INTERVALS WITHIN AND BETWEEN UTTERANCES. (.) A period in parentheses indicates a micropause less than 0.1 second long. Indicates audible exhalation.

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1 All of the articles in this Special Issue use Jefferson s (2004) transcription conventions (see also Psathas, 1995; Hutchby and Woofit, 1998; ten Have; Markee and Kasper, 2004), in accordance with the following key. SIMULTANEOUS UTTERANCES huh [ oh ] I see [what] Left square brackets mark the start of overlapping talk. Right square brackets mark the end of an overlap. CONTIGUOUS UTTERANCES = Equal signs indicate that the turn continues at the next identical symbol on the next line or that talk is latched (no interval between the end of prior turn and the start of next turn). INTERVALS WITHIN AND BETWEEN UTTERANCES (0.4) Numerals in parentheses mark silence, in tenths of a second. (.) A period in parentheses indicates a micropause less than 0.1 second long. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH DELIVERY hhh hee hah Laughter or breathiness. hh Indicates audible exhalation..hh Indicates audible inhalation. 119

2 dog or dog HUH ºthanksº $yeah yeah$ *news* föh Underlining or bold indicates marked stress. Capitals indicate increased loudness. Degree signs indicate decreased volume. Dollar signs indicate the talk was in a smile voice. Asterisks indicate the talk was in creaky voice. The German umlaut indicates pronunciation of the vowel as in German. >< Inward-facing indents embed talk which is faster than the surrounding speech. <> Outward-facing indents embed talk that is slower than the surrounding speech. go:::d no bu- sun One or more colons indicate extension of the preceding sound or syllable. Each colon represents extension by one beat. A single hyphen indicates an abrupt cut-off, with level pitch. Italics represents audio speech for devices (in Danby et al) INTONATION CONTOURS yes? yes. so, so; yes A question mark indicates rising intonation at turn completion. A period after a word indicates falling intonation at turn completion. A comma indicates low-rising intonation at turn completion, suggesting continuation. A semi-colon indicates a slight falling intonation at turn completion. An inverted question mark indicates a flat, or mid rising contour at turn completion. A mid turn sharp rise in intonation. A mid turn sharp fall in intonation. Sometimes these symbols are also used for sharp rises and falls in pitch: ^ A mid turn sharp rise in intonation A mid turn sharp fall in intonation 120

3 COMMENTARY IN THE TRANSCRIPT ((hand clap)) Double parentheses indicate transcriber s comments, including description of non-verbal behaviour. the (park) Single parentheses indicate an uncertain transcription. * An asterisk locates the onset of an embodied action. OTHER TRANSCRIPTION SYMBOLS. Vertical ellipse indicates that intervening turns at talk have been omitted... An arrow in the transcript margin draws attention to a particular phenomenon the analyst wishes to discuss. Greer s article uses the following additional transcription conventions: TRANSLATION ore ja nee me COP NE It's not me Italics indicate talk is in Japanese. Second tier gives a literal English gloss of each item. Third tier gives a vernacular English translation in Times New Roman font with conventional orthography. Translations and glosses are not allotted line numbers in order to differentiate them from actual talk in the transcript. Where a non-english utterance takes up more than one line, the vernacular translation may appear after several tiers of original and gloss. Where a single non-english word is inserted into an otherwise English sentence, the third line of the ttranslation is not included. ABBREVIATIONS USED IN LITERAL GLOSS Based on Tanaka (1999) and Takagi (2001) IP NOM ACC Interactional particle (e.g. ne, sa, no, yo, na) Nominative particle (-ga) Accusative particle (-o) 121

4 GEN Genitive (-no) TOP Topic Marker (-wa) PT Other particles QT Quotation marker (-to, -tte) Q Question marker (ka and its variants) POL Politeness marker NR Nominalizer (e.g. no, n) TAG Tag-like expression VN Verb nominaliser (nan, no, n) HON Honorific marker or verb form (o, go etc) INT Interrogative particle (ka) NM Newsmarker RT Receipt token (un, ohn, hai, etc) TOP Topic marker (wa) AT Address term CoS Change of state token HM Hesitation marker (ano, eto, etc) VERBS AND ADJECTIVAL FORMS COP NEG PST CONT IMP PAS POT IMP VOL Copular, variations of the verb to be Negative morpheme Past tense morpheme Continuing (non-final) form Imperative form Passive form Potential form Polite form Volitional References Hutchby, I. & Wooffitt, R. (1998). Conversation Analysis. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Jefferson, G. (2004). Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. In Lerner, G.H. (Ed). Conversation Analysis: Studies from the first generation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins (pp ). Markee, N. & Kasper, G. (2004). Classroom talks: An introduction. Modern 122 Language Journal, 88(4):

5 Psathas, G. (1995). Conversation Analysis: The Study of Talk in Interaction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ten Have, P. (1999). Doing Conversation Analysis: A Practical Guide. London: Sage Publications. 123

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