COMMON GROUND. Teaching and Research Programme and Agenda for the Belvedere Educational Network ( ) past/planning/future

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1 Teaching and Research Programme and Agenda for the Belvedere Educational Network ( ) Foreword 21 The Belvedere Educational Network 23 Teaching and Research Programme 24 theme 1 The historic fabric 27 theme 2 The biography of the landscape 29 theme 3 Regional design in the 21st century 31 theme 4 Experience and history 33 theme 5 Design and history 35 theme 6 Belvedere and developmental planning 37 theme 7 REFRAME: spatial design equals value assessment 39 theme 8 REDESIGN: treatment of historical topography 41 theme 9 RESTYLE: designing with a historic repertoire 43 COMMON GROUND past/planning/future

2 COMMON GROUND past/planning/future Agenda The activity agenda has been compiled by placing the initiatives discussed in general terms in the first part and the actions following from the teaching and research themes in a workable sequence. The agenda covers the period to September 2009, but the activities for the first two years are defined in more concrete terms. We propose to update the agenda in the autumn of Development and implementation of an interdisciplinary course at masters level (done) Website for students with information about Belvedere studies (done) Start the development of a bachelors course to be given at universities of professional education (in preparation) Lectures by the Belvedere professors (in April, June and October) Preparation of a symposium on immovable military heritage Draw up an inventory of existing partnerships between universities, universities of professional education and academies, and encourage new collaborative arrangements based on available expertise, interest and complementarity. Draw up a publication plan for study handbooks and professional literature Launch a digital newsletter for and about the network 2007 Extend the educational network across the universities, universities of professional education and academies of architecture Develop Belvedere tracks (e.g. specialisations) within ba and ma degree courses Develop a masterclass at masters and postgraduate level for the further training of professionals Make a start with the internationalisation of teaching activities Initiate individual PhD tracks and research programmes (see actions in the Teaching and Research Programme) Symposium in March 2007: immovable military heritage in teaching and research Prepare a symposium on the significance and implications of the concept of historic fabric Series of debates on the theme reflections on working practices 2008 Extend the educational network through the development of international university partnerships Summer school in 2008 on the future value and modification of world heritage in Europe in conjunction with the Triennial to be held in Apeldoorn Symposium on the significance and implications of the concept of historic fabric Prepare a symposium on Belvedere, the creative city and regional design Publication of a guidebook to Belvedere-related courses Core team of the Belvedere Educational Network Roel During Wageningen University and Research Centre Monique Eerden Belvedere Project Office Jan Kolen Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Eric Luiten Delft University of Technology André van der Zande Wageningen University and Research Centre june 2006 COMMON GROUND past/planning/future 2009 Symposium on Belvedere, the creative city and regional design Publication of a study handbook for Belvedere courses Final publications

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11 Interior townhall, Utrecht Photo: Duccio Malagamba Maaswerken, Elsloo Photo: Project office Maaswerken, Maastricht Peat reclamation landscape in Eemland Photo: Wim van der Ende Fort Steurgat, Werkendam Photo: Wim van der Ende Rietveld neighbourhood, Utrecht Photo: Joël van Houdt Officebuiding Unilever, Rotterdam Photo: Thea van den Heuvel The Citadel Broekpolder Photo: Bas Beentjes Class, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam Photo: avc/sidney Vervuurt Student workshop, Wageningen Photo: Rita van Biesbergen

12 COMMON GROUND past/planning/future Teaching and Research Programme and Agenda for the Belvedere Educational Network ( ) Foreword During a course of study you can work on a change in mentality, claimed Jan Kolen, Belvedere professor at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, during the launch of the Belvedere Educational Network. Education and research do indeed present ideal opportunities for critical reflection on existing ways of thinking. But should central government play a role in this? Big Brother in the lecture room? Yes and No. The government can put subjects on the agenda and ask critical questions, but it should stay out of the lecture room. How these subjects are investigated and taught is a matter for the educational and research institutions themselves. This certainly applies to giving the Belvedere philosophy a firmer footing in teaching and research. Studies by the Social and Cultural Planning Office and others have revealed a need to pay greater attention to the relation between cultural heritage and spatial planning and design. The choice of vision, disciplines and philosophy to underpin research into and teaching on this relation is up to the researchers, lecturers and students. The inauguration of the Belvedere chairs at three universities and within three different disciplines shows that this theme can be approached from many different angles: from the perspective of cultural heritage, architecture and landscape design, urban and rural planning, etc. I see the Belvedere Educational Network as an incentive to strengthen existing initiatives in the field, because luckily there are many such initiatives. Design and heritage professionals are already actively debating and discussing the cultural ambition within the remits of current planning and design tasks. The Action Programme on Spatial Planning and Culture also plays its part in strengthening the basis for this cultural ambition. Of paramount importance is getting the design disciplines involved at an early stage and giving cultural heritage a more prominent place in land-use and development plans. The Government will support the Belvedere Educational Network for a period of four years, at the end of which the crossover between the various disciplines involved should be firmly embedded within mainstream teaching and research programmes. The eventual goal is to improve the physical outcomes of planning and design. To do this we need graduates and professionals who are able to integrate cultural heritage into the planning and design process. But professionals do not want to constantly reinvent the wheel and are looking for a theoretical basis for the Belvedere approach. The Belvedere Educational Network can deliver both. 21 I call upon students, researchers, teachers and those who make use of expert knowledge to actively participate in the network and help to bring about a rapid renewal of teaching, research and practice. State Secretary for Education, Culture and Science, Medy C. van der Laan The Hague, 28 June 2006

13 22 As a student of landscape architecture I have spent a lot of time thinking about which elements from the past are worth preserving, who decides this and how to deal with cultural heritage. The interdisciplinary module Belvedere: conservation through development in town and country, organised by the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Delft University of Technology and Wageningen University, has not given me any cut-and-dried answers to these questions. As a matter of fact, during the course it actually became clear that there are no standard solutions and that the Belvedere approach is still firmly in the developmental phase. To be involved in this development as a student is particularly exciting and it motivates me to delve more deeply into the theme of conservation through development. Yoran van Boheemen (student, Wageningen University) 1 The Belvedere strategy The objective of the Belvedere strategy is to promote a respectful approach to cultural and historic values within spatial planning and development. This cannot be accomplished by simply preserving what remains and preventing any changes or by burying the past, but rather by seeking effective ways to create win-win situations: using and designing buildings, structures and landscapes in such a way that an object of cultural and/ or historic importance is given a place and contributes to the quality of its newly created surroundings. According to the Belvedere approach, cultural heritage has to be regarded as being of vital importance to our society and to each individual citizen. The full text and a summary of the Belvedere Memorandum in English can be downloaded from: The Belvedere Educational Network In September 2005 the Belvedere Project Office and three Dutch universities (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Delft University of Technology and Wageningen University and Research Centre) set up a core team for the Belvedere Educational Network for a period of four years, until September The team consists of Monique Eerden, Roel During, André van der Zande, Eric Luiten and Jan Kolen. The last three have been appointed by the above-mentioned universities as Belvedere professors for a period of four years. The participating institutes are convinced that the education of young people and the further training of professionals present an ideal opportunity to anchor the Belvedere approach 1 conservation through development within our thinking on spatial planning and design in the Netherlands, and within professional practice in the design and historical disciplines. The network focuses on higher education, in other words the bachelors and masters programmes run by the universities, universities of professional education and academies of architecture. The core team has formulated three goals: 1 To permanently embed the Belvedere approach within higher education 2 To elaborate and strengthen the theoretical foundations of the Belvedere policy 3 To make an innovative contribution to practice through teaching and research The core team and the educational institutions presently affiliated to the network cannot and do not want to do this on their own. Our aim is add diversity, richness and depth to the courses on offer. The prime objective is to strengthen the existing complementarity between study programmes and curricula. In addition, we aim to initiate both short- and long-running research activities to generate monodisciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge and insights in the field of heritage studies and spatial development. Cooperation between higher professional education (hbo) programmes, universities, academies of architecture and professional practice itself will therefore be necessary. Over the next few years we want to develop a number of new and recognisable educational formats and modules: An interdisciplinary Belvedere module for masters students, to be developed by the partner universities A bachelors Belvedere course, for example as a subsidiary subject or minor, to be developed in collaboration with the universities of professional education A Belvedere summer course or workshop, to be developed within the MArch, MLA and MUrb curricula at the academies of architecture English language versions of the above courses, with a view to the international exchange of students, experiences and ideas Specific Belvedere tracks (e.g. specialisations/options) within ba and ma degree courses 23

14 24 A format for a Belvedere masterclass for postgraduate continuing education and further training for highly qualified professionals In addition we will launch a research programme by initiating teaching-related research, in the form of individual doctoral programmes and small research programmes, in which talented students are given the chance to deepen their knowledge and expand their range of skills; liaising with existing research teams with a view to collaboration and actively developing research proposals on heritage and spatial development for national and international research programmes. Moreover, we will keep the target groups in the teaching and research communities informed and involve them in the work and results obtained within the network by communicating relevant developments in education and research via the website, newsletters and publications; organising symposia and debates on topical themes relating to heritage management, historical research, urban and rural planning, policy and physical design. With relatively little effort and investment, students can become acquainted with and obtain a feeling for the Belvedere issues. Developing such an attitude is also the aim of postgraduate (academic) continuing education and postgraduate continuing professional education programmes. In the masters phase of university education, the focus on attitude development will be taken a step further with the aim of deepening the level of the students knowledge and understanding of the issues. PhD tracks can be used to deepen intellectual insights and empirical knowledge and further develop and refine research and design methods. As the emphasis shifts from attitude to knowledge, greater investments in time, coordination and effort will be required. Teaching and Research Programme programmes, the recently published agenda of the College of Government Advisers, the Mission Strategy of the newly formed Government Agency for Archaeology, Cultural Landscapes and Monuments, and of course the Action Programme on Spatial Planning and Culture The themes provide the basis for forming alliances in the field of education, research and internationalisation. Interested parties and individuals, particularly from educational institutions, are invited to inform us of their interests in specific themes (or topics within these themes) and to explore opportunities for cooperation with others on these topics. However, it is also possible that potential participants will identify important topics that have not yet been included within one or more of these themes. In this case, they are also invited to raise these points and discuss them with us. When developing these themes and topics in more detail, the core team will ensure that the thematic coherence of the programme as a whole is maintained. Internationalisation is a constant element running through all the proposed themes and actions. The themes covered by the Belvedere policy are, of course, not only topical in the Netherlands, but elsewhere in Europe as well. Exchanging knowledge and experience with colleagues in other countries is therefore an obvious course of action. Cooperation can be achieved through the exchange of students and teachers under the eu Erasmus programme, by linking doctoral research into existing European programmes, by organising and attending international symposia, and through participation in activities under the European Landscape Convention. The network is also exploring the possibilities for acquiring European funding for research and knowledge management (such as kp7, interreg and ascend) and will take account of anticipated international trends, such as the growing interest in the future of Europe s military heritage. The agenda (see inside cover) is designed to present the subject matter, related actions and network activities in a logical order. The agenda also contains several facilitating activities, such as the development of a website and the publication of a study handbook. 25 The core team has drawn up a teaching and research programme to turn these objectives into concrete actions and create a structure for cooperation. The programme contains nine themes, each with its own specific topic areas and actions. Each of the themes is linked to the teaching and research remits of one of the three university chairs, but all are closely interrelated with regard to their subject matter. They should be viewed as tasks for the network as a whole and their further elaboration and implementation will not be tied specifically to any one institution. However, responsibility for regularly putting the themes on the agenda does lie with the relevant university chair. When choosing the topic areas we have, of course, looked at the subject matter through Belvedere glasses. In general, the topics deal with issues on the interface between the (designed) environment and time, and as far as the latter is concerned the past, present and future. The themes have been formulated to tie in as closely as possible with current teaching and research

15 26 Our living environment is changing faster than ever, and our urban and rural heritage is rapidly disappearing in the process. It is astonishing how quickly new housing estates spring up, archaeological evidence is filed away in dusty boxes and depots, and landscapes become degraded and cluttered, or undergo complete transformations. At the same time we see that the level of interest in heritage and history has never been as high as it is today. Anyone involved with urban or landscape design in the Netherlands cannot get around this. Policy makers, cultural historians and designers all have something to say about the processes taking place in urban and rural areas. They fall over each other with their good intentions, and sometimes less good intentions. What is needed is more cooperation and coordination. There is no doubt that cultural heritage will continue to play a role, but future graduates will have to be better equipped to play this game. This is in the interests of the students, but is even more important for our heritage and our living environment. The Belvedere Educational Network can make a valuable contribution to this. Els ten Napel (student, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) theme 1 The historic fabric People s appreciation and experience of the past is changing. In recent decades the collective history of the nation has been joined by more personal, local and informal histories of the landscape. The boundary between historical interest and personal recollection is blurring. People display at least as much, if not more, interest in the landscape, town or village of their youth as in the distant past laid bare by archaeologists. And for the average Dutchman the emotionally charged history of the Second World War is no less important than the great success story of the Golden Age. How the past manifests itself is also changing. Our monuments are getting younger: not only are archaeological sites, polder landscapes and traditional Dutch architecture worth conserving, but also old factories, industrial complexes and post-war housing estates. Furthermore, there are signs that our impressions of what life was like in the past are often aroused by contemporary images and animations. The re-enactment of historic battles and the popularity of traditional housing fit into this pattern. All these changes mean that we should adjust our ideas about heritage. Of course, that heritage still consists of authentic, material vestiges from the landscape of bygone times. But memories, new lieux de mémoire and reconstructions also demand a place in our heritage catalogue: a historic fabric that (just like the urban fabric) is spreading out over the Dutch landscape at a rapid rate. Within that fabric the history of places is experienced very differently by experts and non-experts. With an eye on the future design of the urban and rural landscape, it is important that designers, historians and planners can recognise, interpret and translate this multivocal and sometimes controversial character of the past into their working practices. They should critically examine their own expertise and images of the past and apply them in a different way. Clearly, teaching and research are suitable learning aids for achieving this. A specific topic within this theme is the development of dialogue forms for groups, including heritage experts/historians, designers and government officials with an interest in the history of places, the landscape or region, and who attach a range of different values and meanings to them. At the same we will study new concepts and presentation techniques that will enable historians and heritage experts to participate fully in this dialogue. Actions: Teaching/network Students following heritage, design and planning courses (at bachelors, masters and postgraduate level) will delve more deeply into these historical issues. They will examine the consequences of the developments outlined above for our understanding of cultural heritage and cultural values, and for how we treat the past in the future planning and design of town and country. 27

16 28 We will guide students in an examination of how they can analyse this historic fabric and the disciplines and approaches that can help them to do this. In 2008 a symposium on this theme will be held for a larger group (including non-students). Initiative: Jan Kolen, Chair of New Perspectives on the Heritage of Town and Country theme 2 The biography of the landscape After the Second World War the history of the urban and rural environment was for a long time considered to be an obstacle to progress. In the eyes of planners, engineers and urban designers, the old landscape was inadequate for the needs and aspirations of modern life. Now a growing group of planners, designers and heritage experts share the conviction that new transformations of the urban and rural landscape can in fact become more culturally significant, sustainable and effective if we reflect upon the transformations of the past. The common threads running through the transformation of town and country, however, are not easy to tease apart. The redevelopment of sites, urban areas and landscapes has always taken place in a complex process of interaction between administrative and socio-economic changes, technological developments, ecological dynamics and, last but not least, the history of mentalities: the whole package of cultural ideas, religious thought, collective memories and ideals. Research into historical transformations, therefore, requires a new theoretical framework that combines historical, geographical, anthropological and ecological lines of reasoning. On this point we can benefit from recent innovations in research, such as the concept of the biography of the landscape. An interdisciplinary history of spatial transformations can help us to construct a better picture of the historical layers within urban and rural landscapes and bring spatial patterns and structures to life through appealing analyses, stories and anecdotes. They can also be of value where the past even gives rise to major spatial planning dilemmas. An example of this is the national water management programme. Many consider our landscape of rivers, dikes and polders to be the ultimate expression of our rich history of water management and collective identity, but an examination of the history of the river and polder landscapes also reveals that traditional water management solutions have in many cases been inadequate. The water management task is therefore both a cultural as well as a technical challenge on an unprecedented scale. 2 In such a case, historical research can make an important contribution to the planning and design of the landscape, with respect to both public safety and the cultural resonance of the living environment. 29 In this theme the emphasis will be on gaining a deeper theoretical understanding of the biography of the landscape. Students and researchers will be trained in the concrete application of this concept. An interdisciplinary approach will be pursued: historians will investigate spatial transformations and designers will learn about the history of town and country, which, needless to say, is partly bound up with the history of their own profession. 2 College van Rijksadviseurs, 2005: Agenda 2005, arbm, p.30. Actions: Teaching Students following history, geography and design courses at masters and postgraduate level will study the principles and methods of the long-term

17 30 history of spatial transformations. This will be based around the interdisciplinary masters course Biography of the Landscape given at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Research From 2007 the aim is to work up this theme in more detail within a number of PhD tracks. Internationalisation Opportunities will be explored for pursuing teaching-related research in conjunction with foreign and international programmes, particularly in the field of the history, exploitation and management of European wetlands (in relation to the water management programme). Initiative: Jan Kolen, Chair of New Perspectives on the Heritage of Town and Country theme 3 Regional design in the 21st century Urban networks and regions respond to new economic and cultural trends in order to cut a distinctive profile for themselves. Two concepts are often put forward in connection with this: the creative city and the experience society. Creative cities invest especially in the creative industries, art and culture, education and research, and high-performance and innovative technologies (collectively referred to as the creative economy ). Just like the successful cities of the past, they hope to create a bulwark of prosperity and well-being. In the Netherlands the Delta Metropolis has expressed such an ambition, but the aim of becoming a creative city can now also be found on the websites of virtually all Dutch towns and cities, from Breda to Arnhem and from Groningen to Maastricht. The creative city concept assigns a crucial role to the cultural significance and economic value of experience. Successful cities, it is suggested, no longer concentrate on the production of physical goods, but focus on providing experiences and images. These are more in tune with the experience society, which puts greater value on high-quality experiences and identities than on dry production figures. Cultural heritage and historical products appear to play a key role in the urban networks and regions that identify themselves with these trends. Moreover, this interest in the past is reflected in the physical design of the urban fabric. There is therefore every reason to address this theme in the Belvedere Educational Network. Because heritage plays such a distinctive role in regional design, it is clear that various groups in society often feel drawn to very different aspects of the history of the region. This appears to contradict the tendency of many creative cities to take a highly selective approach to exploiting their history. After all, it is much easier to sell a city with a simple and readily identifiable profile than with a complicated and emotionally charged historical narrative. It is therefore important that historians, heritage experts and designers broaden the historical repertoire of the city and its community by drawing attention to alternative histories, the different historical layers and local memories. 31 A specific topic within this theme is the search for new ways to conduct an integral regional analysis the survey. The aim is to devise an intensive form of design through research, in which interdisciplinary teams of students explore the historical and contemporary developments in the region in greater depth. This geographical approach should lead to a creative and historicallygrounded contribution to current cultural and spatial transformations. On this point, cooperation between universities, universities of professional education and academies is essential. Actions: Teaching/network This subject matter will be explored in depth with students of historical, geographical and design disciplines in courses at the bachelors and masters levels. In the first instance, this will be developed within the interdisciplinary

18 32 masters course on Urban Transformations at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. For teaching on this theme collaboration will also be sought with universities of professional education and the academies of architecture. Research/network From 2007 the aim is to refine and explore this theme in more depth within university research programmes by creating a number of PhD tracks. Universities of professional education will be encouraged to take part. Development of a new form of regional survey (see above), in cooperation with the other chair holders and staff (e.g. lecturers) at universities of professional education and academies of architecture. Internationalisation/network Teaching and research will concentrate, among other topics, on the Euregion, making international cooperation a condition for the successful completion of projects. Teaching will also be available in English to enable foreign students to become acquainted with this aspect of the Belvedere policy. In 2009 a symposium for a wider audience will be held on Belvedere, the creative city and regional design. Initiative: Jan Kolen, Chair of New Perspectives on the Heritage of Town and Country theme 4 Experience and history Knowledge and understanding of people s experience of historical elements in the landscape are scarce and based on very little rigorous scientific research. The policy maps in the Belvedere Memorandum are based on the expert opinions of historical geographers, historians of architecture and archeologists. This is equally true for the National Landscapes in the National Spatial Strategy and the sites nominated for unesco s World Heritage List. Experts use criteria which are applied mainly to physical historical objects and structures and base their judgements much less on the historical narrative and the social and cultural dimensions. Moreover, the limited general questionnaire studies that have been conducted indicate that lay people ascribe different weights to certain evaluation criteria (rarity, condition, representativeness, national/international significance, etc.) than experts. For example, it appeared that residents attach greater importance to the more recent past than the distant past, which scores so highly in the judgements of experts. Knowledge about our appreciation and experience of history is also much more difficult to acquire than knowledge about physical phenomena. Empirical experiments are still conducted using traditional questionnaire methods, comparative images (photos, simulation photos, etc.), selfselection methods, discourse analysis and participative action research. The relation between valuation or judgement and willingness to act or make sacrifices is also far from clear and often problematic. When may a value have a decisive influence on actual land use? Which history is hard and fast and which is only interesting, and why? It is also important to look for synergetic working relations between experts, amateur experts and the residents and users of an area through their own involvement and role in the planning process. After all, the experience and appreciation of history/histories by the various groups of actors is not static. Ideally, a common discourse will develop in an area in which the narratives of experts and other groups of actors blend and enrich each other. Such knowledge will be broadened and deepened, making use of methods from social psychology, linguistics and semiotics, and the social sciences in general, as well as historical geography. This theme will be studied within a European context. 33 Actions: Teaching The aesthetic and experiential evaluation of heritage will be built into modules at various educational levels. Use will be made of the body of thought and methodological repertoire available at the Landscape Centre at Wageningen University and Research Centre. Research A PhD student has already started work on this theme and will be supported by the results of minors and majors from the masters programme. This doctoral candidate is building on the PhD theses by van den Berg, van Assche and Duineveld.

19 34 Internationalisation Internationally, the method of aesthetic and experiential evaluation has been developed in tourism and recreational networks. In Wageningen the theme belongs within the teaching and research remit of the chair held by Lengkeek. We will participate in these networks. The same goes for the related research into the experience of nature, which includes natural history and the social and cultural significance of nature. Initiative: André van der Zande, Chair of Spatial planning and Cultural Heritage theme 5 Design and history Since Bijhouwer, landscape architecture at Wageningen has had a tradition of integrating the historical dimension of the landscape into landscape designs for land consolidation schemes (agricultural improvement) or rural land development (multisectoral renewal which includes nature conservation, water management, recreation and environment along with agriculture). However, the 20th century rural land development programmes backed by a centrally managed arsenal of professional expertise, legislation and interventions no longer exist. This means that the previously automatically guaranteed role and tasks of the landscape architect have to be reinvented for 21st century area-based renewal schemes. However, we see a number of promising trends. For example, in the book Een plan dat werkt 3 Hajer et al. suggest that the landscape designer should be given a much more central role. Physical design, process design and process supervision are brought much closer together in an iterative process of research and design and are handed to the landscape architect. A new method of design through research is developing which has hardly been given serious thought. In a process of trial and error, spatial or development plans are drawn up in a series of design stages until the pieces of the jigsaw fall neatly into place and the final design receives the assent of all the relevant actors. We observe that the tools currently available to designers have been inadequate for this task because of the complexity of public administration, the layered nature of landscapes and the pluralist society, which manifests itself in an increasingly unwieldy process of seeking a consensus that has widespread support (the polder model ). The relations between design, decision-making and obtaining legitimacy have become more problematic in a much altered societal process architecture. Given a more modest substantive role and a greater procedural role, designers now need a different set of competences and new traditions and practices. Further research into how the design-led research method can be used to explore the playing field of renewal and conservation and construct different types of process architecture is urgently required. This has the potential to provide a workable methodological framework for adapting the Belvedere philosophy to the process and content of mainstream planning. 35 This theme we will draw on the theoretical foundations of landscape architecture, public administration, regional planning and political science, but also from change management and the wider social sciences. 3 Hajer, Maarten, Dirk Sijmons & Fred Feddes (red), Een plan dat werkt: ontwerp en politiek in de regionale planvorming. isbn Actions: Teaching Courses will still cover the three-step process of analysis/research, design and policy analysis/advice, which is an established element in the interuniversity modules at the masters level. It will also be a core component in the workshops (action learning in a workplace in an area based on real, concrete projects) to be developed with the universities of professional education.

20 36 Teaching activities will be developed in conjunction with the bachelors and masters programmes in Landscape Architecture at Wageningen University and Research Centre. Research The aim is to generate doctoral research for this theme. Initiative: André van der Zande, Chair of Spatial Planning and Cultural Heritage theme 6 Belvedere and developmental planning The real decisions to give history a place in spatial transformations are taken in the areas concerned. This makes the area-based approach to spatial development in the 21st century the key to the Belvedere approach. When the Belvedere Memorandum was published it was primarily a question of choosing the right areas, proper application of the available policy instruments and generating a strategic impetus through the delivery of subsidies. In other words, a government task. But the developmental planning approach in which the spatial quality objectives are incorporated into the area developmental process itself, instead of working with previously defined criteria and quality standards is interpreted in a fundamentally different and more challenging way in the Belvedere process. For example, how are the qualities imparted by cultural heritage delivered through public-private partnerships? What possibilities are opened up by the National Spatial Strategy and its associated new policy instruments to start putting the Belvedere policy into practice? Deepening our understanding of area processes is therefore crucial. The totality of discourses, administrative practices, experiences with legislation and involvement of the public will have to be studied in depth as a coordinated system of conditions within which the new Belvedere projects will take shape. The link between cultural heritage and planning is thus no longer a policy task but a societal one. In academic terms, the challenge is to develop the expertise that can be directly applied in the practical sphere of developmental planning. The most obvious approach to deepening our understanding is to monitor these area-based planning processes themselves, and in particular the degree to which actors feel responsible for taking due care of heritage features, and their motives for ascribing importance to them, or conversely, trivialising or marginalising them. A blind spot in our knowledge is the degree to which good plans actually promote investments in our cultural heritage and the creation of an attractive environment. The underlying processes are also worthy of study. How do people form opinions about the value and significance of heritage (see Theme 3)? What experience do government decisionmakers have with selling cultural heritage and justifying the costs of its conservation? How do cultural heritage and the creation of regional identity influence each other and how do developers and other private investors value this? And which negotiation mechanisms are available to safeguard or even enhance cultural heritage values? Options include the land value capture mechanism available in the area developmental planning toolbox. 37 This theme is a synthesis of history, design and how people perceive and experience the environment, and it draws on the disciplines mentioned above. It would clearly pay dividends to compare this knowledge against similar policy development and implementation processes in other countries

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