Relevant Areas for Research to Gain Insight into Taxation Issues

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1 MTRF Report Relevat Areas for Research to Gai Isight ito Taxatio Issues Prepared by Jeyapala Kasipillai Loo Er Che 25 March 24

2 Table of Cotets Executive summary 2 Ackowledgemet 5. Backgroud 6 2. Overview of tax research 7 3. Research objectives ad methodology employed 8 3. Research objectives 3.2 Research methodology 4. Aalysis of fidigs 2 4. Fidigs of Questioaire Survey 4.2 Cotet aalysis 5. Coclusio ad recommedatio for future research Appedices 57 Appedix A: Coset Form ad Questioaire 58 Appedix B: Huma Ethics Certificate of approval 63 Appedix C: Names, titles ad topics of doctoral ad masters theses 64 Appedix D: Tables of fidigs 78 Appedix E: s of masters theses 9 Appedix F: s of doctoral theses 39

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report provides a overview of tax research coducted i Malaysia ad Malaysia Tax Research Foudatio (MTRF) isights o potetial areas for future research. We extracted iformatio o masters ad doctoral completios i Istitutios of Higher Learig i the field of taxatio. Data was also gathered from a questioaire survey. We used a mixed-method research desig i carryig our study stretchig over a 3- moth period edig 3 December 23. A mixed method is also kow as a triagulatio of differet data collectio strategies ivolvig mixig qualitative ad quatitative styles of research ad data. This mixed-method ivolved two phases (Phase I ad II) of data collectio. I Phase I, cotet aalysis method was used. Cotet aalysis offers practical applicability ad relevace for research. I this phase, data was collected through visits to at least 5 public ad private Istitutios of Higher Learig (IHL) i Malaysia that offer Malaysia taxatio courses. A total of 32 PhD ad 89 Masters theses i the area of direct ad idirect taxes were collected from IHLs. We were able to idetify ad aalyse the areas that were researched ad obtaied abstracts of most of the studies. I a utshell, our survey fidigs ucovered the mai areas that were researched over the last 2 years i pursuace of masters ad doctoral theses, amely:. Tax compliace 2. Record keepig compliace 3. Tax educatio ad tax kowledge 4. Idirect taxes 5. Electroic filig ad e-paymet 6. Zakat compliace ad paymet 7. Tax system ad admiistratio 8. Tax ethics 9. Effective tax rates. Tax evasio ad audit 2

4 I Phase II, we gathered the views of promiet leaders i the accoutig ad academic fraterity, usig a survey approach. Data was collected through survey questioaires distributed to promiet leaders i the accoutig ad academic fraterity to gather isights o areas that eeds to be researched. The survey questioaire cosisted of two sectios. Sectio A gathered respodets opiio o the topics of taxatio where research is cosidered to be ecessary. The respodets were requested to idicate the extet of research ecessity based a 5-poit Likert scale ragig from defiitely ecessary to defiitely uecessary. Sectio B solicited iformatio o the profile of respodets i terms of age, ethic backgroud, educatio level, occupatio ad mothly salary. About oe-third of the completed dissertatios are doctoral theses ad the remaiig are masters theses. The doctoral theses were completed by academicias ad IRB staff i uiversities maily located abroad. Most of the masters theses were completed i local istitutios of higher learig. The respodets of the questioaire survey provided iput o potetial areas for tax research. As a result of the survey, we are able to recommed the followig most potetial areas for research:. Goods ad Services Tax: compliace issues ad costs; 2. Compliace behaviour of corporate ad idividual taxpayers; 3. Dispute resolutio arisig from tax audit ad ivestigatio; 4. Tax educatio ad kowledge of lay taxpayers; 5. Review of Malaysia s icome tax legislatio; 6. Tax implicatios o e-commerce; 7. Cocealmet of icome: hidde icome / udergroud ecoomy; 8. The eed for bilateral agreemets to add certaity to trasfer pricig arragemets ad cross-border trasactios; 9. E-filig; ad. Expectatios of taxpayers ad tax agets whe dealig with IRB. Other areas of lesser importace for research recommeded by the respodets i the taxatio area are: 3

5 (i) Idirect taxes: compliace issues; (ii) Trasfer pricig: Need for host coutry to be sufficietly remuerated; (iii) Review of Malaysia s Promotio of Ivestmets Act 986; (iv) Idirect taxes: compliace costs; (v) Compliace costs of corporatios; (vi) Tax audit: perceptio of idividual taxpayers; (vii) Dispute resolutio: exclude appeal to Special Commissioers ad beyod; (viii) Taxatio as a tool for eviromet sustaiability; (ix) Review of withholdig tax structure i Malaysia; (x) Service efficiecy of tax advisers; ad (xi) Need for a presumptive tax. Our respodets comprised of academicias, auditors, accoutats, tax agets/cosultats, lawyers, executive ad seior admiistrative officers. I this report, we eclose six appedices which furish the followig: (i) Coset Form ad questioaire (Appedix A) (ii) Huma Ethics Certificate of approval (Appedix B) (iii) Names, titles ad topics of Masters ad Doctoral theses (Appedix C) (iv) Tables of fidigs (Appedix D) (v) Compilatio of abstracts (Masters theses) (Appedix E) (vi) Compilatio of abstracts (Doctoral theses) (Appedix F) 4

6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers express their sicere gratitude to the Malaysia Tax Research Foudatio for the award of research grat i March 23. We are equally grateful to the Chartered Tax Istitute of Malaysia for facilitatig ad documetig this award. I executig this research project, we are thakful to various other parties for their direct or idirect assistace. Firstly, we thak the maagemet, particularly librarias of the respective Istitutios of Higher Learig for allowig us to extract iformatio o Masters ad Doctoral theses i the field of taxatio. Secodly, we are grateful to the respodets for providig us isights o potetial areas for research i the area of taxatio. Thirdly, we duly ackowledge the assistace provided by our research assistats. Last but ot least we are thakful to Associate Professor Ho Jua Keg for his isights ad assistace i carryig out this MTRF-sposored research. 5

7 . Backgroud I recet years, Malaysia has moderised its tax system. The chage to the selfassessmet system ad the impedig implemetatio of Goods ad Service Tax (GST) would require chages to the eforcemet strategies of the Ilad Reveue Board of Malaysia (IRBM) ad the Royal Malaysia Customs Departmet (RMCD) respectively. Chages i the compliace strategies of the IRBM ad RMCD have resulted i a sigificat icrease i reveue for the Govermet i 22 compared to previous years but this icrease has to be sustaied i a expadig ecoomy. Tax evasio is a pereial problem i Malaysia ad it has to be curtailed. Busiess sectors where tax evasio are perceived to be high have to be idetified for greater tax audit ad ivestigatio by tax authorities. I view of the pace of tax system chages ad the likelihood of more chages i future years, there is a eed ot oly to uderstad the compliace behaviour of taxpayers, but also to gai more isights o issues i relatio to the implemetatio of ew tax law. This is to esure that Malaysia has sufficiet public fuds to fiace its ambitious developmet plas ad to achieve its goal of beig a fully developed ecoomy by 22. Tax research has bee coducted by umerous academicias as well as tax ad otax professioals i Malaysia particularly over the last decade. However, these research fidigs are ot well documeted ad i most istaces rarely made kow to the public. Tax authorities too may ot be aware of the research that has bee coducted which would beefit them ad the Govermet. Outlie of report This report is orgaised i the followig maer. Upo discussio o the backgroud of study i Sectio, the ext sectio (Sectio 2) cotais a overview of taxatio research coducted i Malaysia. The research methodology is developed i Sectio 3 where cotet aalysis ad survey approach are deliberated. Sectio 4 reports o the fidigs derived from both research methods (i.e. survey ad cotet aalysis). Sectio 5 provides recommedatios for future research. 6

8 2. Overview of tax research This report provides a overview of tax research coducted i Malaysia; highlights major fidigs ad outlies its usefuless. Appedix C provides a list of the doctoral ad masters theses, with the ames of the researchers, title of research ad area of specializatio. Research that is desiged to ehace uderstadig of compliace of Malaysia taxpayers is useful to reveue authorities whe implemetig tax law. Idetifyig the causes of o-compliace would provide a soud basis for further research. I particular, causes associated with compliace behaviour uder the selfassessmet system ad how the chages of tax system have iflueced the compliace of taxpayers behaviour would be sigificatly relevat. I additio, issues related to other tax matters such as trasfer pricig, evirometal tax ad implemetatio of ew tax systems would also shed light for further research. 2. Relevace to MTRF This project would provide detailed isights ito tax research i Malaysia. I additio, this project would eable Malaysia Tax Research Foudatio (MTRF) to idetify gaps i tax kowledge ad tax research directio as well as to recommed further research that could beefit the coutry. 2.2 Sigificace of the project It is expected that the fidigs of this project would provide isights o studies related to taxatio over the last 2 years. The fidigs cotribute towards ehacig both the practical ad theoretical aspects of taxatio. It also provides iputs to policy makers i developig strategies to ehace volutary compliace as well as the effectiveess of the existig tax system. 7

9 3. Research objectives ad methodology employed 3. Research objectives The mai objective of this research is to ascertai ad documet tax research coducted i Malaysia sice the year 2, that is, over a 2-year period. Tax research has bee carried out i Malaysia ad abroad by studets pursuig their masters ad doctoral studies. Tax ad accoutig professioals i major accoutig/tax firms located i Malaysia too have udertake research i the tax area. This study, however has ot covered or has it reported their research work due to logistic reasos. We do ot have the capacity to cover a broad area of study. The secodary objective of this research is to provide the Malaysia Tax Research Foudatio a list of topics that could be cosidered for fudig purposes i the future. 3.2 Research methodology To address the objectives of this study, a mixed-method research desig was employed. The cocept of a mixed method approach came from a psychology study by Campbell ad Fiske i 959. A mixed method is also kow as a triagulatio of differet data collectio strategies ivolvig mixig qualitative ad quatitative styles of research ad data. 2 This mixed-method ivolved two phases of data collectio methods Phase I of mixed-method I Phase I, a cotet aalysis method was used. Cotet aalysis is a method of aalyzig writte, verbal or visual data. 3 This method also ivolves aalysis of data which allows researchers to test theoretical issues i order to ehace the uderstadig of the data. By usig cotet aalysis, it is possible to distil words ito Quoted i Creswell, J.W. 23. Research Desig - Qualitative, Quatitative ad Mixed Methods Approach, 2d editio, Sage Publicatios, p5. 2 Neuma, L.W. 23. Social research methods, qualitative ad quatitative approaches (5th ed.). USA: Pearso Educatio.39; Creswell, 23, Ibid. 3 Cole, F.L Cotet aalysis: process & applicatio, Cliical Nurse Specialist, 2(). 8

10 fewer cotet-related categories. 4 Cotet aalysis offers practical applicability ad relevace for research ivolvig the practice ad educatio of professioals. 5 I this phase, data was collected by visitig at least 5 public ad private Istitutios of Higher Learig (IHL) i Malaysia that offer Malaysia taxatio degree courses. All uiversities offerig accoutig programmes teach at least two to three taxatio courses amely Basic Malaysia Taxatio, Advaced Malaysia Taxatio ad either/or Reveue Law ad Specialized Taxatio. The researchers had visited relevat IHLs faculties ad libraries to extract iformatio o completed theses, dissertatios, published ad upublished reports o tax research i Malaysia. I additio, more data was collected from other sources icludig IRB s tax academy located i Bagi, Selagor. A total of 32 PhD ad 89 Masters theses i the area of direct ad idirect taxes were collected from IHLs. Detailed aalyses of the survey fidigs o the research topics of taxatio are preseted i Sectio Phase II of mixed-method I Phase II, the researchers gathered the views of promiet leaders i the accoutig ad academic fraterity, usig a survey approach. Surveys are appropriate for research about self-reported beliefs. 6 The mai advatage of survey is that it ca iclude may socio-ecoomic ad demographic variables. 7 I additio, a survey would be a appropriate method to gather iformatio o factors relatig to tax issues by admiisterig questioaires to a relatively small part of sample of a larger group. 8 Data was collected through survey questioaires distributed to promiet leaders i 4 Elo, S. & Kygas, H. 28. The qualitative cotet aalysis process. Joural of Advaced Nursig, 62(), Dowe-Wamboldt, B Cotet aalysis: method, applicatios ad issues. Health Care for Wome Iteratioal, 3, Neuma, 23, see above 2. 7 Sekara, U. 27. Research methods for busiess: A skill buildig approach. Idia: Joh Wiley; Parmjit, S., Cha, Y.F. & Sidhu, G.K. 28. A comprehesive guide to writig a research proposal. Selagor: Veto Publishig 8 Sharma, B.A.V., Prasad, D.R. & Satyaarayaa, P Research methods i social scieces. New Delhi: Sterlig Publishers; He, M., Weistei, M. & Foard, N. 26. A short itroductio to social research. Lodo: SAGE Publicatios. 9

11 the accoutig ad academic fraterities to gather isights o areas that eed to be researched Research istrumet The survey istrumet cosisted of two sectios, Sectio A ad Sectio B. Sectio A solicited respodets opiios o the topics of taxatio where research is cosidered to be ecessary. The respodets were requested to idicate the extet of the ecessity for research based o a 5-poit Likert scale ragig from defiitely ecessary to defiitely uecessary. For the purpose of statistical aalysis, the scale was coded as, = defiitely ecessary, 2 = probably ecessary, 3 = either ecessary or uecessary, 4 = probably uecessary ad 5 = defiitely uecessary. Sectio B solicited iformatio o the profile of respodets i terms of age, ethic backgroud, educatio level, occupatio ad mothly salary. A Coset Form was eclosed with the questioaire (see Appedix A). We also sought Ethics Clearace from Moash Uiversity Australia before carryig out our survey (see Appedix B to view the Huma Ethics Certificate of approval) Survey period The survey was coducted betwee September ad November 23. Respodets were selected based o coveiece samplig. A coverig letter was icluded, describig the ature of the survey ad stressig that complete aoymity was guarateed (see Appedix A) Data aalysis A total of 4 questioaires were distributed ad 95 were usable for data aalysis. The fidigs from the survey are preseted i Sectio 4. The data obtaied was coded ad aalysed usig SPSS package. Reliability aalyses such as Crobach s Alpha ad Bartlett s Test of Sphericity were used to check the iteral cosistecy of the measures ad the costruct validity of items that were used

12 i the questioaire. The data was aalysed usig both appropriate ad relevat descriptive ad iferetial statistics such as frequecy, mea ( x ), stadard deviatio (s) ad cross tabulatio.

13 4. Aalysis of fidigs The aalyses of fidigs are carried out i two parts. Sectio 4. reports o the fidigs of the questioaire survey. Sectio 4.2 reports o the cotet aalysis based o completio of masters ad doctoral theses over the last 2 years. 4. Fidigs of Questioaire Survey This sectio reports o the followig: (i) Demographic profile of the respodets; 9 (ii) Preview of the fidigs; (iii) Report o the fidigs, based o the aalysis i terms of the umbers () ad percetages of resposes to the 26 statemets o issues relatig to both direct ad idirect taxes o which research is cosidered as ecessary or otherwise; (iv) Cross-tabulatio aalysis of the respodets occupatios ad their resposes o the ecessity or otherwise o research pertaiig to the 26 tax topics; ad (v) Presetatio of other tax topics o which research is cosidered as ecessary by the respodets. 4.. Demographic Profile Data derived from a total of 95 usable questioaires were aalysed. The demographic profile iclude age, ethicity, level of educatio, occupatio ad mothly gross icome. I terms of age, those who are i the age groups of 3 years ad below ad 3 to 4 years each respectively made up of about oe-fifth of the total respodets. Nearly oe-quarter of the respodets are betwee the age of 46 ad 55 years, while 6.8% 9 See Appedix D: Demographic Profile of Respodets, Table to Table 5. See Appedix D, Table 6: Aalysis of Tax Areas Cosidered for Research. See Appedix D, Table 7: Cross-tabulatio of Occupatio ad Tax Areas Cosidered for Research. 2

14 each are i the age groups of 4 to 45 years ad 56 years ad above. Oly 6.3% of the respodets are betwee the ages of 36 ad 4 years. Of the total 95 respodets, Malays made up the highest ethic group at 34.7%, while 2.% are Chiese. Idias ad the Idigeous commuities of Sabah ad Sarawak each made up of 8.9% ad the remaiig 7.4% are from the other ethic groups. The cotact details of the respodets were maily extracted from the websites of istitutios of higher learig, accoutig ad tax cosultacy firms to geerate a list of potetial participats. I relatio to occupatio, 46.3% are academicias. Auditors/accoutats; tax agets/cosultats ad lawyers (collectively referred to as practitioers ) respectively made up of 4.7%; 29.5% ad 3.2% of the total respodets. Oly 6.3% of the respodets are either executive officers i the private sector (4.2%) or admiistrative officers i the public sector (2.%). I terms of the highest educatio level completed, 42.% hold a bachelor degree while 57.9% have a master or higher qualificatio, icludig PhD or professioal accoutig qualificatios. As for mothly gross icome, 34.7% eared less tha RM5,; 2.6% eared betwee RM,5 ad RM,999 ad.6% eared betwee RM5, ad RM7,499, while 24.2% eared RM2, ad above. Meawhile, 8.4% eared betwee RM7,5 ad RM8,999 ad 9.5% eared betwee RM9, ad RM, Preview Our preview is based o the 26 research topics that we listed i the questioaire. Betwee 72.6% ad 9.6% of the respodets cosidered research to be ecessary 2 for 25 out of the 26 direct ad idirect topics listed i the questioaire. The remaiig oe topic pertais to presumptive taxatio. 2 This refers to the defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary resposes that are cosolidated ad collectively described as ecessary. Heceforth, i this report ay referece to the cosolidatio of defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary resposes would be described as ecessary. 3

15 For the purpose of cross tabulatio aalysis, the respodets are classified ito three categories; practitioers, 3 academicias as well as executive ad admiistrative officers. I aalysig our data, the resposes amely defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary are cosolidated ito oe category ad referred to as ecessary, while probably uecessary ad defiitely uecessary resposes are collectively cosidered as uecessary. 4 Sice practitioers ad academicias collectively accouted for 93.7% of the total respodets, this report focuses o their views i relatio to the eeds for research o the tax issues. Although 47.4% of the respodets are practitioers ad 46.3% are academicias, 5 overall, there are more academicias tha practitioers who cosidered research as ecessary o 25 out of the 26 tax issues beig examied. Oly o oe issue, amely, dispute resolutio (exclude appeal to Special commissioers ad beyod) that a equal percetage of 33.7% of practitioers ad academicias cosidered research to be ecessary. Of the 26 tax issues beig cosidered, there are issues o which ot more tha 6.3% of the respodets aswered do t kow. 6 As for 4 other issues, oe of the respodets idicated do t kow. There is oly oe issue, amely the eed for a presumptive tax where a relatively higher percetage of 3.7% of the respodets idicated do t kow. 3 Respodets who are either tax agets/cosultats; auditors/accoutats ad lawyers are collectively categorised as practitioers based o the criteria that they are qualified to practise as tax agets. 4 See Appedix D, Table 7: Cross Tabulatio of Occupatio with Tax Areas o which research is cosidered as ecessary or uecessary. 5 The remaiig 6.3% of the respodets are executive / admiistrative officers. Heceforth, i this report, ay referece to the fidigs i the cotext of respodets occupatio is restricted to practitioers ad academicias. However the fidigs i relatios to executive / admiistrative officers are preseted i the relevat tables i Appedix D. 6 A do t kow respose idicates that a respodet does ot kow whether research is ecessary or uecessary. This is differet from a either ecessary or uecessary respose which idicates that a respodet cosiders research to be either ecessary or uecessary. 4

16 4..3 Research o Tax Topics The extet of the ecessity to carry out research o specific topics is based o the resposes solicited from respodets i the questioaire survey Trasfer Pricig The Icome Tax (Trasfer Pricig) Rules 7 set out the rules to be applied to cotrolled trasactios as referred to i sectio 54A of the Icome Tax Act 967. The Rules cover trasactios associated with issues relatig to trasfer pricig. The IRBM has also issued guidelies pertaiig to trasfer pricig. 8 I spite of the trasfer pricig rules ad guidelies, there are still tax implicatio issues pertaiig to trasfer pricig that eed to be addressed. I relatio to trasfer pricig issues beig cosidered, 4.% ad 36.8% of the respodets respectively cosidered research as defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary o the eed for the host coutry to be sufficietly remuerated. Meawhile, o the eed for bilateral agreemets to add certaity to trasfer pricig arragemets, 43.2% ad 37.9% respectively cosidered that research is defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary Cross-border trasactios ad e-commerce I the era before the advet of e-commerce, there were already complex tax implicatio issues arisig from cross-border trasactios. The expoetial growth of the iteret ad olie busiess activities coupled with the icredibly complex growth ad pace of chage i digital commuicatios are acceleratig the complexities of tax implicatios arisig from cross-border trasactios. I the cotext of Malaysia, although the IRBM has issued a guidelie o e-commerce, however the guidelie merely seeks to provide some guidace o the basic tax issues of icome tax treatmet, as the complex ature of e-commerce is too wide for the guidelie to cover 7 Icome Tax (Trasfer Pricig) Rules 22: P.U. (A) 32 of Ilad Reveue Board of Malaysia: Trasfer Pricig Guidelies, 2 July 22. 5

17 a broader spectrum of e-commerce tax issues, 9 give rise to cross-border tax implicatios. while e-commerce trasactios ofte Dispute resolutio I this study, three aspects of dispute resolutio, amely dispute dissolutio (exclude appeal to Special Commissioers ad beyod); dispute dissolutio (arisig from tax audit) ad dispute dissolutio (arisig from tax ivestigatio) were cosidered. The fidigs reveal that betwee 4.% ad 5.6% of the respodets cosidered research to be defiitely ecessary, while betwee 3.6% ad 4.% cosidered research to be probably ecessary for all the three aspects of dispute resolutio Review of tax legislatio ad tax structure With regard to the review of tax legislatio ad structure, betwee 72.6% ad 86.3% of the respodets cosidered research to be ecessary o the followig: (i) Withholdig tax structure i Malaysia; (i) Icome tax legislatios; ad (ii) Promotio of Ivestmets Act Idirect taxes Compliace issues ad compliace costs pertaiig to idirect taxes i geeral ad Goods ad Services Tax (GST) i particular were cosidered. Although the curret idirect taxes (i.e. Sales Tax ad Service Tax) will be replaced with the GST, it is sigificat to ote that 78.9% ad 76.8% of those surveyed respectively still cosidered that research is ecessary o compliace issues ad compliace costs of idirect taxes. Of those respodets who cosidered that research is ecessary o these two aspects of idirect taxes, two-fifths are academicias while about oe-third are practitioers. 9 Ilad Reveue Board Malaysia: Guidelies o Taxatio of Electroic Commerce, Jauary 23. 6

18 Sice GST ad its impedig implemetatio 2 is curretly beig widely discussed i the public domai, it is ot surprisig that 68.4% ad 67.4% of the respodets respectively cosidered it defiitely ecessary to research o the GST compliace issues ad compliace costs, while 23.2% cosidered research to be probably ecessary o both GST compliace issues ad compliace costs Stakeholders expectatios The topics uder this category are expectatios of taxpayers ad tax agets whe dealig with the IRBM as well as service efficiecy of tax advisers. Pertaiig to the expectatios of taxpayers whe dealig with the IRBM; 47.4% ad 32.6% of the respodets respectively cosidered research to be defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary. O the expectatios of tax agets whe dealig with the IRBM, 44.2% ad 35.8% of the respodets respectively cosidered research to be defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary. Regardig service efficiecy of tax advisers, 32.6% ad 4.% of the respodets respectively cosidered research as defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary Tax compliace ad e-filig Tax compliace issues beig cosidered are those associated with compliace problems faced by lay tax taxpayers; e-filig cocers; compliace cost of corporatios ad compliace behaviour of corporate taxpayers. Prior to the 24 Budget aoucemet, taxpayers could either practice maual filig or opt to e-file their icome tax returs. 2 However, oce a taxpayer had exercised e-filig for a particular year of assessmet, the IRB prohibits such a taxpayer to revert back to maual filig i future years, eve if the taxpayer might have legitimate reasos for doig so. O e-filig, 5.5% ad 3.5% of the respodets respectively cosidered research as defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary. Out of the 8.% who cosidered research to be ecessary o e-filig, 42.% are academicias ad 34.7% are practitioers. 2 GST is to be implemeted effective from April Effective from the year of assessmet 24, all compaies must furish their icome tax returs through e-filig (see sectio 2, Fiace Act 24, Act 762). 7

19 As to the compliace issues faced by lay taxpayers, 6.% ad 27.4% of the respodets respectively cosidered research as defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary. O the issue of corporate compliace costs, 76.8% of the respodets cosidered research as ecessary. Meawhile a much higher percetage (9.5%) cosidered research as ecessary o corporate compliace behaviour Hidde ecoomy, audit ad presumptive tax Accordig to the IRBM Tax Audit Framework, 22 tax audit is aimed at ehacig volutary compliace with the tax laws ad regulatios, ad is carried out i a fair, trasparet ad impartial maer to assist taxpayers i fulfillig their obligatios ad ascertaiig that the right amout of icome should be calculated, declared ad paid i accordace with the tax laws ad regulatios. Thus, research o the issue of taxpayers o-compliace with the tax laws ad regulatios ad their perceptios o tax audit are pertiet i addressig the objective of ehacig volutary compliace. I this respect, 43.2% ad 37.9% of the respodets respectively cosidered that research is defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary o cocealmet of icome. Of those who cosidered it ecessary to research o the issue of cocealmet of icome, 34.7% ad 42.% of the respodets respectively are practitioers ad academicias. Regardig idividual taxpayers perceptio of tax audit, 37.9% ad 35.8% of the respodets respectively cosidered research to be defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary. Out of those who cosidered research to be ecessary o idividual taxpayers perceptios o tax audit, 3.5% are practitioers while 38.9% are academicias. The issue of presumptive taxatio is geerally associated with that of hidde ecoomy. I the cotext of icome tax, certai categories of icome earers ca escape their tax obligatios more easily tha others. Presumptive taxatio is based o idirect methods i ascertaiig tax liabilities, whereby proxies for icome are used as 22 Ilad Reveue Board Malaysia: Tax Audit Framework - Effective date: April 23. 8

20 the icome tax base. 23 Thus, istead of idetifyig the actual taxable icome, some other methodologies are employed as proxies to determie icome tax liabilities. The applicatio of presumptive taxatio methodologies is geerally o the hard to tax icome, where other tha as required by the tax laws, taxpayers are ot compelled by other laws or regulatios to keep adequate books of accout; where trasactios are largely i cash ad cocealmet of icome is easily doe. 24 O the issue of whether there is a eed for a presumptive tax, oly 8.9% ad 33.7% of the respodets respectively cosidered that research is defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary. Of the 52.6% who cosidered that research is ecessary, 27.4% ad 24.2% respectively are academicias ad practitioers Tax educatio O the issue of tax educatio ad kowledge of lay taxpayers, 6.% ad 25.3% of the respodets respectively cosidered research to be defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary. Practitioers ad academicias respectively made up of 38.9% ad 43.2% of those who cosidered research to be ecessary Taxatio as a tool for evirometal sustaiability As to whether research is ecessary or otherwise o the issue of taxatio as tool for eviromet sustaiability, 38.9% ad 33.7% of the respodets cosidered research as defiitely ecessary ad probably ecessary. 23 Balestrio, A. & Galmarii, U. (22). Presumptive Taxatio, Markets, ad Redistributio, Workig Papers, Cetre For Household, Icome, Labour ad Demographic Ecoomics, 27 May Victor, T. (Dec 23). Presumptive Taxatio of the hard-to-tax; Iteratioal Studies Program Workig Paper 3-25, Adrew Youg School of Policy Studies, Georgia State Uiversity. 9

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