIAN MANUFACTURING SECTORS A SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY FOR ERP SYSTEM IN SMEs OF MALAYSIAN MANUFACTURING SECTORS 1 YOUSEF KHALEEL, 2 RIZA SULAIMAN 1 Student, Department of Industrial Computing, UKM, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Assoc.

More information

Oracle SQL Developer Migration. An Oracle White Paper September 2008

Oracle SQL Developer Migration. An Oracle White Paper September 2008 Oracle SQL Developer Migration An Oracle White Paper September 2008 Oracle SQL Developer Migration Overview... 3 Introduction... 3 Supported Databases... 4 Architecture... 4 Migration... 4 Standard Migrate...

More information

MOBILE MOBILE WAREHOUSE OPERATIONS MOBILE WAREHOUSE OPERATIONS OVERVIEW MOBILE SALES MANAGEMENT MOBILE FIELD SERVICE

MOBILE MOBILE WAREHOUSE OPERATIONS MOBILE WAREHOUSE OPERATIONS OVERVIEW MOBILE SALES MANAGEMENT MOBILE FIELD SERVICE WAREHOUSE OPERATIONS FIELD SERVICE SALES MANAGEMENT WAREHOUSE OPERATIONS SALES MANAGEMENT FIELD SERVICE OVERVIEW 2Mobile Overview Key Benefits Get up and running rapidly Easy to manage integrated solution

More information

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background This thesis describes a multi-agent based architecture for an intelligent assistant system for use in software project planning. The research explored the role of

More information

August-Wilhelm Scheer and Frank Habermann. Using business process models to achieve positive results.

August-Wilhelm Scheer and Frank Habermann. Using business process models to achieve positive results. August-Wilhelm Scheer and Frank Habermann MAKING ERP A SUCCESS Using business process models to achieve positive results. Business information systems can be either designed as custom applications or purchased

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF A WORKFLOW APPLICATION FOR VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF GUINNESS NIGERIA PLC

DEVELOPMENT OF A WORKFLOW APPLICATION FOR VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF GUINNESS NIGERIA PLC DEVELOPMENT OF A WORKFLOW APPLICATION FOR VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF GUINNESS NIGERIA PLC 1,* John B. Oladosu, 2 Oludare Opaleye & 3 Olusayo D. Fenwa Computer Science and Engineering Department,

More information

The PLE Conference 2013 Personal Learning Environments: Learning and Diversity in Cities of the Future Call for Papers

The PLE Conference 2013 Personal Learning Environments: Learning and Diversity in Cities of the Future Call for Papers The PLE Conference 2013 Personal Learning Environments: Learning and Diversity in Cities of the Future Call for Papers PLE 2013-4th International Conference on Personal Learning Environments The Personal

More information

IFS-8000 V2.0 INFORMATION FUSION SYSTEM

IFS-8000 V2.0 INFORMATION FUSION SYSTEM IFS-8000 V2.0 INFORMATION FUSION SYSTEM IFS-8000 V2.0 Overview IFS-8000 v2.0 is a flexible, scalable and modular IT system to support the processes of aggregation of information from intercepts to intelligence

More information

D SCW SE. Digital Supply Chains for European SMEs. What is DiSCwise? (by using a Common Framework for ICT in Transport & Logistics)

D SCW SE. Digital Supply Chains for European SMEs. What is DiSCwise? (by using a Common Framework for ICT in Transport & Logistics) D SCW SE Supported by Directorate General Enterprise and Industry Digital Supply Chains for European SMEs (by using a Common Framework for ICT in Transport & Logistics) What is DiSCwise? DiSCwise is a

More information

Introduction to Testing Webservices

Introduction to Testing Webservices Introduction to Testing Webservices Author: Vinod R Patil Abstract Internet revolutionized the way information/data is made available to general public or business partners. Web services complement this

More information

Chapter-1 : Introduction 1 CHAPTER - 1. Introduction

Chapter-1 : Introduction 1 CHAPTER - 1. Introduction Chapter-1 : Introduction 1 CHAPTER - 1 Introduction This thesis presents design of a new Model of the Meta-Search Engine for getting optimized search results. The focus is on new dimension of internet

More information

ERP Implementation in Oil Refineries

ERP Implementation in Oil Refineries ERP Implementation in Oil Refineries By Muhammad Mubashir Nazir, FCCA, CIA, CISA Published in Daily Business Recorder Karachi on 25 August 2005 Over recent years the acquisition, implementation and use

More information

COMMITTEE ON STANDARDS AND TECHNICAL REGULATIONS (98/34 COMMITTEE)

COMMITTEE ON STANDARDS AND TECHNICAL REGULATIONS (98/34 COMMITTEE) EUROPEAN COMMISSION ENTERPRISE AND INDUSTRY DIRECTORATE-GENERAL Regulatory Policy Standardisation Brussels, 9 th November 2005 Doc.: 34/2005 Rev. 1 EN COMMITTEE ON STANDARDS AND TECHNICAL REGULATIONS (98/34

More information

cc workflow management

cc workflow management Business Software for People cc workflow management FIELD-LEVEL SECURITY FOR IMPROVED PROCESS CONTROL RELEASE MANAGEMENT WORKFLOW TEAMS E-MAIL INTEGRATION DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT WORKFLOW EXPLORER FOR STATUS

More information

Business Process Modeling. Introduction to ARIS Methodolgy

Business Process Modeling. Introduction to ARIS Methodolgy Business Process Modeling Introduction to ARIS Methodolgy Agenda What s in modeling? Situation today Objectives of Process Management ARIS Framework and methods ARIS suite of products Live demo Page 2

More information

icamp: The Educational Web for Higher Education in an Enlarged Europe

icamp: The Educational Web for Higher Education in an Enlarged Europe icamp: The Educational Web for Higher Education in an Enlarged Europe Barbara KIESLINGER 1, Sebastian FIEDLER 1, Fridolin WILD 2, Stefan SOBERNIG 2 1 Centre for Social Innovation - ZSI, Linke Wienzeile

More information

Knowledge Management Requirements within Machinery Engineering Domain

Knowledge Management Requirements within Machinery Engineering Domain Knowledge Management Requirements within Machinery Engineering Domain Ali AZARIAN - Rikardo BUENO and Aitor ALZAGA Institut Ligeron S.A., Parc Les Algorithmes, 99 Saint-Aubin, France Tel : --9 ; Fax :

More information

Building Java Servlets with Oracle JDeveloper

Building Java Servlets with Oracle JDeveloper Building Java Servlets with Oracle JDeveloper Chris Schalk Oracle Corporation Introduction Developers today face a formidable task. They need to create large, distributed business applications. The actual

More information

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB BASED MULTIMEDIA INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR BUILDING APPRAISAL

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB BASED MULTIMEDIA INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR BUILDING APPRAISAL THE DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB BASED MULTIMEDIA INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR BUILDING APPRAISAL Dominic O' Sullivan Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering National University of Ireland, Cork. Dr. Marcus

More information

Partnering for Project Success: Project Manager and Business Analyst Collaboration

Partnering for Project Success: Project Manager and Business Analyst Collaboration Partnering for Project Success: Project Manager and Business Analyst Collaboration By Barbara Carkenord, CBAP, Chris Cartwright, PMP, Robin Grace, CBAP, Larry Goldsmith, PMP, Elizabeth Larson, PMP, CBAP,

More information

Workflow based content management solutions in law firm

Workflow based content management solutions in law firm Workflow based content management solutions in law firm John Neuhaus, National Manager Information Services, Clayton Utz. jneuhaus@claytonutz.com 1. Abstract The Clayton Utz knowledge and research intranet

More information

Expert System and Knowledge Management for Software Developer in Software Companies

Expert System and Knowledge Management for Software Developer in Software Companies Expert System and Knowledge Management for Software Developer in Software Companies 1 M.S.Josephine, 2 V.Jeyabalaraja 1 Dept. of MCA, Dr.MGR University, Chennai. 2 Dept.of MCA, Velammal Engg.College,Chennai.

More information

CommonTime Making Business Mobile. Enterprise. CommonTime. Mobile Solutions. mdesign Platform. www.commontime.com

CommonTime Making Business Mobile. Enterprise. CommonTime. Mobile Solutions. mdesign Platform. www.commontime.com Enterprise Mobile Solutions Platform www.commontime.com Platform - Overview All Businesses Are Unique At we understand that no two businesses are the same. We believe that a mobile solution should be designed

More information

SAS MSc Business Intelligence: A Flexible Approach. C Straker and T Tricker School of Computing and Management Sciences Sheffield Hallam University

SAS MSc Business Intelligence: A Flexible Approach. C Straker and T Tricker School of Computing and Management Sciences Sheffield Hallam University SAS MSc Business Intelligence: A Flexible Approach C Straker and T Tricker School of Computing and Management Sciences Sheffield Hallam University Abstract The Masters Course in Business Intelligence was

More information

Suunto 2.0 web - Quality Assurance Plan

Suunto 2.0 web - Quality Assurance Plan Suunto 2.0 web - Quality Assurance Plan T-76.4115 Software Development Project: Iteration 2 Quality in a product or service is not what the supplier puts in. It is what the customer gets out and is willing

More information

A Methodology for Variability Reduction in Manufacturing Cost Estimating in the Automotive Industry based on Design Features

A Methodology for Variability Reduction in Manufacturing Cost Estimating in the Automotive Industry based on Design Features A Methodology for Variability Reduction in Manufacturing Cost Estimating in the Automotive Industry based on Design Features F. J. Romero Rojo, R. Roy, E. Shehab Decision Engineering Centre, Manufacturing

More information

Measuring Intangible Investment

Measuring Intangible Investment Measuring Intangible Investment The Treatment of the Components of Intangible Investment in the UN Model Survey of Computer Services by OECD Secretariat OECD 1998 ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION

More information

Diagram. Microsoft Dynamics Sure Step Methodology

Diagram. Microsoft Dynamics Sure Step Methodology Diagram Microsoft Dynamics Sure Step Methodology Designed to enable you to better serve your customers by helping reduce their Microsoft Dynamics total cost of ownership, the Sure Step Methodology can

More information

> PoSTGRADUATe certificate IN management

> PoSTGRADUATe certificate IN management > PoSTGRADUATe certificate IN management EMERGENT BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES JoINT executive PRoGRAmme Germany New Zealand 01 > Welcome We are pleased to be working with the University of Waikato Management

More information

Frédéric Tardieu, IBITEK Group, details the company s business intelligence tool and how it can be used to help decision-making from the plant up.

Frédéric Tardieu, IBITEK Group, details the company s business intelligence tool and how it can be used to help decision-making from the plant up. Frédéric Tardieu, IBITEK Group, details the company s business intelligence tool and how it can be used to help decision-making from the plant up. Introduction Information technologies have become an important

More information

Private Public Partnership Project (PPP) Large-scale Integrated Project (IP)

Private Public Partnership Project (PPP) Large-scale Integrated Project (IP) Private Public Partnership Project (PPP) Large-scale Integrated Project (IP) D9.4.2: Application Testing and Deployment Support Tools Project acronym: FI-WARE Project full title: Future Internet Core Platform

More information

Critical success factors of effective security management: a survey of Vietnamese maritime transport service providers

Critical success factors of effective security management: a survey of Vietnamese maritime transport service providers Critical success factors of effective security management: a survey of Vietnamese maritime transport service providers VINH Thai-Van, Devinder GREWAL School of Maritime Management & Logistics, Australian

More information

The CLM Platform from STAR

The CLM Platform from STAR The CLM Platform from STAR Branch solutions for your Corporate Language Management STAR Group Your single-source partner for corporate product communication Every flight is a new experience and yet it

More information

Issue No: 2.0 First Published: Sept 1997 Current Version: May 2002. Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION...2 2. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF GUIDELINE...

Issue No: 2.0 First Published: Sept 1997 Current Version: May 2002. Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION...2 2. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF GUIDELINE... Department of Commerce Guidelines Change Management Guideline Issue No: 2.0 First Published: Sept 1997 Current Version: May 2002 Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION...2 2. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF GUIDELINE...2

More information

Performance evaluation of Web Information Retrieval Systems and its application to e-business

Performance evaluation of Web Information Retrieval Systems and its application to e-business Performance evaluation of Web Information Retrieval Systems and its application to e-business Fidel Cacheda, Angel Viña Departament of Information and Comunications Technologies Facultad de Informática,

More information

Measurement for Successful Projects. Authored by Michael Harris and David Herron

Measurement for Successful Projects. Authored by Michael Harris and David Herron Measurement for Successful Projects Authored by Michael Harris and David Herron Software Project Managers have many responsibilities ranging from managing customer expectations to directing internal resources

More information

BUILDING OLAP TOOLS OVER LARGE DATABASES

BUILDING OLAP TOOLS OVER LARGE DATABASES BUILDING OLAP TOOLS OVER LARGE DATABASES Rui Oliveira, Jorge Bernardino ISEC Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra Quinta da Nora, Rua Pedro Nunes, P-3030-199 Coimbra,

More information

Adoption of a PPM Solution Using An Agile Approach. Andy Robinson

Adoption of a PPM Solution Using An Agile Approach. Andy Robinson Adoption of a PPM Solution Using An Agile Approach Andy Robinson 1 Agenda Drivers for using a Portfolio and Project Management system Organisational maturity Where to start Planning, delivery, realisation

More information

Object-Oriented Software Engineering

Object-Oriented Software Engineering Slide 1.1 CHAPTER 1 Slide 1.2 Object-Oriented Software Engineering WCB/McGraw-Hill, 2008 THE SCOPE OF OBJECT-ORIENTED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING Stephen R. Schach srs@vuse.vanderbilt.edu Outline Slide 1.3 Outline

More information

Model performance indicators ERP systems

Model performance indicators ERP systems Model performance indicators ERP systems setare yaghubi student, Department of computer Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University Zanjan, Iran setareyaghubi@yahoo.com Nasser modiri Assoc. Prof, Department

More information

D6.1: Service management tools implementation and maturity baseline assessment framework

D6.1: Service management tools implementation and maturity baseline assessment framework D6.1: Service management tools implementation and maturity baseline assessment framework Deliverable Document ID Status Version Author(s) Due FedSM- D6.1 Final 1.1 Tomasz Szepieniec, All M10 (31 June 2013)

More information

opinion piece Meeting the Challenges of Supplier Relations in a Multisourcing Environment

opinion piece Meeting the Challenges of Supplier Relations in a Multisourcing Environment opinion piece Meeting the Challenges of Supplier Relations in a Multisourcing Environment New approaches and skills are required to effectively manage the increased volume and complexity of relationships

More information

Energy: Price Comparison Tools BEUC response to the CEER public consultation on the draft advice on Price Comparison Tools

Energy: Price Comparison Tools BEUC response to the CEER public consultation on the draft advice on Price Comparison Tools Energy: Price Comparison Tools BEUC response to the CEER public consultation on the draft advice on Price Comparison Tools Contact: Guillermo Beltrà energy@beuc.eu Ref.: X/2012/003-17/01/12 Recommendation

More information