Brazilian work on GHG LCA of bioenergy in Brazil

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1 Capacity Building Workshop on GHG LCA and Policy Applications Tokyo, Japan Brazilian work on GHG LCA of bioenergy in Brazil Joaquim E. A. Seabra Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica Departamento de Energia

2 Example for sugarcane products Reference: Seabra et al. (2011). The main objective of the work was the assessment of life cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to cane sugar and ethanol, considering bagasse and electricity surpluses as coproducts. GREET 1.8c.0 model was used to evaluate energy use and GHG emissions in the ethanol life cycle, with recent production parameters of the Brazilian Center-South Region. Some default parameters were changed to better reflect Brazilian conditions. Parameters based on the CTC database (2008/2009 season). For some parameters, the sample consisted of 168 mills.

3 Example for sugarcane products

4 Example for sugarcane products ATR mix Chemicals By-products ATR eq Sugar production SUGAR Agr. chemicals Fuels Chemicals By-products ATR eq Fuel Sugarcane production - Farming - Harvesting - Transport Hydrous etoh production HYDROUS ETHANOL Ethanol T&D Fuel use Chemicals By-products ATR eq Fuel Anhydrous etoh production ANHYDROUS ETHANOL Ethanol T&D Fuel use Seabra et al. (2011)

5 Example for sugarcane products Seabra et al. (2011)

6 Example for sugarcane products Sugar Ethanol Fossil energy use GHG emissions Fossil energy use GHG emissions (kj/kg) (g CO 2 eq/kg) (kj/mj) (g CO 2 eq/mj) Sugarcane farming 1, Trash burning Field emissions a Agr. inputs production Sugarcane transportation Sugarcane processing Ethanol T&D Tailpipe emissions 0.8 Credits Electricity b Bagasse c Total Seabra et al. (2011)

7 Example for sugarcane products Seabra et al. (2011)

8 Example for sugarcane products Different methods to allocate sugarcane emissions between sugar and ethanol. Different methods to deal with sugar and ethanol coproducts allocation (electricity and bagasse surplus). Seabra et al. (2011)

9 Example for sugarcane products Seabra et al. (2011)

10 Direct effects of land use change Macedo and Seabra (2008)

11 Indirect land use change ICONE developed an allocation methodology to assess the GHG emissions associated with land use change. The study estimated a LUC+ILUC factor of 7.63 g CO 2 for each additional MJ of ethanol produced, for an ethanol production expansion of 248 million GJ. Nassar et al. (2010)

12 LCA (GHG/Energy) studies for sugarcane ethanol 1978 Silva, J.G.; Serra, G.E.; Moreira, J.R.; Gonçalves, J.C.; Goldemberg, J. Energy balance for ethyl alcohol production from crops. Science, v. 201, No. 4359, pp , 8 September Macedo, I.C.; Nogueira, L.A.H. Balanço de Energia na produção de açúcar e álcool nas usinas cooperadas. Boletim técnico Copersucar, 31/85; pp , Macedo, I.C. The sugar cane agro-industry and its contribution to reducing CO2 emissions in Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy, 3(2), pp , Macedo, I.C. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances in bio-ethanol production and utilization in Brazil (1996). Biomass and Bioenergy, 14 (1), pp , Macedo, I.C.; Leal, M.R.L.V.; da SILVA, J.E.A.R. Balanço das emissões de gases do efeito estufa na produção e no uso do etanol no Brasil. Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, Governo de São Paulo. 19 pp + anexos. Abril de Macedo, I.C.; Seabra, J.E.A.; Silva, J.E.A.R. Green house gases emissions in the production and use of ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: the 2005/2006 averages and a prediction for Biomass and Bioenergy, 32, pp , 2008.

13 LCA (GHG/Energy) studies for sugarcane ethanol 2008 Macedo, I.C.; Seabra, J.E. Mitigation of GHG emissions using sugarcane Bioethanol, in Zuurbier, P.; van de Vooren, J. (editors) Sugarcane Ethanol: Contributions to Climate Change Mitigation and the Environment. Wageningen Academic Publishers, the Netherlands, Soares, L.H.B.; Alves, B.J.R.; Urquiaga, S.; Boddey, R.M. Mitigação das Emissões de Gases Efeito Estufa pelo Uso de Etanol da Cana-de-Açúcar Produzido no Brasil. Circular Técnica 27, Embrapa, Seropédica, RJ, Galdos, M.V.; Cerri, C.C.; Lal, R.; Bernoux, M.; Feigl, B.; Cerri, C.E.P. Net greenhouse gas fluxes in Brazilian ethanol production systems. GCB Bioenergy, 2, pp , Nassar, A.M.; Antoniazzi, L.B.; Moreira, M.R.; Chiodi, L.; Harfuch, L. An allocation methodology to assess GHG emissions associated with land use change. Final report, Institute for International Trade Negotiations (ICONE) Figueiredo, E.B.; La Scala Jr, N. Greenhouse gas balance due to the conversion of sugarcane areas from burned to green harvest in Brazil. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 141(1-2), pp , Seabra, J.E.A.; Macedo, I.C., Chum, H.L., Faroni, C.E., Sarto, C.A. Life cycle assessment of Brazilian sugarcane products: GHG emissions and energy use. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 5, pp , 2011.

14 Example for biodiesel Nogueira (2011)

15 Examples of institutions working with LCA-bioenergy

16 U.S. Brazil MOU to Advance Cooperation on Biofuels Bilateral Sustainability Project Part 1. Harmonization of GHG Measurements Brazil sugarcane ethanol and bagasse power/ethanol U.S. corn ethanol and future improvements Comparison between the two countries share best practices Pos-doc at NREL Joint publication Unicamp/CTBE/NREL/CTC Seabra, J.E.A.; Macedo, I.C., Chum, H.L., Faroni, C.E., Sarto, C.A. Life cycle assessment of Brazilian sugarcane products: GHG emissions and energy use. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 5, pp , 2011.

17 Collaboration KTH-CTBE PhD student (Dilip Khatiwada, from Nepal) at the ECS and visiting researcher at the Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE). The research project evaluates sugarcane bioenergy system in the least developing countries with the case study of Nepal. Publications: Power generation from sugarcane biomass a complementary option to hydroelectricity in Nepal and Brazil. Accounting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the lifecycle of Brazilian sugarcane bioethanol: Methodological references in European and American regulations

18 Unicamp/CTBE (Brazil) SASRI/SMRI (South Africa) Publication: Seabra JEA, Macedo I, Eustice T, van Antwerpen R. Sugarcane energy production and climate change mitigation: a case study for South Africa (Chapter 13). In: Johnson FX, Seebaluck, V. Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness: The Role of Sugar Cane in Africa. Earthscan, 2012 (forthcoming).

19 Unicamp/CTBE (Brazil) SASRI/SMRI (South Africa)

20 Unicamp/CTBE (Brazil) SASRI/SMRI (South Africa) The GHG emissions were estimated for rain-fed and irrigated conditions considering two hypothetical industrial configurations: an adjacent distillery and an autonomous distillery. Three alternative scenarios were proposed for an autonomous distillery in order to investigate impacts on ethanol environmental performance: without coal, electricity surplus, unburnt cane. Estimations suggest that ethanol could mitigate emissions in comparison to gasoline in South Africa. High mitigation potential exists when combined with the export of excess electricity generated from bagasse, which would contribute in diversifying the national electricity mix thereby favouring exploitation of renewable energy sources in the country.

21 Thank you Joaquim E. A. Seabra Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica Departamento de Energia

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