LSEG response to the European Commission s Green Paper on the long-term financing of the European economy

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "LSEG response to the European Commission s Green Paper on the long-term financing of the European economy"

Transcription

1 Think Small First LSEG Response to the long-term financing Green Paper LSEG response to the European Commission s Green Paper on the long-term financing of the European economy EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The London Stock Exchange Group (LSEG) welcomes the opportunity to respond the Commission s long-term financing Green Paper. We agree with the Commission s assessment that growth is the single most important issue for the Union. LSEG believes two elements are crucial to creating jobs, growth and innovation in the EU economy: 1. the ability of Europe s 22 million SMEs and M+ companies to access long term financing from institutional and retail investors 2. the ability of capital markets to facilitate this long term investment, to complement existing bank lending channels In our view, well functioning capital markets, within an appropriate regulatory regime, can fill the long term financing gap that the Commission identifies. Capital markets are particularly important given that banks and governments, which have traditionally led the provision of long-term financing, are now faced with an inevitable period of deleveraging, balance sheet adjustments and fiscal consolidation. A focus on capital markets will provide a more diverse and sustainable business finance landscape in the EU, and help unlock growth. We suggest that the Commission s long-term financing strategy should be guided by the following principles and recommendations: 1. Offer support for SMEs across the funding escalator: address the educational gap through programmes which prepare firms to grow (e.g. LSEG s ELITE programme) and the financing gap through access to a diverse range of non-bank funding options including public markets (e.g. LSEG s AIM, ORB, MOT and ExtraMOT platforms) 2. Embed a Think Small First approach to dossiers across the Commission: assess the impact of reform on SME and M+ firms to avoid unintended consequences; in particular, on access to capital, liquidity and innovation. 3. Act to reduce the cost of capital and the fiscal bias against equity: create a positive environment for companies seeking growth capital, and incentivise the use of equity for long-term financing by investors and SMEs. 4. Offer the right incentives for savers to invest in growth: ensure that retail investors, insurers, pension funds, venture capital funds and companies are able to invest in SMEs; encourage innovative ways to facilitate long term investment (e.g. through FTSE ESG benchmarks, the Social Stock Exchange etc.) In making these comments, LSEG draws on its experience as an operator of multiple neutral, well regulated, fair markets in equity and fixed income that contribute to the ecosystem of longterm company finance. We look forward to working in partnership with the Commission and other stakeholders on these key issues. London Stock Exchange Group plc. Registered in England & Wales No Registered office 10 Paternoster Square, London EC4M 7LS.

2 LSEG s suggested principles and policy recommendations To enable SMEs and M+ firms to access LTF from investors through capital markets PRINCIPLE 1: Offer support for SMEs across the funding escalator RECOMMENDATION 1: Enact policies at a European level that address the education gap and encourage companies to grow; in particular programmes like LSEG s ELITE, which train and prepare SMEs to grow their businesses, raise new financial resources and connect them to a network of advisors and investors, should be supported and considered at an EEA level. RECOMMENDATION 2: Support the development of public capital markets for SMEs and M+ firms including equity markets like AIM and electronic corporate bond markets like ORB and ExtraMOT PRO through a flexible regulatory approach and market-led initiatives. 2a. Consider a cross-directorate approach and a specific working group to explore ways of enhancing IPO markets for SMEs (complementing the work of DG Enterprise). 2b. Consider that the SME Growth Market regime in MiFID-2 applies to bonds, and therefore ensure that unlisted SMEs can access these markets. PRINCIPLE 2: Embed a Think Small First approach to dossiers across the Commission RECOMMENDATION 3: Adopt a think small first approach; i.e. any review or proposals for change to capital markets regulation in the EU must take into account the potential impact on SMEs and M+ firms, and avoid any unintended consequences. 3a. Recognise the importance of risk capital/ market making for investment in SMEs, and the need for a proportionate regulatory regime. RECOMMENDATION 4: Increase the consideration limit (currently at 5m) under the Prospectus Directive that triggers the requirement to produce a prospectus to make a real difference to SME fundraisings. For example under the US JOBS Act, a comparable provision increased the threshold of exempt offerings from $5m to $50m. RECOMMENDATION 5: The proposal to create an SME Growth Market classification under MiFID-2 is a welcome first step to creating an attractive SME asset class for investors. However, the parameters e.g. median market capitalisation must be appropriate, and it must retain flexibility at the market operator level to cater for the varying needs of growing businesses. RECOMMENDATION 6: Ensure flexibility around the application of conflicts of interest requirements in MiFID in the context of investment research for issuers on SME markets, to improve the level of information available on quoted SMEs and profile them with investors. PRINCIPLE 3: Act to reduce the fiscal bias against equity, and reduce the cost of capital RECOMMENDATION 7: Consider measures to reduce the bias against equity through its tax treatment and incentivise the use of equity finance RECOMMENDATION 8: Amend the EU Risk Capital Guidelines to recognise the role of replacement capital, along with new capital, in ensuring an effective equity financing environment for start-up firms. PRINCIPLE 4: Offer the right incentives for investors and savers to invest in growth RECOMMENDATION 9: Stimulate investment in SMEs to widen the pool of capital available to growing businesses, by making an SME asset class attractive to investors, including retail, buy-side and companies with cash, over the longer term. We welcome the Commission s decision to further analyse the impact of the Solvency II rules on pension funds before including them within IORP. 9a. For retail investors, issue guidance on the MiFID conduct of business standards, specifically on client suitability, that seeks to encourage investment in SMEs. RECOMENDATION 10: Recognise the use of capital markets as a tool to raise the profile and facilitate longterm investment into sustainable and responsible projects and companies. E.g. through benchmarks like FTSE ESG and portals like the Social Stock Exchange. Page 2 of 28

3 INTRODUCTION 1. The Commission s long-term financing (LTF) Green Paper presents a crucial opportunity to engage in a debate on the role of financial services in providing funding to the wider economy. 2. LSEG particularly welcomes the Commission s focus on creating growth. In our view, all Single Market measures and their subsequent development in the institutions, especially those in the financial services sector, should concentrate on the potential benefits to the real economy. The protection of investors and management of risk as part of post-crisis reform are legitimate concerns, but the approach should be proportionate to economic benefits and the risks presented. 3. Within this debate, the ability of SMEs and M+ firms 1 to access long-term investment from the investment community will be crucial, and capital markets will need to play a key role to facilitate this. There are c.22 million EU SMEs representing 68% of total employment and 58% of the value added in the economy 2 their ability to invest and grow will define the future of the economy. A NOTE ON SME DEFINITIONS At the outset, we note that the focus of our response is on a wide range of SMEs and M+ firms. We note that a number of EU definitions exist for SMEs each designed for a different purpose (e.g. state aid, accounting, transparency etc.). In our view, with regards to access to finance, a wide definition based on market capitalisation or turnover is most appropriate to provide opportunities for a diverse range of companies and investors to participate. In this regard, we suggest that a threshold of at least 500million/ 1 bn is required. This is similar to a provision of the US JOBS Act that seeks to tailor IPO requirements on the basis of a $1 bn market capitalisation threshold. 4. Through our response, we aim to provide the Commission: Commentary on the key issues faced by SMEs and M+ firms, investors and capital markets on their ability to participate in the long term-financing of the EU economy; Policy recommendations to improve the ability of capital markets to provide long-term finance; Evidence from LSEG s markets, including our close work with policy makers in Europe, UK and Italy in seeking to improve and facilitate the access of small firms to capital markets. 5. We believe that an effective funding environment requires a coordinated and consistent effort by all involved stakeholders - regulators (to set a fiscal, competitive and regulatory framework), the investment community (to invest in SMEs as an asset class), capital markets providers and issuers. 6. We suggest that the focus should be on behavioural and cultural changes to create a positive environment for financing; and legislative action secondarily to address any unintended consequences of capital markets reform on SMEs. The Commission is best placed to coordinate and implement such action. STRUCTURE OF LSEG s RESPONSE 7. Our response is provided in three parts: In Part A, we provide a short overview of why the focus of the Commission s LTF strategy should focus on channelling investment into SMEs through capital markets; In Part B, we detail our principles and policy recommendations (provided on page two of our response). We also prove some evidence and expertise from our markets; In Part C we provide comments to specific questions, and reference paragraphs in our response which answer specific questions that the Commission raises. 1 SMEs and M+ firms are defined as businesses with turnover of up to / 500 million (based on the definition in the UK Government s Breedon Review). We use the term SME s in this response to refer to SME and M+ firms collectively 2 As of June Source: Eurostat Page 3 of 28

4 PART A: Why the focus of the Commission s LTF strategy should be on capital markets 1. Growth is the single most important issue for the EU, and its LTF needs are substantial BOX 1: DEFINITION OF LONG TERM FINANCING (in response to Q1 and Q2) We agree with the Commission that there is no single uniform definition for LTF. A number of institutions have tried to characterise the features of LTF, based on asset classes, investor type, level of intermediation and purpose of financing. We suggest that a broad definition along the lines suggested by the Group of Thirty and OECD would be suitable this describes LTF as sources of finance with maturities of at least five years (loans and bonds), or no specific maturity (e.g. equity). However, we are cautious of making a distinction between LTF and shorter term finance (e.g. credit, working capital etc.). It is important to recognise that these sources complement each other, and a company will choose a mix of funding across each source. Further, it is also important to recognise that liquidity (in the securities that firms use to get LTF) does not mean short-term markets, and is fundamentally linked to the cost of capital for both investors and companies. (see box 2 for additional details) 1.1. We agree with the Commission s assessment that growth, job creation, building on areas of competitive advantage, and enhancing competitiveness are Europe s most pressing challenges A number of studies project that substantial investment will be needed to achieve growth. For example, the G-30 and McKinsey Global Institute 3 forecast that nine major global economies will need between $17 trillion and $21 trillion of annual long-term investment in real terms (33-35% of their GDP) by 2020 which is an excess requirement of $5-$9 trillion annually. It also projects that Western Europe will require $2.7 trillion annually by 2020, at a cumulative annual growth rate of 2.1 per cent, to support modest growth projections, see figure 1 below. Figure 1: Long-term investment needs by sector and region 1.3. The UK government and the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) estimate that c. 280 billion is required for infrastructure investment by 2015 in the UK alone. 3 Group of Thirty, Long-term Finance and Economic Growth, March 2013: Page 4 of 28

5 2. Governments and commercial banks have been traditional providers of LTF but are now facing severe pressure from the crisis 2.1. Traditionally, LTF has been provided by governments and commercial banks. Studies estimate that 25-30% of LTF is provided by governments, and 30-33% is provided through bank lending. Only 0-10% of all LTF comes from capital markets The EU is particularly dependent on bank lending up to 75-80% of external LTF is provided by banks in the EU. However, in the United States banks only provide 19% of all LTF the remaining is provided through capital markets In some cases, bank lending may not be the most appropriate form of LTF, particularly for SMEs. The average maturity for a bank loan in developed economies is 4.2 years. This is far shorter than the average maturity of investment grade corporate debt (8.0 years) or high-yield bonds (7.7 years). SMEs are also more likely to pay higher rates on loans than larger companies, and higher rates on loans than corporate debt of a similar tenor, see figure 2. Figure 2: Bank lending may not be the appropriate form of LTF for SMEs maturities (L) and spreads (R) 2.4. At a fundamental level, bank finance creates a mismatch for SMEs that are high risk and support innovation, i.e. between the level of risk that entrepreneurs take and that which is shouldered by the investor (in this case, the bank, which obtains a fixed return). Policy should incentivise the use of funding for SMEs that aligns the interests between investor and the owner, allowing less personal risk to the entrepreneur and a greater upside for the investor The financial crisis has also reduced the ability of banks and sovereigns to finance long term investment, as a natural consequence of deleveraging and balance sheet consolidation. It is clear that lending to businesses has reduced across the EU. The ECB has consistently reported a net tightening of credit standards by euro area banks for loans to enterprises from 2008 for example, in Q , euro area banks reported a stable but pronounced net decline in the demand for loans to enterprises (-24%, from -26% in the fourth quarter of 2012). Borrowers have also reported that credit agreements are taking longer to approve, the maturity of loans has shortened and terms and conditions associated to loans (e.g. collateral requirements, rates etc.) have worsened. 5 See figure 3. 4 ECB Bank Lending Survey Q1 2013: 5 ECB SME Access to Finance October 2012 to March 2013: Page 5 of 28

6 Figure 3: Tightened credit conditions change in credit demand (L); net EU lending to PNFCs (R) 2.6. LSEG is not arguing for a reversal of the new capital regime, which is needed to ensure the stability of the banking system. Rather, we point this out as evidence for the need for a pro-active and comprehensive approach by policy makers to develop of new, sustainable, and secure sources of finance, beyond bank lending, for SME and M+ firms businesses Financial systems are likely to become more resilient with a broader range of long-term finance sources and instruments. If properly implemented, these developments should make the LTF environment efficient and robust; supporting growth and job creation, without undermining the stability of the financial system. 3. Capital markets can help fill the financing gap 3.1. Compared to the US, EU capital markets are less liquid, provide shorter tenors and offer a lower variety of financial instruments, see below. This restricts the range of financing instruments available to borrowers and savers. Figure 4: A comparison of equity capital markets in the EU and US Page 6 of 28

7 3.2. We suggest that fostering the development of capital markets would be a positive step, so that it plays a bigger role in the long term financing of the EU economy, and helps provide a more diverse and sustainable business finance landscape Thus, the main objective of an EU long-term financing strategy must be to ease the access of SMEs to capital markets, and offer the right opportunities for savers to invest in innovative products, projects and growth stories In our view, the purpose of capital markets is twofold to provide access to finance for companies, and to generate returns for savers and investors. To facilitate this, markets provide a means of financial intermediation between savers and companies, which reduces risk and permits the time horizons of savers to differ from the time horizons of companies, enabling efficient use of capital in the economy For effective and well functioning capital markets that serve SMEs and investors, an appropriate regulatory regime with the right focus is required. A stable, proportionate and balanced regime is needed for companies and investors to back investment over 5, 10 or 20 year horizon We suggest that policy needs to address regulatory and behavioural issues on both the demand (SME and M+ firms) and supply (investor) side. The focus should be on helping companies transition on the funding escalator, increasing access to all forms of public finance and reducing the cost of capital, creating an SME asset class for investors, and offering the right opportunities to invest in growth In our view, there are four critical principles that should guide this strategy: Offer support for SMEs across the funding escalator: address the educational gap through programmes which prepare firms to grow (e.g. LSEG s ELITE programme) and the financing gap through access to a diverse range of non-bank funding options including public markets at the top of the escalator (e.g. LSEG s AIM, ORB, MOT and ExtraMOT platforms) Embed a Think Small First approach to dossiers across the Commission: assess the impact of reform on SME and M+ firms to avoid unintended consequences; in particular, on access to capital, liquidity and innovation. Act to reduce the cost of capital and the fiscal bias against equity: create a positive environment for companies seeking growth capital, and incentivise the use of equity for longterm financing by investors and SMEs. Offer the right incentives for savers to invest in growth: ensure that retail investors, insurers, pension funds, venture capital funds and companies are able to invest in SMEs; encourage innovative ways to facilitate long term investment (e.g. through the Social Stock Exchange, FTSE ESG benchmarks etc.) 3.8. We detail these principles in Part B, along with policy recommendations and evidence from our markets. Page 7 of 28

8 PART B: LSEG s PRINCIPLES AND DETAILED RECOMMENDATIONS To enable SMEs and M+ firms to access LTF from investors through capital markets 4. PRINCIPLE 1 Offer support for SMEs across the funding escalator RECOMMENDATION 1: Enact policies at a European level that address the education gap and encourage companies to grow; in particular programmes like LSEG s ELITE, which train and prepare SMEs to grow their businesses, raise new financial resources and connect them to a network of advisors and investors, should be supported and considered at an EEA level SMEs are key to growth: there are c.22 million EU SMEs representing 68% of total employment and 58% of the value added in the economy 4.2. As businesses develop, SMEs financing needs, and therefore, their set of investors can be very different. Businesses need access to a mix of finance sources to fund their short term needs and long term growth. In our view, bank lending, debt financing tools and external equity investment can complement each other as LTF sources for business As well as gaining access to a mix of finance sources, a key issue is facilitating the transition from start-up to SME to mid-cap i.e. a transition across the funding escalator. For example, venture capital, private equity and bank funding for a fast-growing start-up can provide a stepping stone to the capital markets once the company has matured. We agree with the Commission that companies require LTF throughout this transition Between different stages of growth, companies face financing gaps, i.e. in handing over financing to a different set or type of investor and education gaps, i.e. in terms of the skills, organisational capability and professional advice needed to transition across the escalator. Gaps are therefore not of a specific quantum or at one specific level; rather businesses face multiple gaps as they seek to match their structure to their stage of development. Figure 5: the Funding Escalator and Capital Markets LSEG s markets, in fixed income and equity, contribute to the ecosystem of supporting SMEs and M+ companies by helping them to match their financing needs to the right set of investors and facilitating their transition in the funding escalator. Page 8 of 28

9 4.5. An SME s ease of access to external capital seed capital, business angels, venture capital and public markets depends on the ability of these sources to work together as part of the financing escalator for enterprises to access at each stage of their development. Investors at each level have to be confident that they can realise their investment at a later stage, so they can re-invest their capital For early stage companies, addressing the education and financing gap is important. Evidence from the UK and Italy suggests that smaller businesses in need of external finance face three specific behavioural barriers: lack of awareness of alternative sources of finance outside of the existing relationships with their banks; a lack of the financial expertise required to assess the appropriateness of alternative sources for a borrower; and a lack of confidence in their ability to secure these alternative forms of finance The UK Government s Breedon Review on non-bank finance 6 also found that: Only one in four (23%) of those responsible for making finance decisions in SMEs has a financial qualification or financial training; for SMEs as a whole, a minority have a financially trained person. Alongside a lack of in-house expertise, there is a failure to source external advice: only 9% of SMEs sought advice when seeking an overdraft and 16% when seeking a bank loan. SMEs are also unaware of the many support schemes and initiatives that the government has in place Thus, SMEs have low access to funding and the specialised competences (i.e. legal, financial, business advisory, strategy etc.) to support their growth. Policy must deal with this educational gap, and support the development of SMEs with a strong growth potential The ELITE programme, launched by LSEG and Borsa Italiana in April 2012, is one such initiative. ELITE is a three-phase programme of integrated services, which offers SMEs the capabilities, training and networks to build an organisation for growth. Launched in partnership with the Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance, the Italian advisory community and academic institutions, ELITE aims to open routes to new sources of funding for companies through private equity, private placements, public debt or IPOs by the end of the programme. ELITE has been highly successful in Italy, and has 100 members within one year of launch, at a time of subdued markets and macroeconomic conditions. (see Case Study 1 on the next page for additional details) Europe s 22 million SMEs face similar challenges and share the same business needs as Italian SMEs access to finance, organisational and business development, communication and visibility building, and access to networks. We believe that ELITE is highly scalable and can address the educational gap that SMEs face on the funding escalator at a pan-european level. However, we note that ELITE infrastructure needs to be deeply rooted to each domestic market that it caters to, to serve the local needs of EU SMEs. Partnerships with local governments, advisers and academic institutions will also be crucial to its success Recommendation 1 above serves this purpose. 6 The Breedon Review, Boosting Finance Options For Business, March 2013, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, UK government Page 9 of 28

10 CASE STUDY 1: ELITE PROGRAMME ELITE is a unique programme of integrated services offered by LSEG/Borsa Italiana to help SMEs realise their goals for growth. Launched in collaboration with the Italian government and the key Italian financial associations in April 2012, ELITE s goal is to build middle national champions and support non bank channels. It reached 100 members in April How is ELITE structured? ELITE is a three-phased program (between months) where a company is assisted with a dedicated advisory team. Through ELITE, companies receive industrial, financial and organisational capabilities needed to grow and meet the challenges of international markets. The three phases of ELITE are: Phase 1 Get Ready a training program for founders and managers on management and organisational structure; Phase 2 Get Fit progressive adoption of best practices (transparency, structure etc.) with the support of a dedicated virtual advisory team (including audit, legal, financial, strategy and communication services); and Phase 3 Get Value access to new business opportunities and funding options (e.g. IPO, private placement, PE, debt issuance, etc.) What are the entry requirements? ELITE is designed for SMEs with a strong growth potential. Companies need to show a minimum turnover of 10 million (or less, if there is a high growth rate) and a plausible growth projection; and profit in the last financial year, with an EBITDA margin > 5 per cent to demonstrate a sustainable business model. To retain membership of ELITE, companies: Actively participate in the training 8 days organised in 4 modules and managed by LSEG Academy and Bocconi University Meet transparency requirements periodically update the company profile, publish a half-yearly/ annual report with comments to the accounts Deliver an organisational transformation compile a business plan, define an appropriate corporate governance model and implement a management control system Key numbers: As of April 2013, 100 companies are members Over 28 institutional investors registered as potential ELITE investors Over 70 advisors on board ready to play the role as official ELITE advisors ELITE companies are clear outperformers - median revenues of 47m; growth rates of 23%; substantial international business with a median of 50% revenues being export related. Multiple companies have announced plans for further funding including multiple possible IPOs in the medium term; deals with a Private Equity firms; possible bond issuances ELITE at a European level? Whist the ELITE infrastructure needs to be deeply rooted to the domestic market it caters to, ELITE is a flexible, scalable concept which can be elevated to an EU level. Partnerships with local governments, advisors and academic institutions will also be crucial to its success. See Appendix 1 for a list of ELITE companies. Page 10 of 28

11 RECOMMENDATION 2: Support the development of public capital markets including equity markets like AIM and electronic corporate bond markets for SMEs, like ORB and ExtraMOT PRO through a flexible regulatory approach and market-led initiatives. 2a. Consider a cross-directorate approach and a specific working group to explore ways of enhancing IPO markets for SMEs (complementing the work of DG Enterprise). 2b. In particular, the Commission should consider that the SME Growth Market regime in MiFID-2 applies to bonds, and therefore ensure that unlisted SMEs can access these markets LSEG also believes it is important to develop an SME s ability to access non-bank finance from all (public) capital markets. This is the focus of recommendation 2 above Vibrant and liquid equity markets at the top of the funding ladder are not only an aspiration for entrepreneurs and early stage businesses, they are also an important platform for earlier stage investors to realise their investments. LSEG has substantial experience with these markets - as the operator of AIM, Europe s largest equity market for SMEs, in the UK and AIM Italia-MAC in Italy AIM 7 is LSE s equity market for SME and M+ companies, launched in It looks at younger, fastergrowing companies at the initial stages of accessing public markets and offers a balanced regulatory framework, access to an international investor base and an expert advisory and peer-group network, visibility and profile with customers, suppliers, investors and analysts. CASE STUDY 2: LSE s AIM market for SME and M+ companies AIM is Europe s most successful growth market and has seen over 3,360 companies admitted and raised over 80 billion in capital since launch. As of March 2013, AIM has c.1,100 companies with a total market value of 66 billion. Median market capitalisation is 20 million and over 1,000 companies have a market cap of less than 250 million. AIM has a diverse base of investors, with large funds and retail clients investing in the market. How is AIM structured? As an MTF, AIM is an exchangeregulated market. There are two sets of rulebooks, one for companies, and one for Nominated Advisors (Nomads). The AIM Rules for Companies (the AIM Rules ) are tailored to the needs of businesses joining AIM, and are designed to be easily understood. The market offers a different model from LSE s Main Market (the Regulated Market), which includes: no minimum market capitalisation requirement, no minimum free float requirement (i.e. prescribed level of shares in public hands), and a Nominated Advisor is required at all times AIM has significant experience in tailoring the choice of capital market solutions for SMEs and their investors. For example, AIM provides issuers with a choice of trading platforms (order-driven, quotebased or hybrid) to help them maximise liquidity. Over the years, the dedicated market maker support offered on the trading services has allowed a strong network of specialist firms that facilitate access to liquidity, capital and research for these companies to develop. With dedicated market maker support in a transparent environment, which may not be available on a fully electronic order book, the smallest companies benefit from guaranteed liquidity. AIM strongly believes that trading solutions for small and mid cap securities need to consider the incentive and economics for 7 Further information at Page 11 of 28

12 advisers/ brokers to provide the critical aftermarket support these companies require, particularly analyst coverage We suggest that Commission may consider establishing a working group for SME issues across directorates, as SME issues cut across Internal Markets, Competition Enterprise, Industry etc. In particular, the Commission should seek to explore ways of enhancing IPO markets for SMEs like AIM, complementing the work of DG Enterprise s SME Finance Forum. This is the focus of recommendation 2a Further, we agree with the Commission s assessment that there is a significant scope to increase the size of the corporate bond market in Europe, particularly for SMEs Whilst we do not completely agree with the Commission s contention that SMEs cannot generally afford the costs of bond issuance, it is correct to say that SMEs face much higher costs ( bps of total issuance) than mid- and larger-sized companies (30-60 bps of total issuance) 8 for issuing bonds. Costs include professional fees (accountancy, legal, advisory, credit rating), documentation (prospectus), continuing obligations (disclosure), listing and admission fees etc A major restriction on the ability of SMEs to access the public bond markets is the need for institutional investors to invest in liquid securities. For bonds in the wholesale market to be liquid, issuances will typically need to be greater than / 150m. Therefore, this sort of financing normally would not be available to borrowers with a much smaller borrowing requirement However, a number of small firms are gaining direct access to debt capital markets through platforms like the LSE s Order Book for Retail Bonds (ORB) Since 2010, ORB has raised over 3.4 bn of financing through 37 retail bonds. We believe it has opened up debt capital markets to a wider range of companies, including SME and M+ firms, who wish to raise capital in sizes ranging from million. The median issuance size on ORB is 72.5 m, average maturity is 7 ¾ years, and average coupon is 4.7%. 26 of the issues have been smaller than 150m, and two unlisted companies have also issued debt. CASE STUDY 3: LSE s Order Book for Retail Bonds (ORB) LSEG launched the Order Book for Retail Bonds (ORB) in the UK in February ORB builds on the success of MOT, Borsa Italiana s bond market for retail and wholesale investors. ORB was set up to 1) develop a transparent secondary market in bonds, 2) establish a primary market where retail investors participate, 3) enable companies access a new source of capital and diversify their funding How is ORB structured? ORB is an EU Regulated Market: all bonds admitted on ORB are listed with the UKLA and must satisfy the requirements for retail investors set out in the Prospectus and Transparency directives Retail size: bonds admitted must be tradable in units of no larger than 10,000 (usually in denominations of 100 or 1,000), and of high credit standards. Settlement: in Euroclear UK & Ireland. Electronic order-driven trading: dedicated market makers are committed to quoting executable two-way prices; market surveillance monitors for disruptions and abuse. Since launch, ORB has raised over 3.4 billion through 37 dedicated retail issuances. There are over 170 existing retail size bonds available - c.60 gilts, c.110 corporate and 4 supranational bonds. ORB has seen several blue chip retail bond offerings, including Tesco Bank (raising 125m), National Grid (raising 260m) and Lloyds TSB (raising 125m) The market has also worked for the small cap and social sectors, with the housing association Places for People raising 140 million in 2011, and a further 40 million in January Source: LSEG Fixed Income study of issuances on ORB Page 12 of 28

13 4.22. To further develop the market for SME corporate bonds in the EU, In February 2013, Borsa Italiana launched the new Professional Segment of ExtraMOT market (ExtraMOT PRO 9 ) dedicated to listing of bonds, commercial paper, project bonds. The new segment was created to offer to corporate and, in particular to SMEs, a national market flexible, and cost effective in which to take opportunities and tax benefits arising from a new regulatory framework in Italy (Decree-Law 83/2012) Within 4 months, ExtraMOT PRO has admitted 12 bonds through 7 issuers. The total outstanding amount is 1.6 billion. Bonds have an average maturity of 6 years and an average coupon of 6.7%. A full list of bonds can be found here These developments are positive. However, SMEs are highly heterogeneous, and as such, there is no coverage of this sector. Thus, for investors, analysing the risk of SMEs requires a high resource allocation that may not always be available. Some positive market led initiatives have started addressing this issue, with the development of specific credit assessment products from mid-cap firms and a focus by advisers on new corporate bond platforms We suggest that the Commission should help develop the use of electronic corporate bond markets for SMEs. A way of doing this could be to clarify that the SME Growth Market framework in MiFID-2 applies to SME bonds as well. As currently drafted, it focuses on equities, since the SME definition is linked to market capitalisation. We propose that bonds of unlisted companies should also fall into this regime, with an appropriate definition that focuses on SME and M+ companies (up to 500 million turnover may be an appropriate definition). This is the focus of recommendation 2b. CASE STUDY 4: ExtraMOT PRO ExtraMOT is an EU Multilateral Trading Facility for the secondary trading of corporate/s bonds listed on foreign EU RMs and branded bonds. ExtraMOT PRO is the professional segment dedicated to listing of bonds, commercial paper, project bonds. Trading on ExtraMOT PRO is restricted to professional investors. Features of the market: Proportionate disclosure requirements (publishing the annual financial statements for the past two years, the last of which audited and providing an admission document in Italian or in English). After the admission, the issuer is required to publish audited financial statements, the disclosure of the rating if a public rating is assigned, information concerning any changes in the bond holders rights, and any technical information related to the characteristics of the instruments (e.g. payment dates, interest coupons, sinking schedule). 9 Extra-MOT PRO: 10 Page 13 of 28

14 5. PRINCIPLE 2: Embed a Think Small First approach to dossiers across the Commission RECOMMENDATION 3: Adopt a think small first approach; i.e. any review or proposals for change to capital markets regulation in the EU must take into account the potential impact on SMEs and M+ firms, and avoid any unintended consequences. 3a. Recognise the importance of risk capital/ market making for investment in SMEs, and the need for a proportionate regulatory regime Since the financial crisis, the EU has seen a wave of regulatory reforms in financial services. In particular, the regulatory environment for capital markets is currently in the process of major overhaul - the impact of which has yet to be fully understood. The cumulative impact of a series of significant regulatory changes, including Solvency II, CRD IV, MIFID2, EMIR, FTT, CSD-R, R&R for banks and non-banks, Short Selling etc. has still to be tested. For example, capital requirements in Solvency II, IORP and CRD-IV may affect the ability of insurers and pension funds to invest in long term assets, or SME assets For example, a disproportionate regime for market makers in MiFID-2 coupled with a one-sized fits all settlement discipline regime in CSD-R may jeopardise the operation of less liquid/sme markets dependent on these participants. There must be a commitment to preserving the market maker model which is particularly important for SME securities. Market making enables asset managers, corporates, insurers, pension funds, and other end users of markets to buy and sell financial instruments with greater certainty and thereby creates deeper capital markets in which SMEs can raise finance. Market makers buy and sell when markets are imbalanced, and buy and hold inventory to meet future demand. In many SME securities, market makers provide the vast majority of the liquidity, and can be the only providers of liquidity in times of stress, when other market participants may withdraw. A disproportionate regime on market makers, which is not in line with SME/less liquid market structures could have the following unintended consequences: It will cause market makers in these securities to have to increase spreads to compensate for the additional monetary risk that they take to provide the security, which will increase the cost of capital of investing in these firms for savers; Market makers could withdraw from these markets altogether which will reduce liquidity and inhibit the ability of SMEs to list and raise finance on public markets Thus, we suggest that for each legislative initiative that has been introduced or is forthcoming, there should be an assessment of its impact on SMEs and their investors. Such assessment would prevent additional barriers from being introduced for issuers and investors accessing capital markets and should help alleviate existing barriers. Cross-directorate collaboration to ensure a consistent approach towards SMEs would help foster an effective financing environment for these businesses for the longer term With this context, we make the recommendation 3 above We also note that financial intermediation is crucial to the functioning of capital markets. It allows savers to achieve diversification of their portfolios, and gives them the ability to enter/exit/switch investments through liquidity in the markets. Liquidity also enables investors to benefit from narrower spreads and reduced volatility, and consequently lower trading costs. This enables them to secure a better price, resulting in better returns on investment. Intermediation also allows companies to access a pool of capital provided by a diverse range of investors to support the growth of their businesses. Page 14 of 28

15 5.6. Strong and robust liquidity is a necessary condition for capital markets to fulfil their purpose. Liquidity is vital as it reduces the cost of capital for both investors and companies by narrowing spread costs between buy and sell prices and thus reducing costs for savers and investors; and by reducing this liquidity premium demanded by investors, it then reduces the cost of capital for companies. 11 There is an extensive body of evidence on the link between liquidity and the cost of capital for companies. Domowitz and Steil (2001) 12 estimated that a 10 per cent increase in transaction costs increases the cost of capital (as measured by the post-tax cost of equity) by between 1.4 per cent and 1.7 per cent. Research by Oxera has indicated a small firm effect, which makes SMEs more vulnerable to market illiquidity We would advise the Commission to recognise the importance of risk capital and liquidity in SME markets in particular a proportionate regime for market making is required. As mentioned in paragraph 4.15, the dedicated market maker support offered on AIM has allowed a strong network of specialist firms that facilitate access to liquidity, capital and research for these SMEs to develop. With dedicated market maker support in a transparent environment, which may not be available on a fully electronic order book, the smallest companies benefit from guaranteed liquidity. BOX 2: Liquid markets do not mean short-term markets The economic significance of liquidity is the ability of investors to realise significant stakes in a medium term time scale at realistic prices, and to do so even in turbulent market conditions. However, trading in markets is essential for this. Without liquid markets, the time horizon of savers would differ from the time horizon of corporations. This would increase the cost of capital for companies, and frustrate the use of capital in the economy for long-term investment. We would advise against using share turnover data as a measure to assess how long investors hold shares. The turnover of beneficial ownership data, instead, is a more accurate metric to use. The use of share turnover data as a proxy for average holding periods of shares is inappropriate as this metric accounts for all shares that trade, but does not represent change of beneficial ownership in a company s share register. Many registers remain reasonably fixed and stable, and only a small proportion turns over quite quickly. For example, 60 per cent of the London Stock Exchange Group s share register is owned by shareholders who have consistently held their shares for longer than three years despite the LSE having a share turnover that in the last financial year peaked at 135 per cent (suggesting an average holding period of nine months). It would, therefore, be more appropriate to consider the turnover of beneficial ownership. Initial analysis of company share registers shows that in 2011, 83 per cent of investors turned their portfolio over less than once every two years. Of that number, 20 per cent turned their portfolio less than once every four years. This shows the skewed nature of share turnover data in calculating average holding periods, and the longterm nature of many fund managers. Thus, companies can use short-term funding for long-term investment. For companies, liquid capital markets offer the diversity of longer-term and shorter-term investors with their different strategies and motivations, and a mix of domestic and international investment. This in turn lowers the cost of capital and makes it easier for companies to raise external finance (which is especially important for SMEs). 11 As a company s cost of capital is the return that investors demand for their investment in the company, it increases with costs borne by the investor which in addition to due diligence costs, includes any upfront or future taxes on investment and uncertainty over exit options. 12 Domowitz, I and Steil, B (2001), Automation, trading costs, and the structure of the securities trading industry, 13 Grant Thornton, Economic Impact of AIM and the role of fiscal incentives, September Page 15 of 28

16 RECOMMENDATION 4: Increase the consideration limit (currently at 5m) under the Prospectus Directive that triggers the requirement to produce a prospectus to make a real difference to SME fundraisings. For example under the US JOBS Act, a comparable provision increased the threshold of exempt offerings from $5m to $50m Policy should also allow SMEs to offer securities to a wider potential investor base at a lower cost. For example, The Prospectus Directive (PD) sets out the framework for companies to raise capital through the public markets. The Commission has recognised that the cost of producing a prospectus can be restrictive and overly burdensome for smaller companies (ranging from 7% to 12% for consideration levels below 10m) and is therefore disproportionate to the offer value. The additional time cost of seeking approval for the prospectus from the relevant competent authority is an additional expense on offers and can have a significant impact on the timing of transactions Thus, we suggest that increasing the consideration limit (currently at 5m) that triggers the requirement to produce a prospectus would allow smaller companies to offer securities to a wider set of investors and promote offers of securities to existing shareholders more cost effectively. It will also facilitate merger and acquisition activity amongst very small companies, helping them to gain scale and create value over the longer term. This is the focus of recommendation 4 above. RECOMMENDATION 5: The proposal to create and SME Growth Market classification under MiFID- 2 is a welcome first step to creating an attractive SME asset class for investors. However, the parameters e.g. median market capitalisation must be appropriate, and it must retain flexibility at the market operator level to cater for the varying needs of growing businesses The Commission s proposal to create a new classification for SME growth markets in MiFID II is a welcome step towards attracting a wider set of investors to small caps. Creating a distinct and separate SME market regime helps ensure that the evolution of EU financial services regulation does not adversely impact small caps, and also forms the basis for introducing new measures to improve the capital markets offering for such companies. It formally recognises the role SME markets play in the EU funding environment, providing clarity over their regulatory status, helping to lower their cost of capital, and therefore increasing market confidence The SME Growth Markets classification would: allow market operators to create a tailored regulatory framework that balances the needs of companies with appropriate investor protection principles without impacting investor confidence in Regulated Markets provide an attractive platform for smaller companies to increase their profiles with the widest range of stakeholders allow for an infrastructure and network of advisers and intermediaries to develop that understands the needs of growing companies provide a stepping stone towards Regulated Markets, allowing companies to develop public company accountability, reporting systems and governance structure However, for the proposed regime to yield these positive outcomes, flexibility must be maintained at a Member State and market operator level As the market operator of AIM and AIM Italia, we have defined the framework of these markets on the principle that one size does not fit all in the context of smaller, growing companies. Investor preferences and appropriate guidance from advisers and intermediaries, under our supervision, ensure the markets benefit smaller growing businesses. The flexibility around the size and sector of companies allowed on our SME growth markets has been critical to their success as it has allowed for suitable diversification in investor portfolios. Page 16 of 28

17 5.13. The Commission s current proposal that definition of an SME for the purposes of this regime at a threshold of 100m is inappropriate. The criteria must not be set too low as this would inadvertently cause many institutional investors and VCs to dismiss them as being too small for their mandates. This would significantly inhibit the development of the growth markets, diminish liquidity and result in many SMEs having to decide whether to apply for a listing or to return to other, less public, forms of funding. Over the long term, this would be damaging to Europe s competiveness in global financial markets and would adversely impact the growth and innovation potential of its SMEs. A higher range would be more suitable (the US JOBS Act seeks to tailor IPO requirements on the basis of a $1 bn market cap threshold - a significantly larger threshold than companies eligible for any financial assistance from the US government (for example, under the US Small Business Act)) In addition, alongside creating the separate classification it is critical that the markets are promoted to improve investor understanding of smaller companies and to encourage fund managers to adopt an investment strategy that is better adapted to smaller companies We summarise these points in recommendation 5. RECOMMENDATION 6: Ensure flexibility around the application of conflicts of interest requirements in MiFID in the context of investment research for issuers on SME markets, to improve the level of information available on quoted SMEs and profile them with investors Finally, LSEG does not believe significant changes are required to alleviate regulatory obligations for companies accessing public markets. The costs of being on a public market generally represent important investor protection measures and aim to mitigate some of the inherent risks associated with investing in earlier stage companies, although varying on a company-by-company basis. Reducing requirements on companies may result in reduced investor protection, cause a loss of investor confidence, and therefore reduce the pool of available capital for investment. Instead of assessing costs for issuers on a stand-alone basis, it is important to recognise that companies are willing to incur the costs of being on a public market as long as the benefits of being on market outweigh the costs. These benefits are measured through having a set of long term investors, regularly traded shares and an ability to raise further capital at a reasonable cost. Ultimately, this is achievable by extending the base of investors willing to invest in SMEs, and in the context of capital markets, by increasing the level daily trading in their securities Reducing information asymmetry: we agree with the Commission that policy developments should focus on ways in which the profile and visibility of quoted SMEs could be improved. One way to do this would be to make it easier for them to put copies of sponsored research or broker-written research onto their investor relations website Quoted SMEs often have to pay for investment research to ensure adequate information in the marketplace. However, due to the conflicts of interest requirements in the context of investment research under Article 13(3) of MiFID and Article 25 of the MiFID and the costly process under which the content of research reports needs to be checked and approved by an authorised investment firm, the production of high quality independent research on SMEs is currently restricted. As a result, most research is produced as marketing communication which cannot be widely distributed or generally published on a company s website Given the already limited information available on smaller companies, this inability to share research with a broad range of investors exacerbates the situation. Recommendation 6 focuses on increasing the visibility of information on quoted companies. Page 17 of 28

18 6. PRINCIPLE 3: Act to reduce the fiscal bias against equity and the cost of capital RECOMMENDATION 7: Consider measures to reduce the bias against equity through its tax treatment and incentivise the use of equity finance Tax regimes have a critical impact on investment and, as the Commission has identified, it can be a key lever to incentivise or disincentivise the use of certain channels of LTF LSEG believes that the Green Paper is right to consider the impact of tax on investment and savings. Whilst our view is that specific tax policies are best addressed at a national level, we would welcome an evidence-based assessment led by the Commission on the impact of tax policy on investment behaviour As noted in the Green Paper, LTF can be provided through both debt and equity financing, and we believe it is important both as complementary sources of financing for the economy. However, we agree with the Commission when it notes that the current tax treatment of equity in a number of Member States creates a disincentive to use equity. A number of international organisations agree with this assessment, including the IMF, OECD, Group-of-Thirty, KPMG, Grant Thornton etc It is clear that equity finance, which is often a more suitable and stable form of finance for high growth SMEs, is underused in the EU. Equity finance is often best suited to growing enterprises that require external capital prior to revenue generation and that may not be at the stage to maintain regular loan repayments. However, in the UK, only 3% of SMEs use equity whereas 55% use credit cards 14. Whilst its tax treatment is not the only reason for this, it undoubtedly increases the cost of equity for both SMEs and investors. Thus, we suggest that seeking to level the playing field between debt and equity is therefore important to boosting equity investment We suggest that the guiding principle should be not to enact any reforms that could increase the costs of capital for small businesses, and in particular removing the bias against equity when making changes. Removing the double/triple taxation of equity, offering some sort of tax deductibility on dividend payments or to an allowance for the cost of corporate equity are simple measures which may address this bias without unintended consequences The UK Government has enacted some measures to reduce this distortion. For example, the abolition of stamp duty on shares on Growth Markets like AIM and ISDX, will make equity finance more readily available 15, without increasing the cost of debt finance, a move widely supported by the industry. Research carried out by Deloitte for the London Stock Exchange has suggested that scrapping Stamp Duty and giving preferential tax treatment to AIM company dividends could together: lower the cost of capital for high-growth companies by up to 25%; increase their valuation by 32% ( 24 billion); enable these companies to facilitate the creation of up to 38,000 new jobs (a 20% increase in current employment by UK AIM companies); and be tax-neutral over the medium term We also agree with the Commission that tax deductibility of interest payments does incentivise the use of debt for funding. This problem is not unique to the EU; the extent of the bias and the adverse consequences were assessed by the IMF in The bias is affected by how the recipient of either dividends or interest is taxed, especially if they are located in lower-tax jurisdictions The case, in principle, for removing this bias is widely accepted. We think that governments should push for the case for coordinated action at an international level to address this issue, whilst recognising that policy needs to be unobtrusive to current financing arrangements and will take a long time to implement. 14 Small Firms in the Credit Crisis: Evidence from the UK Survey of SME Finances www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/wbs/research/csme/research/latest/small_firms_in_the_credit_crisis_v3-oct09.pdf/ Deloitte 17 For a good summary see Sir George Cox Review, Overcoming Short-termism within British Business, March 2013 available here Page 18 of 28

19 6.9. Thus, we think policy makers should recognise this bias, and assess if taxation treatment should be changed to attract SMEs to use equity and long-term investors back into the equities market. Reducing some of the taxes associated with investing in small caps would help attract a wider set of investors, improve liquidity and ultimately the cost of capital of EU businesses. Recommendation 7 above summarises this view. RECOMMENDATION 8: Amend the EU Risk Capital Guidelines to recognise the role of replacement capital, along with new capital, in ensuring an effective equity financing environment for startup firms We also suggest that creating a favourable fiscal framework for small cap investors is important. We suggest that the Commission should also look at the EU framework that impacts any incentives offered at a Member State level to SME risk capital providers the EU Risk Capital Guidelines On this point, we agree with the Commission that the provision of risk capital to SMEs especially in the start-up phase should be in the form of new/ initial capital. The early stage investors providing this risk capital will need to plan and execute an exit strategy, in order to generate a risk-adjusted return on investment As a business reaches the expansion phase it will seek new investors that not only provide additional capital but also an exit (or at least a partial exit) to the earlier stage investors. The ease with which a business is able to do this impacts its cost of capital and long term business success. We believe the provision of capital to replace existing investors (defined as replacement capital in the guidelines) is a critical form of risk capital for smaller companies and for ensuring the effectiveness of the financing escalator Thus, we propose, in recommendation 8, that provision of replacement capital should be permitted in the EU Risk Capital Guidelines. Page 19 of 28

20 7. PRINCIPLE 4: Offer the right incentives for investors and savers to invest in growth RECOMMENDATION 9: Stimulate investment in SMEs to widen the pool of capital available to growing businesses, by making an SME asset class attractive to investors, including retail, buy-side and companies with cash, over the longer term. We welcome the Commission s decision to further analyse the impact of the Solvency II rules on pension funds before including them within IORP. 9a. For retail investors, issue guidance on the MiFID conduct of business standards, specifically on client suitability, that seeks to encourage investment in SMEs Investor participation in the markets depends on a range of factors including investment size, risk appetite, investment horizon, understanding of the investment proposition, access route to market, and costs for investors. Our recommendations focus on addressing these factors to gain investor interest, improve liquidity and help lower the cost of capital for SMEs accessing public markets In our view, one of the key reasons for the current limited use of external LTF by SMEs and the significance of the funding gaps experienced by growing enterprises is the limited supply of willing investors. The Commission s efforts to create an integrated and efficient financing environment must seek to introduce measures that enable a wider population of investors to invest in small and mid cap companies Increasing the diversity of investors interested and able to invest in SMEs is critical to ensuring vibrant markets. A mix of institutional and retail investors allows businesses to raise significant amounts of capital on a continuing basis and provides investors with confidence in their ability to trade in and out of their investments. Thus, we would ask the Commission to focus on both institutional and retail investors, as both sources are important for the long-term financing of the EU economy. This is the focus of recommendation 9. Institutional investor issues 7.4. We believe that in order to reduce regulatory obstacles to long-term financing, EIOPA should be given the opportunity to examine the calibration of capital requirements under Solvency II; for example in relation to investment in SME Solvency II (applicable insurance funds) and any proposals to introduce similar regulation for pension funds must not place conditions that adversely impact the ability to invest in small caps. The capital and liquidity requirements under Solvency II are likely to exacerbate the tendency of institutions to only hold the largest and most liquid blue-chip equities and deter any existing appetite for smaller companies. An appropriate exemption for investment in small cap securities should be implemented The Commission may also consider exempting venture capital (VC) funds from the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (AIFMD) to encourage them to gain scale. The AIFMD does not apply to funds under 100m and is therefore not likely to impact the majority of European VC funds. However, the potential to be caught by AIFMD will deter funds from gaining scale which is ultimately needed to allow a fund to diversify and achieve attractive returns. US VC funds tend to be larger and therefore are able to back more enterprises and generate good returns. For example, Germany has only four independent VC funds > 100m compared to 227 in the US The review of UCITS directive should be used as an opportunity to identify ways to attract dedicated UCIT funds for small caps. For example, creating a new category of UCITS dedicated to investment in SME markets with specific conditions and ability to be marketed to retail investors Further suggestions on how institutional investment can be channelled in to long term financing are provided in Part C. Page 20 of 28

21 Retail investor issues 7.9. Retail investors can be critical contributors to liquidity. APCIMS, a retail investor and broker association in the UK, 18 estimates that the potential size of the untapped retail market in the UK could be as much as 20bn annually However, regulation including MiFID continues to disenfranchise these investors from participating in small and mid cap securities. For example, as a result of economic conditions, investment firms across Europe are consolidating and are increasingly adopting a passive investment approach. Recommending small and mid caps for investment requires extra due diligence on specific stocks and documentation as evidence of client suitability assessment (as mandated under MiFID). Consequently, firms are defaulting to only recommending larger company stocks where analyst research is readily available. This has caused liquidity in smaller company securities to fall, reducing the economic incentive for analysts to write research on them, thereby further reducing the liquidity and analyst coverage and exacerbating the investment flows out of these companies Further, on the debt side, retail bond exchanges, like MOT and ORB, have the potential to offer smaller companies the possibility to issue publicly traded bonds and the ability to stimulate retail investment. Sovereigns like Italy and Belgium have used retail bond markets to directly place public debt with retail investors, see box 3 below. The Commission should consider further developing electronic bond markets like ORB and MOT to tap retail investment Thus, we believe that the Commission s LTF strategy should stimulate retail investment. Recommendation 9 summarises this proposal. BOX 3: BTP Italia stimulating retail investment An example of the success of electronic bond markets stimulating retail investment for LTF was BTP Italia 4 separate issuances of 10-year Italian government debt issued using the MOT platform of the Borsa Italiana, instead of the traditional auction mechanism, directly to retail investors. The BTPs issued could be purchased at issuance not only at a bank, but also through any home-banking system equipped with an on-line trading feature. Four different BTP Italia issuances were conducted on MOT, providing retail investors an attractive middle-term investment for their savings, and raising the following amounts: March 2012: Raising 7.3 billion June 2012: Raising 1.7 billion October 2012: Raising 18.0 billion April 2013: Raising 17.0 billion 18 The Association of Private Client Investment Managers and Stockbrokers Page 21 of 28

22 RECOMENDATION 10: Recognise the use of capital markets as a tool to raise the profile and facilitate long-term investment into sustainable and responsible projects and companies. E.g. through benchmarks like FTSE ESG and portals like the Social Stock Exchange Finally, LSEG believes that capital markets offers policy markers a useful policy tool to channel investment into projects and company that are sustainable and add social value We believe that capital market portals, benchmarks, ratings etc. can perform this function - this will help develop the infrastructure of social and public markets, and increase the analyst coverage of the sector, attracting the crucial institutional and retail support it needs This is our suggestion in recommendation 9. We provide examples from two initiatives that have involved LSEG to show how this can work in practice. CASE STUDY 5 Tracking companies that do good through capital markets FTSE benchmarks 19 and the Social Stock Exchange 20 The International Energy Agency has estimated that adapting to and mitigating the effects of climate change over the next 40 years will require around USD 45 tn or around USD 1 tn a year. Capital markets can help channel investment from savers into such responsible long-term investment needs, which will make our economy sustainable and efficient in the long run. E.g. FTSE, LSEG s index provider, was involved in helping the United Nations backed international investor-led initiative, Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI), build a framework by which investors can incorporate environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) issues into their decision-making practices. In 2011, over $10.1 trillion of global assets under management tracked ESG issues; and FTSE provides benchmarks, research and analytics to facilitate this. FTSE s Responsible Investment indices include the FTSE4Good Index Series (which tracks companies on their ESG practices, and has shown a 52.3 per cent return since 2001), the FTSE Environmental Opportunities Index Series (which tracks companies providing products which offer solutions to environmental challenges and have at least 20% of their business derived from environmental markets and technologies) and the FTSE CDP Carbon Strategy Index Series (which helps incorporating climate change risk in investor s strategies) among other custom indices. FTSE4Good in numbers since 2001: 52.3% return for FTSE4Good Global Index (USD total return since launch) 288 companies deleted for failure to meet inclusion standards; 793 companies added 743 companies in the FTSE4Good Global Index at launch; 894 as of March % success rate of companies meeting new criteria with FTSE support 5 original industry exclusions (Tobacco, Weapons, Nuclear power, Infant formula, Uranium mining), now down to 2 existing industry exclusions (Tobacco and Weapons) The Social Stock Exchange (SSE), launched on 6 June 2013, is a new initiative designed to help drive investment into Social Purpose Businesses (SPBs). Launched with the support of LSEG, the SSE is the first capital markets information portal (website) to showcase publicly listed social impact businesses on EU Regulated Markets. It aims to connect investors with growth companies in the social arena, for raising capital and improving liquidity, and increase the publicity, visibility, credibility and status of SPBs with investors and advisory community. The establishment of the SSE is a key step in boosting EU s status as a home for social finance and investment. It bridges the information gap between investors and SPBs, enabling a degree of comparability previously not available It helps professional and individual investors to make better investment decisions that are aligned with their values It feeds a virtuous cycle: more information, more investment, more growth, more impact LSEG is working with the SSE to promote it to companies and to build a pipeline of future social impact businesses Page 22 of 28

23 PART C ANSWERS TO SPECIFIC QUESTIONS Q1. Do you agree with the analysis out above regarding the supply and characteristics of LTF? Q2. Do you have a view on the most appropriate definition of long-term financing? Please refer to our comments in Box 1, page 4 Q3. Given the evolving nature of the banking sector, going forward, what role do you see for banks in the channelling of financing to long-term investments? Please refer to our comments in paragraphs , page 5-6 Q6-9. Institutional Investors Please refer to our comments in paragraphs , page 20. In addition, we strongly support the setting up of a new European investment vehicle (LTIF) that specialises in long-term financing for growth, and which is easily identifiable as such by institutional investors. In order to stimulate long-term financing of strategic productive assets, we also suggest that dedicated listed investment vehicles could facilitate capital raisings across the different categories of investors, such as private, professional, institutional, households, high net worth individuals (HNWIs) and governments. We suggest that the Commission may consider the idea of platform of investment vehicles at a country level. In this way a better mix of local public and private capital could be raised. In addition, the listing of these vehicles could give access to international private capital, which gives the advantage of reaching various pools of liquidity from emerging markets, sovereign funds and sector-focused investors. The investment vehicles could include closed-end funds, investment companies, special investment vehicles, fund of funds and feeder-master funds We would suggest that the Commission should explore the idea of feeder-master funds, i.e. an arrangement in which an investment company (or fund) acts through multiple funds to achieve its investment objectives. The master fund works in conjunction with one or more feeder funds to achieve economies of scale in the investment markets. The master fund is in charge of making all of the investment decisions on behalf of the feeder fund. When profits are distributed, they go back to the feeder fund and then ultimately to the end investor. Characteristics of these funds are described below. BOX 4: Characteristics of feeder-master funds Feeder Master funds should be characterised by: Creation of a definition of flexible eligible assets, to include different kind of investment vehicles providing long term growth. The definition should be capable of capturing a wide range of different possible specialisations in this field, such as the importance of the local and territorial dimension in linking long term financing and institutional investors with a strong local network. Simplified authorisation procedure to accelerate their development and activity and to reduce costs. Creation of a product label, serving to identify the investment vehicles and that can be used also to raise funds from a broad range of entities. Favourable taxation, via lower capital gain taxation at domestic level or through guarantees provided to investors by public bodies. Though we suggest flexibility in the creation of these funds, investor protection should remain paramount and thus there should be key requirements in place, such as: A clear, detailed and transparent investment policy: o with clear and detailed guidelines on the limits and choice of investment assets and types of investors. Account to be taken of retail investors; o providing an adequate degree of diversification, for example at least three different assets, none of which should account for more than 50% of the company s total assets. o Executives and Directors with appropriate experience (e.g. at least three years) in the management of investments of the same size and type as those described in the investment policy o Corporate Governance in line with international best practices Page 23 of 28

24 Q10. Are there any cumulative impacts of current and planned prudential reforms on the level and cyclicality of aggregate long-term investment and how significant are they? How could any impact be best addressed? Please refer to our comments in paragraph page 5-6, and paragraph page 20. Q How can capital markets financing of LTF be improved in Europe? Please refer to our comments in Part B, page Q14. How could the securitisation market in the EU be revived in order to achieve the right balance between financial stability and the need to improve maturity transformation by the financial system? Q27. How could securitisation instruments for SMEs be designed? What are the best ways to use securitisation in order to mobilise financial intermediaries' capital for additional lending to SMEs? We would advise the Commission caution when considering the securitisation of SME credit obligations to tap the debt capital markets for funding. We note that some form of central guarantee and obligation for the securitisation entity to hold some equity would be key to ensure that these products are of good credit rating and suitable for all investors particularly if these products are to be marketable to investors across tranches. We also recommended that a securitisation programme may work to ease SME access to credit, so long as it is focussed and not an extremely large programme. In our view, there are other instruments e.g. retail bond issuances and equity that are more suited as sources of LTF for SMEs. Q CIT reform Please refer to our comments in paragraphs , page Q21. What kind of incentives could help promote better long-term shareholder engagement? The Green Paper discusses the idea that long term shareholders should have enhanced voting rights. LSEG does not believe that a distinction between the rights of long term and short term shareholders would be helpful. In October 2010, and following public consultation, the UK Takeover Panel decided not to change the voting rights of shareholders who acquired shares in a company after an offer had been made. This would compromise the principle of one share, one vote, as well as affect the value of shares traded during the takeover process. Any potential changes to the EU s corporate governance regime which restrict the perceived investment value of EU companies are likely to further reduce the attractiveness of equities as an investment class to the detriment of the equity market as a whole. Furthermore, it is the diversity of investment strategies (the interplay between short term and long term investors) that creates the liquidity needed for an efficient equity market. Also see Box 2, page 15 on liquidity and holding periods. Q25. Is there a need to develop specific long-term benchmarks? Refer to our comments in paragraphs and Case Study 5 Q28. Would there be merit in creating a fully separate and distinct approach for SME markets? How and by whom could a market be developed for SMEs? Refer to our comments in paragraphs page and paragraphs page ) What further steps could be envisaged, in terms of EU regulation or other reforms, to facilitate SME access to alternative sources of finance? 29) Would an EU regulatory framework help or hinder the development of this alternative non-bank sources of finance for SMEs? What reforms could help support their continued growth? Refer to our comments in Part B, page Page 24 of 28

25 Appendix 1 ELITE companies Page 25 of 28

26 Appendix 2 LSE s High Growth Segment High Growth Segment The High Growth Segment, launched in March 2013, is a new segment of London Stock Exchange s Main Market. Designed in consultation with the investor, advisory and issuer communities, the segment caters for the needs of fast-growing companies that are ultimately aspiring to be part of the Main Market s Premium segment but may not be meet all the eligibility criteria. HGS is an example of collaboration amongst market participants and the market operator to enhance the choice for high growth businesses seeking access to the UK s capital markets. Not only does the segment provide access to capital but is a platform for growth companies to increase their visibility and business profile with their stakeholders. Entry criteria for HGS A company must: be incorporated in the European Economic Area be a revenue generating, trading business demonstrate growth in revenues (on a CAGR basis) of at least 20% over three year period prior to admission have at least 10% of the number of securities admitted in public hands with a value of at least 30 million (the majority of which must be raised at admission) appoint a Key Adviser in relation to admission set out an intention to join the Listed segment of the Main Market over time We are delighted that London Stock Exchange is taking action to ensure that London s public markets are organised to help these companies fuel their growth. The UK has a world leading crop of high growth businesses, and the announcement of the High Growth Segment by LSE is an important step in creating the right environment for them to IPO in London. Greg Clark MP, Financial Secretary to HM Treasury Further information on: Page 26 of 28

27 Appendix 3 STAR and AIM Italia Page 27 of 28

Order book for Retail Bonds. Efficiency and transparency in trading bonds for private investors

Order book for Retail Bonds. Efficiency and transparency in trading bonds for private investors Order book for Retail Bonds Efficiency and transparency in trading bonds for private investors We aim to respond to private investor demand by offering a cost-effective, transparent and efficient mechanism.

More information

Heart of the world s financial markets

Heart of the world s financial markets Heart of the world s financial markets NOVEMBER 2012 Agenda 1. Order Book for Retail Bonds 2. Why do companies float in London 3. What is a REIT 4. Key changes post Finance Bill 2012 5. Routes to Market

More information

LSEG Response to Consultation Paper: ESMA s technical advice on possible delegated acts concerning the Prospectus Directive 2010/73/EU

LSEG Response to Consultation Paper: ESMA s technical advice on possible delegated acts concerning the Prospectus Directive 2010/73/EU LSEG Response to Consultation Paper: ESMA s technical advice on possible delegated acts concerning the Prospectus Directive 2010/73/EU 15 July 2011 Submitted online at: www.esma.europa.eu Executive Summary

More information

Interest Representative Register ID number: 5437826103-53. 10 August 2011. By email to: Markt-g4@ec.europa.eu. Dear Sir/Madam

Interest Representative Register ID number: 5437826103-53. 10 August 2011. By email to: Markt-g4@ec.europa.eu. Dear Sir/Madam Interest Representative Register ID number: 5437826103-53 10 August 2011 By email to: Markt-g4@ec.europa.eu Dear Sir/Madam A New European Regime for Venture Capital IMA represents the UK-based investment

More information

Green Paper of the European Commission on Long-Term Financing of the Economy

Green Paper of the European Commission on Long-Term Financing of the Economy June 2013 Green Paper of the European Commission on Long-Term Financing of the Economy Reply of NASDAQ OMX The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. delivers trading, exchange technology and public company services across

More information

Introduction to London Stock Exchange Capital Markets

Introduction to London Stock Exchange Capital Markets Introduction to London Stock Exchange Capital Markets Contents Background 02 Equity primary markets 03 Main Market 03 AIM 04 Trading services for equity securities 05 SETS 05 SETSqx 05 SEAQ 05 International

More information

HMT Discussion paper on non-bank lending

HMT Discussion paper on non-bank lending 17 February 2010 By e-mail to: non-banklending@hmtreasury.gsi.gov.uk Dear Sirs HMT Discussion paper on non-bank lending The IMA represents the UK-based investment management industry. Our members include

More information

Principles and Trade-Offs when Making Issuance Choices in the UK

Principles and Trade-Offs when Making Issuance Choices in the UK Please cite this paper as: OECD (2011), Principles and Trade-Offs when Making Issuance Choices in the UK, OECD Working Papers on Sovereign Borrowing and Public Debt Management, No. 2, OECD Publishing.

More information

Loan funds Europe s alternative source of business funding

Loan funds Europe s alternative source of business funding Loan funds Europe s alternative source of business funding Niamh Geraghty Director Audit Deloitte Matthew Foley Director Audit Deloitte Aisling Costello Senior Manager Audit Deloitte The financial crisis

More information

Listing Debt in London

Listing Debt in London Listing Debt in London 1 London, the world s financial centre The London Stock Exchange Group operates at the heart of the world s financial centre Internationally focused open market culture Leading global

More information

CORPORATE MEMBERS OF LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIPS

CORPORATE MEMBERS OF LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIPS 1. INTRODUCTION CORPORATE MEMBERS OF LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIPS 1.1 This note, prepared on behalf of the Company Law Committee of the City of London Law Society ( CLLS ), relates to BIS request for

More information

for Analysing Listed Private Equity Companies

for Analysing Listed Private Equity Companies 8 Steps for Analysing Listed Private Equity Companies Important Notice This document is for information only and does not constitute a recommendation or solicitation to subscribe or purchase any products.

More information

Public consultation on Building a Capital Markets Union

Public consultation on Building a Capital Markets Union Case Id: 6793f8c7-c6ef-45dd-8987-665fe5775337 Date: 13/05/2015 23:30:38 Public consultation on Building a Capital Markets Union Fields marked with * are mandatory. Introduction The purpose of the Green

More information

Delegations will find attached the draft Council conclusions on a Capital Markets Union, as prepared by the Economic and Financial Committee.

Delegations will find attached the draft Council conclusions on a Capital Markets Union, as prepared by the Economic and Financial Committee. Council of the European Union Brussels, 16 June 2015 (OR. en) 9852/15 EF 110 ECOFIN 473 SURE 14 UEM 223 NOTE From: To: Subject: General Secretariat of the Council Permanenet Representatives Committee (Part

More information

LONDON S ROLE IN IMPLEMENTING EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS UNION

LONDON S ROLE IN IMPLEMENTING EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS UNION LONDON S ROLE IN IMPLEMENTING EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS UNION Text of Speech by Mark Boleat, Policy Chairman, City of London Corporation, at Conference on Building a Capital Markets Union: Challenges and

More information

Order book for Retail Bonds. Listing and admitting retail bonds

Order book for Retail Bonds. Listing and admitting retail bonds Order book for Retail Bonds Listing and admitting retail bonds ORB aims to offer retail investors efficient access to an on-screen secondary market in London listed debt instruments. Order book for Retail

More information

Report of the Alternative Investment Expert Group: Developing European Private Equity

Report of the Alternative Investment Expert Group: Developing European Private Equity Report of the Alternative Investment Expert Group: Developing European Private Equity Response from The Association of Investment Trust Companies The Association of Investment Trust Companies (AITC) welcomes

More information

CONSULTATION DOCUMENT REVIEW OF THE EUROPEAN VENTURE CAPITAL FUNDS (EUVECA) AND EUROPEAN SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP FUNDS (EUSEF) REGULATIONS

CONSULTATION DOCUMENT REVIEW OF THE EUROPEAN VENTURE CAPITAL FUNDS (EUVECA) AND EUROPEAN SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP FUNDS (EUSEF) REGULATIONS EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate-General for Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union FINANCIAL MARKETS Asset management CONSULTATION DOCUMENT REVIEW OF THE EUROPEAN VENTURE CAPITAL

More information

CMU and a review of the regulatory initiatives affecting the international securities markets ICMA/NCMF Bond Market Seminar, Helsinki Martin Scheck,

CMU and a review of the regulatory initiatives affecting the international securities markets ICMA/NCMF Bond Market Seminar, Helsinki Martin Scheck, CMU and a review of the regulatory initiatives affecting the international securities markets ICMA/NCMF Bond Market Seminar, Helsinki Martin Scheck, 22 January 2015 Contents Introduction current status

More information

UK Response to the Commission Green Paper on Capital Markets Union BUILDING A STRONG CAPITAL MARKETS UNION

UK Response to the Commission Green Paper on Capital Markets Union BUILDING A STRONG CAPITAL MARKETS UNION UK Response to the Commission Green Paper on Capital Markets Union BUILDING A STRONG CAPITAL MARKETS UNION The UK welcomes the opportunity to respond to this consultation. Creating a Capital Markets Union

More information

Developing the Domestic Debt Market The South African Experience

Developing the Domestic Debt Market The South African Experience Commonwealth Secretariat Debt Management Forum Developing the Domestic Debt Market The South African Experience June 2008 Challenges for South African Debt Market 2 Challenges. Domestic debt management

More information

Mr Duisenberg discusses the role of capital markets and financing in the euro area Speech by Willem F Duisenberg, President of the European Central

Mr Duisenberg discusses the role of capital markets and financing in the euro area Speech by Willem F Duisenberg, President of the European Central Mr Duisenberg discusses the role of capital markets and financing in the euro area Speech by Willem F Duisenberg, President of the European Central Bank, at the Waarborgfonds Sociale Woningbouw in Utrecht,

More information

www.pwc.com/mn/capital-markets

www.pwc.com/mn/capital-markets www.pwc.com/mn/capital-markets Listing in London A guide to premium and standard listings of equity and flotation on AIM Capital Markets About this brochure This brochure summarises the different London

More information

APRIL 2015. Economic Impact of AIM

APRIL 2015. Economic Impact of AIM APRIL 2015 Economic Impact of AIM Foreword AIM, which is 20 years old this year, has weathered several economic storms over the past two decades, but has remained true to its core purpose of providing

More information

The UK Retail Bond Market H1 2011 Performance Update

The UK Retail Bond Market H1 2011 Performance Update 1. Introduction The UK Retail Bond Market H1 2011 Performance Update Over the last 6 months, 7 transactions have been launched in the retail bond market in the UK, raising 540 million - with a further

More information

L I S T I N G A N D A D M I T T I N G R E T A I L B O N D S. Order book for Retail Bonds

L I S T I N G A N D A D M I T T I N G R E T A I L B O N D S. Order book for Retail Bonds L I S T I N G A N D A D M I T T I N G R E T A I L B O N D S Order book for Retail Bonds Contents Introduction...3 Requirements for admission to the Order book for Retail Bonds...4 Listing and admission

More information

Public Debt and Cash Management

Public Debt and Cash Management Federation of European Accountants Federation of European Accountants Fédération Fédération des Experts des Experts comptables comptables Européens Européens Public Sector Public Debt and Cash Management

More information

Reply to the European Commission on the Green Paper on Long-Term Financing of the European Economy

Reply to the European Commission on the Green Paper on Long-Term Financing of the European Economy Milan, 25 June 2013 European Commission B- 1049 Brussel EU Identification Number 89046007765-76 Prot. N. 273 /2013 markt-consultation-long-term-financing@ec.europa.eu Reply to the European Commission on

More information

Council Conclusions on Finance for Growth and the Long-term Financing of the European Economy. ECOFIN Council meeting Brussels, 9 December 2014

Council Conclusions on Finance for Growth and the Long-term Financing of the European Economy. ECOFIN Council meeting Brussels, 9 December 2014 Council of the European Union PRESS EN COUNCIL CONCLUSIONS Brussels, 9 December 2014 Council Conclusions on Finance for Growth and the Long-term Financing of the European Economy ECOFIN Council meeting

More information

contribution to the Green Paper "Building a Capital Markets Union" (CMU)

contribution to the Green Paper Building a Capital Markets Union (CMU) Securities and Markets Stakeholder Group Date: 12 May 2015 ESMA/2015/SMSG/017 PART II - Comments on the Quick Wins contribution to the Green Paper "Building a Capital Markets Union" (CMU) The Green Paper

More information

United Kingdom: Main Market - IPO Overview

United Kingdom: Main Market - IPO Overview United Kingdom: Main Market - IPO Overview 1 Regulatory Background 1.1 Overview of Regulatory Requirements The requirements for listing on the Main Market (premium and standard) of the London Stock Exchange

More information

Building a Capital Markets Union (CMU) The AIC response to the Green Paper

Building a Capital Markets Union (CMU) The AIC response to the Green Paper Building a Capital Markets Union (CMU) The AIC response to the Green Paper CMU should seek to utilise investment companies to deliver its key objectives of securing long term investment via EU capital

More information

Investors Chronicle Roadshow 2011. Trading Bonds on the London Stock Exchange

Investors Chronicle Roadshow 2011. Trading Bonds on the London Stock Exchange Investors Chronicle Roadshow 2011 Trading Bonds on the London Stock Exchange Agenda How do bonds work? Risks associated with bonds Order book for Retail Bonds London Stock Exchange Website Tools 2 How

More information

Restoring Financing and Growth To Europe s SMEs. Jeffrey Anderson Senior Director for European Affairs (formerly)

Restoring Financing and Growth To Europe s SMEs. Jeffrey Anderson Senior Director for European Affairs (formerly) Restoring Financing and Growth To Europe s SMEs Jeffrey Anderson Senior Director for European Affairs (formerly) 1. Introduction & Report Focus 2. SMEs in Europe 3. Main Findings 4. Four sets of Impediments

More information

R A I S I N G F U N D S I N SWEDEN

R A I S I N G F U N D S I N SWEDEN R A I S I N G F U N D S I N SWEDEN Raising funds in Sweden Sweden can offer good opportunities and many ways to raise finance for businesses. The costs of establishing a Swedish limited company are low

More information

Response by Swedish authorities to the European Commission s public consultation on short selling

Response by Swedish authorities to the European Commission s public consultation on short selling Ministry of Finance Financial Institutions and Markets Fi2010/3634 10-5913 Financial Stability Department 2010-560-AFS European Commission Internal Markets and Services DG Financial Institutions markt-g3-consultations@ec.europa.eu

More information

Below is a review of the main activities undertaken in 2012, together with our annual report devoted to market data.

Below is a review of the main activities undertaken in 2012, together with our annual report devoted to market data. 28 December 2012 London Stock Exchange Group plc 10 Paternoster Square London EC4M 7LS www.londonstockexchange.com BORSA ITALIANA MARKET REVIEW - New historical highs for fixed income trading on MOT and

More information

Private banking in Italy: Holistic advisory for family-run business in an increasingly globalised environment

Private banking in Italy: Holistic advisory for family-run business in an increasingly globalised environment Private banking in Italy: Holistic advisory for family-run business in an increasingly globalised environment by Andrea Cingoli, Banca Esperia SpA The Italian private banking sector is developing a new

More information

www.pwc.ru/capital-markets Guide to listing of debt on European stock exchanges

www.pwc.ru/capital-markets Guide to listing of debt on European stock exchanges www.pwc.ru/capital-markets Guide to listing of debt on European stock exchanges 2 PwC A number of European stock exchanges have become major centres for listing debt securities. The London, Irish and Luxembourg

More information

INSIDE AIM Issue 1- December 2009

INSIDE AIM Issue 1- December 2009 INSIDE AIM Issue 1- December 2009 WELCOME TO INSIDE AIM Welcome to this first edition of Inside AIM, a periodic newsletter from the AIM Regulation team. Inside AIM is designed to keep the AIM adviser community,

More information

INVESTMENT POLICY April 2013

INVESTMENT POLICY April 2013 Policy approved at 22 April 2013 meeting of the Board of Governors (Minute 133:4:13) INVESTMENT POLICY April 2013 Contents SECTION 1. OVERVIEW SECTION 2. INVESTMENT PHILOSOPHY- MAXIMISING RETURN SECTION

More information

Opening remarks The current economic situation

Opening remarks The current economic situation Opening remarks Anneli Tuominen, Director General of Finnish Financial Supervisory Authority at the 4 th FIN-FSA Conference on EU Regulation and Supervision in Helsinki on 9 June 2015. Introduction Dear

More information

Finance for growth, the role of the insurance industry

Finance for growth, the role of the insurance industry Finance for growth, the role of the insurance industry Dario Focarelli Director General ANIA Visiting Professor, Risk Management and Insurance, 'La Sapienza' Roma Adjunct Professor, 'Tanaka Business School',

More information

Ministry of Finance Finansinspektionen Sveriges Riksbank

Ministry of Finance Finansinspektionen Sveriges Riksbank Ministry of Finance Financial Markets Department Dnr: Fi2015/04660/FMA/B Banking Dnr: 15-13707 Financial Stability Department Dnr: 2015-00579 European Commission DG Financial Stability Financial Services

More information

The Pinnacle Funds. Simplified Prospectus. December 11, 2009 Class A and Class F units and Class I units where noted. Money Market Fund.

The Pinnacle Funds. Simplified Prospectus. December 11, 2009 Class A and Class F units and Class I units where noted. Money Market Fund. The Pinnacle Funds Simplified Prospectus December 11, 2009 Class A and Class F units and Class I units where noted Money Market Fund Pinnacle Short Term Income Fund Bond Funds Pinnacle Income Fund Pinnacle

More information

Investment required: up to 400,000 (EIS pending)

Investment required: up to 400,000 (EIS pending) Web Brief New Peer-to-Peer Crowd Funding Business BFS Ref.: PF/394/045 Investment required: up to 400,000 (EIS pending) Summary Our client is a new start company, and will enter the rapidly expanding UK

More information

BlackRock is pleased to have the opportunity to respond to the FCA Discussion Paper on the use of dealing commission regime.

BlackRock is pleased to have the opportunity to respond to the FCA Discussion Paper on the use of dealing commission regime. 31 October 2014 Wholesale Conduct Policy Team Financial Conduct Authority 25 The North Colonnade Canary Wharf London E14 5HS Submitted via email to: dp14-03@fca.org.uk RE: DP 14/03: Discussion on the use

More information

A guide to London Stock Exchange trading services for equity securities

A guide to London Stock Exchange trading services for equity securities A guide to London Stock Exchange trading services for equity securities Contents Background 01 Trading services for equity securities 03 SETS 04 SETSqx 06 SEAQ 08 Criteria and process for allocating securities

More information

TRADING BONDS ON THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE A GUIDE FOR PRIVATE INVESTORS. The new electronic order book for retail bonds

TRADING BONDS ON THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE A GUIDE FOR PRIVATE INVESTORS. The new electronic order book for retail bonds TRADING BONDS ON THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE A GUIDE FOR PRIVATE INVESTORS The new electronic order book for retail bonds Contents Introduction 3 What are bonds? 3 Bond basics 4 Types of bond issuer 5 Bond

More information

discussion Paper 2014: Finance for jobs, growth and infrastructure in the EU

discussion Paper 2014: Finance for jobs, growth and infrastructure in the EU The Anglo-Italian Financial Services Dialogue discussion Paper 2014: Finance for jobs, growth and infrastructure in the EU ROME, 24 OCTOBER 2014 contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Policy Summary 4 3. Ensuring

More information

Keynote Speech, EIB/IMF Meeting, 23 October, Brussels

Keynote Speech, EIB/IMF Meeting, 23 October, Brussels Keynote Speech, EIB/IMF Meeting, 23 October, Brussels Governor Carlos Costa Six years since the onset of the financial crisis in 2008, output levels in the EU are below those observed before the crisis.

More information

AIM ITALIA SERVICE DESCRIPTION VERSION 1-3 OCTOBER 2008

AIM ITALIA SERVICE DESCRIPTION VERSION 1-3 OCTOBER 2008 AIM ITALIA SERVICE DESCRIPTION VERSION 1-3 OCTOBER 2008 Contents 1 Service description. 3 1.1 Introduction... 3 1.2 Diversifying the range of Italian growth markets... 3 1.3 Scope and readership... 3 1.4

More information

THE IMPAIRED EU SECURITISATION MARKET: CAUSES, ROADBLOCKS AND HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM

THE IMPAIRED EU SECURITISATION MARKET: CAUSES, ROADBLOCKS AND HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM THE IMPAIRED EU SECURITISATION MARKET: CAUSES, ROADBLOCKS AND HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM Introduction The securitisation market in the EU continues to be impaired. Public issuance of Asset Backed Securities

More information

Investment for charities. Good thinking. Well applied.

Investment for charities. Good thinking. Well applied. Investment for charities Good thinking. Well applied. 1 2 Balancing capital preservation and income generation Royal London Asset Management (RLAM) has around 200 charity clients from a wide variety of

More information

Web. Chapter FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND MARKETS

Web. Chapter FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND MARKETS FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND MARKETS T Chapter Summary Chapter Web he Web Chapter provides an overview of the various financial institutions and markets that serve managers of firms and investors who invest

More information

Opportunities in credit higher quality high-yield bonds

Opportunities in credit higher quality high-yield bonds Highlights > > Default rates below the long-term average > > Valuations wide of historical average in BB and B rated credit > > Despite sluggish economy, high yield can still perform well > > High yield

More information

A strong year for retail bonds

A strong year for retail bonds A strong year for retail bonds The Orderbook for Retail Bonds (ORB) opened 1 February 2010, with the aim of promoting both a transparent secondary market in bonds for retail investors as well as developing

More information

DFA INVESTMENT DIMENSIONS GROUP INC.

DFA INVESTMENT DIMENSIONS GROUP INC. PROSPECTUS February 28, 2015 Please carefully read the important information it contains before investing. DFA INVESTMENT DIMENSIONS GROUP INC. DFA ONE-YEAR FIXED INCOME PORTFOLIO Ticker: DFIHX DFA TWO-YEAR

More information

Welcome to ORB. London Stock Exchange s Order book for Retail Bonds

Welcome to ORB. London Stock Exchange s Order book for Retail Bonds Welcome to ORB s Order book for Retail Bonds Driven by investor demand Increasing private investor focus on fixed income Bond funds saw record inflows in 2009 and 2010 Strong demand from UK private client

More information

MiFID II: Impact on company financing in Belgium

MiFID II: Impact on company financing in Belgium MiFID II: Impact on company financing in Belgium Jean-Paul SERVAIS Chairman FSMA Chair ESMA Investor Protection & Intermediaries Standing Committee 25 April 2014 Overview 1. Timeline for MiFID II 2. MiFID

More information

ACCESS TO FINANCE. of SMEs in the euro area, European Commission and European Central Bank (ECB), November 2013.

ACCESS TO FINANCE. of SMEs in the euro area, European Commission and European Central Bank (ECB), November 2013. ACCESS TO FINANCE Improving access to finance is essential to restoring growth and enhancing competitiveness. Investment and innovation are not possible without adequate financing. Difficulties in accessing

More information

Public consultation on Building a Capital Markets Union COM/2015/63 green paper

Public consultation on Building a Capital Markets Union COM/2015/63 green paper Public consultation on Building a Capital Markets Union COM/2015/63 green paper Jelena Soskic European Policy Advisor jso@danskerhverv.dk phone: +32 486 03 04 53 The Danish Chamber of Commerce welcomes

More information

Impact Investing Lab Financing innovation: the role of Angel Investing

Impact Investing Lab Financing innovation: the role of Angel Investing Impact Investing Lab Financing innovation: the role of Angel Investing December 3rd, 2014 www.iban.it Entrepreneurship: a definition

More information

Monetary and Financial Aspects of Issuing Public Debt Instruments in Kuwait (1)

Monetary and Financial Aspects of Issuing Public Debt Instruments in Kuwait (1) Monetary and Financial Aspects of Issuing Public Debt Instruments in Kuwait (1) I would like to thank the Faculty of Commerce for arranging this meeting, which I hope will lead to the clarification of

More information

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING PAPER EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT. Accompanying the document. Proposal for a

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING PAPER EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT. Accompanying the document. Proposal for a EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, XXX SEC(2011) 1227 COMMISSION STAFF WORKING PAPER EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT Accompanying the document Proposal for a DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT

More information

OPINION OF THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK

OPINION OF THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK EN ECB-PUBLIC OPINION OF THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK of 24 January 2012 on a guarantee scheme for the liabilities of Italian banks and on the exchange of lira banknotes (CON/2012/4) Introduction and legal

More information

BUSINESS FINANCING IN TANZANIA (CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES)

BUSINESS FINANCING IN TANZANIA (CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES) BUSINESS FINANCING IN TANZANIA (CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES) 1 The Agenda Why long term financing? The current status and existing alternatives Challenges of raising long term capital in Tanzania Capital

More information

(Legislative acts) REGULATIONS

(Legislative acts) REGULATIONS 24.3.2012 Official Journal of the European Union L 86/1 I (Legislative acts) REGULATIONS REGULATION (EU) No 236/2012 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 14 March 2012 on short selling and

More information

An Alternative Way to Diversify an Income Strategy

An Alternative Way to Diversify an Income Strategy Senior Secured Loans An Alternative Way to Diversify an Income Strategy Alternative Thinking Series There is no shortage of uncertainty and risk facing today s investor. From high unemployment and depressed

More information

M&G HIGH INCOME INVESTMENT TRUST P.L.C

M&G HIGH INCOME INVESTMENT TRUST P.L.C This document is issued by M&G Securities Limited as the alternative investment fund manager (AIFM) of M&G High Income Investment Trust PLC (the "Company") solely in order to make certain information available

More information

ETFs for private investors

ETFs for private investors ETFs for private investors Simple products. Sophisticated strategies. ETFs Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) are instruments which track an index. Indices can be country or region specific and based on emerging

More information

The EMU and the debt crisis

The EMU and the debt crisis The EMU and the debt crisis MONETARY POLICY REPORT FEBRUARY 212 43 The debt crisis in Europe is not only of concern to the individual debt-ridden countries; it has also developed into a crisis for the

More information

Q3 INTERIM MANAGEMENT STATEMENT Presentation to analysts and investors. 28 October 2014

Q3 INTERIM MANAGEMENT STATEMENT Presentation to analysts and investors. 28 October 2014 INTERIM MANAGEMENT STATEMENT Presentation to analysts and investors 28 October HIGHLIGHTS FOR THE FIRST NINE MONTHS OF Continued successful execution of our strategy and further improvement in financial

More information

With interest rates at historically low levels, and the U.S. economy showing continued strength,

With interest rates at historically low levels, and the U.S. economy showing continued strength, Managing Interest Rate Risk in Your Bond Holdings THE RIGHT STRATEGY MAY HELP FIXED INCOME PORTFOLIOS DURING PERIODS OF RISING INTEREST RATES. With interest rates at historically low levels, and the U.S.

More information

Basel Committee on Banking Supervision

Basel Committee on Banking Supervision Basel Committee on Banking Supervision Liquidity coverage ratio disclosure standards January 2014 (rev. March 2014) This publication is available on the BIS website (www.bis.org). Bank for International

More information

UK Fair and Effective Markets Review January 2015

UK Fair and Effective Markets Review January 2015 UK Fair and Effective Markets Review January 2015 LSEG Response to the UK Fair and Effective Markets Review EXECUTIVE SUMMARY London Stock Exchange Group plc (LSEG) welcomes the opportunity to respond

More information

SURVEY OF INVESTMENT REGULATION OF PENSION FUNDS. OECD Secretariat

SURVEY OF INVESTMENT REGULATION OF PENSION FUNDS. OECD Secretariat SURVEY OF INVESTMENT REGULATION OF PENSION FUNDS OECD Secretariat Methodological issues The information collected concerns all forms of quantitative portfolio restrictions applied to pension funds in OECD

More information

EAST AYRSHIRE COUNCIL CABINET 21 OCTOBER 2009 TREASURY MANAGEMENT ANNUAL REPORT FOR 2008/2009 AND UPDATE ON 2009/10 STRATEGY

EAST AYRSHIRE COUNCIL CABINET 21 OCTOBER 2009 TREASURY MANAGEMENT ANNUAL REPORT FOR 2008/2009 AND UPDATE ON 2009/10 STRATEGY EAST AYRSHIRE COUNCIL CABINET 21 OCTOBER 2009 TREASURY MANAGEMENT ANNUAL REPORT FOR 2008/2009 AND UPDATE ON 2009/10 STRATEGY Report by Executive Head of Finance and Asset Management 1 PURPOSE OF REPORT

More information

Exchange Traded Funds. Reasons to Consider. For professional clients only

Exchange Traded Funds. Reasons to Consider. For professional clients only Exchange Traded Funds Reasons to Consider For professional clients only Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) have been designed to provide low-cost and transparent access to the world s markets, combining the

More information

Supervisory Statement SS18/13. Recovery planning. December 2013. (Last updated 16 January 2015)

Supervisory Statement SS18/13. Recovery planning. December 2013. (Last updated 16 January 2015) Supervisory Statement SS18/13 Recovery planning December 2013 (Last updated 16 January 2015) Prudential Regulation Authority 20 Moorgate London EC2R 6DA Prudential Regulation Authority, registered office:

More information

Guidelines for public debt management

Guidelines for public debt management 2016 Guidelines for public debt management 2016 Public Debt Management Guidelines Contents FOREWORD... 3 2016 ISSUANCE PROGRAMME AND DEBT MANAGEMENT... 4 Preliminary considerations... 4 ISSUANCE PROGRAMME

More information

Improving access to finance for small and medium-sized enterprises

Improving access to finance for small and medium-sized enterprises Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General Department for Business, Innovation & Skills and HM Treasury Improving access to finance for small and medium-sized enterprises HC 734 SesSIon 2013-14 1 November

More information

Where to List Bonds Issued in the International Markets by Asian Corporates?

Where to List Bonds Issued in the International Markets by Asian Corporates? May 2012 BRIEFING NOTE Where to List Bonds Issued in the International Markets by Asian Corporates? Introduction In this briefing note we highlight some of the factors which determine the choice of listing

More information

General Government Debt

General Government Debt 2 Government Debt 2.1 Revenues from taxation and other charges represent the primary source of State funding, but the State also borrows substantially to supplement annual funding. This report outlines

More information

List of provisions for consumer protection

List of provisions for consumer protection List of provisions for consumer protection Type of provision Lending platforms Equity and/or Debt platforms Maximum amount of investment for 40.000 Euro 20.000 Euro consumers on the platform Maximum frequency

More information

Retail Bond Conference

Retail Bond Conference Retail Bond Conference Brown Shipley 20 February 2013 Wealth well managed Not to be circulated to Retail Investors Today s Speakers Gillian Walmsley Michael Dyson Kevin Doran Head of Fixed Income Products

More information

Response to European Commission Consultation Document on Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities ( UCITS )

Response to European Commission Consultation Document on Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities ( UCITS ) Association for Financial Markets in Europe Response to European Commission Consultation Document on Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities ( UCITS ) 24 October 2012 The Association

More information

Hedge funds: Improving disclosure

Hedge funds: Improving disclosure REGULATORY GUIDE 240 Hedge funds: Improving disclosure October 2013 About this guide This guide is for those involved in the issue and sale of hedge funds. It sets out our guidance for improved disclosure

More information

GREEN PAPER. Building a Capital Markets Union. {SWD(2015) 13 final}

GREEN PAPER. Building a Capital Markets Union. {SWD(2015) 13 final} EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 18.2.2015 COM(2015) 63 final GREEN PAPER Building a Capital Markets Union {SWD(2015) 13 final} EN EN Foreword The Commission's priority Europe's priority is jobs and growth.

More information

Finance for Business Growth

Finance for Business Growth Finance for Business Growth A Presentation by Clive Lewis, Head of Enterprise, Institute of Chartered Accountants in England & Wales (ICAEW) Finance for Growth Businesses Presentation will cover: Do you

More information

The Bermuda Stock Exchange

The Bermuda Stock Exchange The Bermuda Stock Exchange Foreword This Memorandum has been prepared for the assistance of anyone who requires information about the Bermuda Stock Exchange. It deals in broad terms with the Bermuda Stock

More information

AIB Group (UK) p.l.c. Highlights of 2015 Business and Financial Performance. For the year ended 31 December 2015. Company number: NI018800

AIB Group (UK) p.l.c. Highlights of 2015 Business and Financial Performance. For the year ended 31 December 2015. Company number: NI018800 AIB Group (UK) p.l.c. Highlights of 2015 Business and Financial Performance For the year ended 31 December 2015 Company number: NI018800 Contents Page Financial and Business review 1. 2015 Performance

More information

A Guide to Capital Markets YOUR ROUTE TO THE HEART OF GLOBAL FINANCE

A Guide to Capital Markets YOUR ROUTE TO THE HEART OF GLOBAL FINANCE A Guide to Capital Markets YOUR ROUTE TO THE HEART OF GLOBAL FINANCE Contents London the place to raise capital 3 The world s capital market 5 Benefits of joining our markets 7 Cost effective, efficient

More information

A new electricity market for Northern Ireland and Ireland from 2016 - Integrated Single Electricity Market (I-SEM)

A new electricity market for Northern Ireland and Ireland from 2016 - Integrated Single Electricity Market (I-SEM) A new electricity market for Northern Ireland and Ireland from 2016 - Integrated Single Electricity Market (I-SEM) Non-technical summary High level design Draft Decision Paper SEM -14-047 June 2014 1 INTRODUCTION

More information

Consultation Paper CP11/16 Underwriting standards for buy-tolet mortgage contracts

Consultation Paper CP11/16 Underwriting standards for buy-tolet mortgage contracts Consultation Paper CP11/16 Underwriting standards for buy-tolet mortgage contracts March 2016 Prudential Regulation Authority 20 Moorgate London EC2R 6DA Prudential Regulation Authority, registered office:

More information

Response to Commission Consultation Document: Review of the European Venture Capital Funds (EuVECA) and European Social Entrepreneurship Funds (EuSEF)

Response to Commission Consultation Document: Review of the European Venture Capital Funds (EuVECA) and European Social Entrepreneurship Funds (EuSEF) Irish Funds 10th Floor, One George s Quay Plaza, George s Quay, Dublin 2, Ireland. t: +353 (0) 1 675 3200 f: +353 (0) 1 675 3210 e: info@irishfunds.ie w: irishfunds.ie Submitted via online questionnaire,

More information

Wholesale Financial Markets:

Wholesale Financial Markets: Wholesale Financial Markets: What are they and why are they useful? Key Messages Wholesale Financial Markets connect investors and issuers, thereby providing high value financial services to medium and

More information

SETTING THE STANDARD FOR EXCELLENCE. A guide to the Main Market

SETTING THE STANDARD FOR EXCELLENCE. A guide to the Main Market SETTING THE STANDARD FOR EXCELLENCE A guide to the Main Market The Main Market is the global listing environment of choice for established, ambitious companies. CONTENTS Main Market: the market of choice

More information

Non-Government-Guaranteed Bonds in the Petroleum Fund - NBIM

Non-Government-Guaranteed Bonds in the Petroleum Fund - NBIM Page 1 of 7 Non-Government-Guaranteed Bonds in the Petroleum Fund From 2002, the Government Petroleum Fund will be investing a large portion of the portfolio in non-government bonds. The benchmark index

More information