1 English Teaching: Practice and Critique May, 2010, Volume 9, Number 1 Using a studio-based pedagogy to engage students in the design of mobile-based media JAMES M. MATHEWS Middleton Cross Plains Area School District, USA University of Wisconsin, USA ABSTRACT: The article presents a brief overview of the Neighborhood Game Design Project, a studio-based curriculum intervention aimed at engaging students in the design of place-based mobile games and interactive stories using geo-locative technologies (e.g., GPS enabled cell phones). It describes the three curricular components that defined the project, then highlights how a studio method was used to guide students design work and develop their design literacies. In particular, the article focuses on one of the main design activities students engaged in collaboratively designing an Augmented Reality 1 simulation and explores how the embedded design practices align with a socio-cultural view of literacy (Gee, 2004; Jenkins, Purushotma, Clinton, Weigel, & Robison, 2006; Lankshear and Knobel, 2007; Robison, 2009). KEYWORDS: mobile media, place-based learning, design thinking, studiobased pedagogy INTRODUCTION Design and design thinking have been forwarded as central components of what it means to be literate in the 21 st Century. This view of literacy does not diminish the importance of reading and writing as core literacies, but instead, emphasizes that literacy involves the active and dynamic Design of new meanings via the reorganization of available resources (Kress, 2003; New London Group, 1996). From a broad perspective, a literacy rooted in design suggests that students should be capable of collaboratively and creatively designing solutions to complex, open-ended problems. In this light, design literacy implies more than simply engaging students in the production of media products. Instead, it also entails cultivating an ethos built around participation, collaboration and distributed expertise (Lanskshear & Knobel, 2007, Jenkins, Purushotma, Clinton, Weigel, & Robison, 2006), nurturing students identity(-ies) as designers, and developing their ability to think like designers (Gee, 2007, Games & Squire, 2008). Teaching students to think like designers, however, requires a reworking of traditional approaches towards literacy education, and arguably, education as a whole. Not only does it require re-conceptualizing what it means to be literate, it also requires new forms of teaching and learning, including a shift from the transmission models of instruction that dominate many schools, towards more student-centered pedagogies that allow students to participate in design communities in a way that positions them as producers of knowledge and active 1 AR games, which are played on GPS-equipped cell phones and handheld computers, allow students to navigate the real world, while tracking their location on a map that appears on their mobile device. When they reach specific real-world locations, in addition to seeing what is around them, students can also use their mobile devices to view photos, videos, and other documents that add to or augment reality. Copyright 2009, ISSN
2 designers of their own social futures (New London Group, 1996, Kalantzis & Cope, 2005). Research related to design education suggests that a studio-based pedagogy is one method for cultivating students identities as designers, developing their conceptual understanding of design and the design process, and fostering their design thinking (Kuhn, 1998; Cox, Harrison, & Hoadley, 2009; Schön, 1983, Kafai, 1995). The design studio method of teaching stems from architectural education, but has more recently been applied to a range of disciplines, including game and software design (Kuhn, 1998; Cox, Harrison, & Hoadley, 2009). While there is no single model for organizing a design studio, Kuhn (1998, p. 65), a proponent of using a studio pedagogy to teach design, outlines the core components of the studio method as: (1) project-based work on complex and open-ended problems; (2) rapid iteration of design solutions; (3) frequent formal and informal critique; (4) consideration of heterogeneous issues; (5) the use of precedent and thinking about the whole; (6) the creative use of constraints; and (7) the central importance of design media. In this context, a major goal is to guide students through the design process, while simultaneously teaching them about design. As a secondary level teacher who teaches in an interdisciplinary language arts and social studies classroom, I have a history of using a studio-based pedagogy to guide my students learning. While I have applied a studio method in the past to engage students in documentary filmmaking, photography, and digital storytelling, this article presents my experience piloting the Neighborhood Game Design Project (NGDP), a studio-based curriculum intervention aimed at engaging students in the design of place-based mobile games and interactive stories using geo-locative technologies (e.g., GPS enabled cell phones). The project is part of a larger body of research I have been conducting in collaboration with Mark Wagler and Kurt Squire at the Local Games Lab 2, that explores the use of mobile media to support place-based learning (Mathews & Squire, 2009). THE NEIGHBORHOOD GAME DESIGN PROJECT (NGDP) Along with Mark Wagler, who served as a co-researcher, teacher and designer in residence, I piloted the NGDP with 12 eleventh and twelfth-grade students enrolled in my community studies course, titled People, Places, and Stories. Traditionally, students in this course conduct research on local issues and design media texts (e.g., photo exhibits, documentaries and digital stories) to communicate their findings and personal perspectives. The NGDP expanded on these past experiences in two important ways. One, it introduced mobile media into the learning ecology in a way that explicitly sought to leverage the unique affordances of mobile devices to support students community investigations, and two, it engaged students in the design of mobile-based games and simulations. The NGDP included three major curricular components that unfolded over sixty hours: a place-based inquiry component, where students used mobile media to identify and investigate contested places and issues in their city; a game design 2 The Local Games Lab is a research lab affiliated with the University of Wisconsin.
3 component, where students individually and collaboratively designed games using mobile devices; and an Augmented Reality design component, where the entire class collaboratively researched a community issue and then designed a GPS-based simulation to teach other students and community members about the issue. As mentioned, a key goal that cut across these components was a desire to foster students design thinking. In part, this included developing their understanding of design by engaging them in interpreting and analyzing designs (e.g., designed spaces/places and games) and engaging them in the design process. Throughout the project we attempted to cultivate a learning environment that situated students understanding of the design process around authentic design problems and practices and cultivated a culture of participation. We also attempted to develop strategies that nurtured students individual and collective identity(-ies) as designers and balanced individual autonomy with group interdependence and shared design goals. Place-based Inquiry Component During the place-based inquiry workshop, students used the built-in features of mobile devices (e.g., audio recording, text messaging, GPS, cameras) and off the shelf software to investigate their city as a designed place. In order to introduce students to this concept and scaffold their initial investigations, we developed a simulation that invited them to role-play as consultants hired by the city to locate contested places and issues within the downtown area. As they walked around town in pairs, looking for, observing, and analyzing contested places, the students used mobile devices to conduct interviews, take photos, access just-in-time information, and record notes. While they were given permission to explore the small downtown area on their own, without direct supervision, we remained in contact with them (and vice versa) as needed via text messages, face-to-face conversations and s. While some students primarily used pen and paper to document their investigation, others relied more heavily on their mobile devices. For example, some students used GPSbased mapping applications on their mobile devices to geo-tag, organize and map their images and notes. Because this was not a requirement, however, students who chose this method did so based on their own interests, prior knowledge and motivation. This approach aligned with two key features of the project: (1) to develop activities that could be completed using a range of technologies from low-fi (e.g., paper maps) to hi-fi (e.g., mobile-based mapping software), and (2) to provide students choice in how they decided to gather information and represent their thinking. After spending several hours in the field, the students returned to City Hall, where they compiled their observations onto a large group map and met with the City Manager. Students then reported their findings. During their presentations the students used their mobile phones to share photos and audio interviews in order to communicate their arguments and share their evidence. The goal of these activities was multifaceted, and included: (1) exploring how the unique affordances of mobile media - particularly those related to their mobility/portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, and connectivity - might be used to support collaboration, communication, data collection, and documentation; (2) sparking students interest in doing place-based investigations and introduce them to people, places, and issues they could refer back to later in the project; (3) providing students with a direct avenue for
4 communicating with a city official whose job includes city planning; and (4) encouraging students to begin thinking of their neighborhood, school, and city as designed places and systems. The City Manager helped frame the students thinking by discussing some of the design challenges he deals with on a daily basis. He also used the students examples and questions to promote the idea that a major part of design is making choices based on available data, and that very often, there is no perfect solution to a design problem. Figure 1: Students investigating contested issues and places in their community. Figure 2: Students discussing questions and ideas related to the redesign of the city with the City Administrator. Mobile Game Design Component During this component students critiqued and redesigned mobile games that we created, and designed their own games. A major aim of these activities was to develop students basic understanding of games as designed systems and begin to engage them in the design process. While this component was primarily organized around engaging students in the design of their own games, woven throughout this process were discussions aimed at developing students conceptual understanding of games, design,
5 and the design process. Specific to the design process, we focused on design constraints, iterative design cycles, and effective critique/feedback. From a game design perspective, we focused on developing students understanding of games as a dynamic system of interconnected elements (e.g., goals, characters, game space) that can be manipulated in order to shape game play. We also emphasized the central importance of rules and explored the relationship between rules and the different types of play they create (Salen, 2007, Salen and Zimmerman, 2004). Throughout the project, but especially during this component, we made a conscious effort to link students prior knowledge and interest in games, with the concepts we were studying. Figure 3: Students engaged in a game critique session. Figure 4: Students beta testing a mobile game during the game design component.
6 Augmented Reality Simulation Design Component During the Augmented Reality game design workshop students used studio time to play several pre-designed AR games and collaboratively and iteratively design their own AR simulation aimed at teaching others about a contested issue in the local community. As part of the design process, students brainstormed design ideas, learned how to use the required technologies (e.g., handheld computers, mobile-based software tools, the AR game editor and engine), developed prototypes, engaged in critique/feedback sessions, and piloted a beta-version of their simulation. After first brainstorming, and then discussing potential topics, the students decided they wanted to learn more about a recent proposal to redesign the local nature conservancy. A key feature of the proposal called for paving one of the main paths that cut through the conservancy an option that many of the students disagreed with. In addition to feeling a sense of ownership over the path, in part because it runs adjacent to the school, many students believed that the city was moving forward with the paving despite strong public opinion against it. They also felt that other students would be interested in the topic and that an AR simulation would provide an experience that would raise students awareness about the issue and contribute to the debate. In the end, the students intuition and timing was excellent. To begin, their belief that other students would be interested in this issue proved insightful and accurate. In addition, because the path was near the school, it made it easier to integrate field research into the school day. Finally, the public debate became quite heated while the project was in progress, which resulted in a flurry of newspaper articles and opinion pieces, blog postings, and robust city council meetings that students mined in order to create their final design. Figure 5: Students composing and editing game text.
7 Figure 6: Students designing a mock-up of the final AR simulation. To Pave or Not to Pave: An Augmented Reality simulation Students used what they learned from their initial place-based inquiry in combination with their emerging understanding of design and the design process to collaboratively produce an Augmented Reality simulation that can be played on Windows-based mobile devices 3. The simulation requires players to physically walk along the path in order to learn more about the debate surrounding the redesign of the conservancy. As part of this experience, players encounter virtual characters who share different, and often competing perspectives on the issue. For example, players meet a scientist who shares some scientific data and then presents his own professional opinion, as well as bikers, runners and other recreational users, who each share their own personal stories and opinions. These virtual characters, who appear via a combination of video, audio, written text and photographic images, all represent authentic arguments and perspectives that were expressed by individuals in the community. In some cases, they are even based on real people who the students interviewed or read about as part of their research. In addition to meeting virtual characters, the players also use the mobile devices to gather additional data, including historical images, water quality measurements and bird migration figures that further help them frame the debate. They are also directed to make observations and interact with real people they meet along the path (e.g., walkers, bikers, birders). As part of the design process, students produced all of the game content (e.g., game text, photos, videos, audio clips, HTML files, etc.) and organized it into a coherent narrative. To guide their design, the students (with our help) negotiated some additional design goals: (1) balance the physical space, game text, the number of virtual characters, and the amount of text in a way that allowed the simulation to flow well; (2) engage the players with the physical environment (i.e., they did not simply want the player to walk around looking at the screen); and (3) present the issue in a 3 The AR software and authoring tools they used (i.e., the game engine and editor) were developed by Eric Klopfer and his colleagues at the MIT Scheller Teacher Education Program. The software can be accessed via their website, which is
8 balanced manner. This last goal resulted in a minor debate, because there was some disagreement over whether or not the simulation should be activist or persuasive in nature, particularly given that it was being designed for use in a school setting. This emergent design challenge provided an opportunity to discuss issues related to representation, the goals of schooling, forms of activism, and documentary media, etc. Designing the AR simulation, including learning more about the conservancy and conducting research into the multiple perspectives surrounding the redesign, required students to work across multiple modes of representation and use a range of literacies. In addition to authoring the game and the embedded media, the students also produced planning/design documents; created, distributed, and analyzed surveys; composed and read s; wrote in their journals; conducted interviews; and did Internet and field research. In order to write the game text they also read newspaper articles, weblogs, and city council minutes, then pulled the key ideas from these texts and rewrote them as dialog events (i.e., the text that the virtual characters said when players encountered them in the conservancy). As part of this process, student used a range of digital technologies, both those specific to the medium (e.g., the handheld computers and AR authoring tools) and those required for collaboration, communication, and media production (e.g., , text messaging, Google Documents, photo and video editing tools). Perhaps most importantly, through all of this, the students engaged in and developed the literacy practices required to interact and learn in a participatory design community. THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT A normal class period during the project (90-minute block) included a combination of the following: (1) Large-group (face-to-face) check-in at the start of class. This usually occurred at the school, but on occasion took place in a community setting. This time was used for large group presentations and discussions related to the concepts we were studying and as an avenue for sharing individual and group progress; (2) Individual and small group research where students either left the school building to conduct field work that was relevant to their design(s) (e.g., conducting interviews, taking photos, making observations, testing prototypes) or worked in the studio space. During field excursions, students used mobile devices (both their own and ones supplied by the project) to receive additional quests, collaborate, gather and share data, and report on their progress; and (3) Large and small-group critique and debriefing sessions where students shared works in progress and participated in formal critiques. As mentioned previously, these curricular activities were implemented using a studiobased pedagogy. It is important to note that, despite our emphasis on mobility and the use of mobile devices, a central design space and consistent design rituals (e.g., journaling, group discussion, critiques) were core to the studio/learning experience. Table 1 highlights some of the key components of the studio method as we applied it in this context.
9 Physical studio space Table 1: Key components of the NGDP design studio. The flexible and modular design of the studio space allowed for fluid movement between large and small group work configurations. Additionally, the technological resources students needed (e.g., laptops, digital cameras, and mobile devices) were easily accessible, so they could be used to access just in time information or complete emergent design tasks. Because students were often dispersed across physical space (e.g., during their community-based fieldwork), face-to-face meetings provided opportunities to maintain group cohesion, disseminate information, and answer questions. Opening circles These large group openings served as project meetings where we shared our progress, asked and answered questions, discussed challenges and successes, etc. Physical design board Design task cards Distributed knowledge The design board served as a central location where students posted and collectively organized their individual work into a coherent whole. We also used the design board to share resources and ideas with each other and keep track of design tasks that needed to be completed. The design board also served as a site for emergent design conversations (Cox, Harrison, & Hoadley, 2009) In order to help manage the workflow, we kept track of tasks that needed to be completed via Design Task Cards. As new design needs emerged we developed cards and posted them to the design board. For example, when students authoring the final version of an AR game via the game editor realized they needed a new photograph or video clip, someone wrote-up a design task ticket and posted it to the Design Order Board. Other students, in turn, grabbed the ticket, completed the design task, and delivered the final product to the editors. This system helped us balance the need for differentiated scaffolding and the desire to provide students with opportunities to generate their own learning trajectories. Within this system, students who preferred a specific task could select a card, while those who wanted to follow a particular interest or needed less structure could more autonomously organize and manage their own learning. The mobile devices helped with this process in that students could easily share images, audio recordings, etc. via the phones. In addition, they allowed communication back and forth between the designers in the studio and the students doing fieldwork. While all of the students were expected to develop an understanding of the core concepts we were studying (e.g., contested places, iterative design, etc.), not all of them were expected to develop the same knowledge or progress at the same rate. Instead, we cultivated islands of expertise (Crowley & Jacobs, 2002) where individual students developed expertise around a particular concept or skill as the need arose. This helped cultivate a collaborative learning environment, where students not only helped teach each other, but also became
10 dependent on one another for the success of their individual and collective designs (Squire, DeVane, & Durga, 2008). It also opened up space for students to follow their own interests and design their own learning trajectories. Design journals In addition to text messages, s, and face-to-face conversations, we used design journals as an avenue for maintaining an ongoing dialog with students. Design journals proved important in that they allowed us to gauge students conceptual understanding, check-in on their progress, and answer emergent questions. They also provided a space for students to reflect on their progress and set design goals. Critique sessions Authentic practices and designs Dispersed community Design charettes The critique sessions were attached to redesign activities that reinforced the concept and practice of iterative design cycles. Because they made transparent students understanding of design and the design process, critique sessions also provided an opportunity to assess students understanding of the underlying concepts we were studying. These sessions also helped cultivate collaboration between students and provided an opportunity to discuss and practice different types of critique. While the studio was not meant to mirror a professional design studio, the students work revolved around authentic tasks e.g., they investigated authentic issues in their community, engaged in authentic design activities and Discourses (Gee, 2004), and designed media that was, and will continue to be shared beyond the classroom. Perhaps more importantly, the students themselves perceived the project as an authentic experience because: (1) they felt their investigations and design work were relevant to the community, (2) there was a real audience, (3) they felt it prepared them for both future learning endeavors and more closely resembled a work environment than a school environment, and (4) they got to leave the school building and take on different identities (e.g., consultant, photographers) as they interacted with the community. We made efforts to facilitate and encourage students to make connections to people and resources outside of the classroom. In some cases we brought people into the classroom, and at other times students located their own resources, via online and face-to-face networks. The ability to cultivate these networks is consistent with Gee s (2004) argument that there are three types of design that reap large rewards in the New Capitalism: the ability to design new identities, affinity spaces, and networks (p.97). Short design charettes were utilized throughout the project as a way to explore a particular concept (e.g., iterative design, design constraints). They were also used to break up the flow of the class and provide avenues for teambuilding.
11 Figure 7: Student adding content to the design board. Figure 8: Students alpha testing the final AR simulation in the field. REFLECTIONS ON THE PILOT As our first implementation of the NGDP, this pilot allowed us to experience in situ some of the unique challenges and opportunities that might (and in our case did) emerge when a studio-based pedagogy is used to engage students in the design of mobile-based media. The following discussion points, which are based on observations, analysis of students designed artifacts, and post interviews, highlight some of the initial themes that emerged during the implementation. They are intended as discussion points to guide the design of our next iteration of the project and should be viewed as preliminary observations, rather than formal research results.
12 Design Studio Pedagogy As mentioned previously, the studio setting, in combination with the complex, distributed nature of the design tasks led to the development of particular areas of expertise (related to both content, design and technology use) within the group. These centers of expertise (Squire, DeVane, & Durga, 2008), which were built around students interests and prior experiences, helped cultivate a collaborative learning environment, and provided opportunities for students to use and develop pre-existing literacies within a new context. Students were motivated by the fact that others used/played their designs. Designing for an authentic audience deepened the design experience, increased students engagement levels, and motivated them to care about the quality of their work. While they expressed this sentiment in their post interviews, it was also evident in their conversations and behaviors leading up to the initial pilot of their AR simulation. As expected, a major balancing act throughout the project was maintaining a steady workflow that allowed students to work semi-autonomously, while providing enough support to those who needed additional guidance and feedback. For example, some of the students initially struggled to conceptualize, organize, and manage their own projects. Because most of the students adapted quickly to the environment, we were able to spend additional time working with those who needed additional support. Because the studio method presented a learning ecology that differed from their typical school experience, many students initially found it difficult to acclimate to the studio setting. This is not surprising considering that inhabiting the studio (at least as we envisioned it) required new behaviors, practices, identities, etc. Engaging students in dialog about these changes served as an avenue for discussing the design of the class on a meta-level, and as a way for us to explicitly state our expectations. Importantly, as the project progressed, students demonstrated more autonomous learning behaviors, worked more collaboratively, took more responsibility for the success of the learning environment, and both exhibited and reported higher levels of selfefficacy. Mobile Media Using mobile media as tools for inquiry and developing mobile games provided opportunities for students to engage in a range new media practices. It also provided opportunities for students to use mobile media as investigative tools and develop the literacies required to use geo-locative technologies for learning, gaming, and storytelling. Inviting students to use mobile media allowed us to more easily engage them in meaningful dialog about the use of these devices, both in and outside of school. These conversations ranged from concerns over the increased ability for mobile service providers to collect personal data to school policies regarding cell phone use.
13 Design Using mobile media supported our goal of getting students out of the physical classroom in order to engage in place-based learning activities. In doing so, students engaged in new literacy practices, took on new identities, and thought more broadly about how mobile technologies might be used to alter the way people interact with each other and their local community. Consistent with previous research related to students designing games (Cox, Harrison, & Hoadley, 2009; Games & Squire, 2008; Kafai, 1995; Kuhn, 1998; Shelton, 2009), we found that studying and developing mobile games and simulations recruited students experience and expertise as gamers and increased their motivation to engage in the design process. This was important in that it increased the likelihood that they would sustain their involvement in the project and fight through some of the less interesting tasks associated with designing media. For many of the students this included doing more reading (of written language texts) and more writing than usual. With that said, students were more motivated to write and edit game text, than to write planning documents, such as outlines and proposals. Design and inquiry were both recurring and consistent themes throughout the project. In fact, we often reflected on the design studio itself (and the embedded curriculum) as a designed environment that was open to critique and iterative refinement. For example, we openly talked about the design choices we made as facilitators when designing the studio experience and associated learning activities. In turn, the students critiqued these designs and made suggestions for future iterations. By inviting students to critique our designs (including the learning environment as a whole), we hoped to model the design process, engage students in design discourses, cultivate a culture of experimentation and critique, and responsively alter and improve the design of the studio and curriculum to better meet their needs. Many students referenced this goal in their journals and exit interviews and said that these ongoing discussions made them feel like they had some control over creating the learning environment and determining the learning activities. The students entered the project with limited formal design experiences. As a result, most of them were new to using design vocabulary and basic design strategies (such as mockups, rapid prototyping, and iterative design cycles) to plan and evaluate their designs. However, engaging students in professionallike design practices helped develop their situated understanding of the academic varieties of language that designers use. This also provided them with design experiences that fostered an embodied understanding of design and the design process (Gee, 2004). For many of the students, this was their first experience designing something as an entire class. As such, the design studio also served as an initial model for engaging in a design community. The AR design experience provided a space for students to investigate local issues and share their own perspectives. By making a game about an issue that was important to them and included their voices, the students felt like they were able to push back against the city. It also gave them an opportunity to
14 perform new identities and interact with their community in new ways. At the same time, by engaging in the design process, students also realized that the issue was much more complex than they had originally thought. In the end, many of them softened their position, developed more nuanced arguments, and were more able to see the issue from multiple perspectives. Thinking about design and engaging in the design process encouraged students to begin thinking more consciously about the world around them as an integrated system of designed spaces and places, and gave them new lenses for making transparent the social processes that shape these designs both in relation to how they are designed and how they are used or inhabited by people. Looking at design across multiple contexts helped with this transformation. Because their design work focused on multimodal design, students developed a better understanding of the affordances of particular modes or representation and their appropriateness within specific contexts. For example, students had to consider the difference between video designed for use on a mobile device versus a television. While part of this implies a technical understanding of the differences, it also requires consideration of the different contexts in which people consume video via these two distinctly different mediums. FINAL THOUGHTS The rapid growth in mobile technologies presents many new possibilities for interacting with each other and the world around us. Mobile media allow for new forms of social interaction and provide new avenues for participating in the design and distribution of media content. They also provide new opportunities for teaching and learning across physical, digital and social spaces (Rogers & Price, 2009; Sharples, Taylor, & Vavoula, 2005; Squire, 2009). Helping students navigate and fully participate in this new media landscape, however, requires more than simply allowing mobile devices into schools. Instead, it requires developing learning experiences that allow students to use and develop the multiliteracy practices associated with mobile media. Unfortunately, while there are many examples of young people using mobile media to engage in these types of literacy practices outside of school, there are far fewer examples of these devices being used to develop and expand students literacy practices in school (Norris & Soloway, 2009; Squire, 2009). Developing rich mobile-based learning experiences within a school setting is no easy task. While we understand that simply introducing mobile media into schools will not result in transformational learning experiences, the Neighborhood Game Design Project stems from the following premises: (1) the potential of mobile media to support new forms of teaching and learning warrants meaningful consideration, and (2) shifts in the social, cultural, and technological landscape will place implicit pressure on schools to seek new ways to integrate mobile media into the classroom (Norris & Soloway, 2009; Sharples, 2002). The challenge remains, however, for members of the educational community to develop meaningful learning experiences
15 that use mobile media in a way that does more than simply reify the traditional culture of school. Examining controversial issues from multiple perspectives and learning how to collaboratively design solutions to complex social problems is necessary for participation in a pluralistic society (Barton & Levstik, 2004; Hess, 2009). We hope that the NGDP provides one model for how mobile media might be used to support this vision. In following the lead of the New London Group (1996), our interests lie in exploring how mobile media might be used to engage students in new civic and social activities and literacy practices that allow them to more actively participate in and shape the future of their communities. As such, we believe in a form of mobile learning that not only aligns with the rapid changes occurring in the technological landscape, but also leverages new research around literacy and literacy pedagogy - a form of mobile-based learning that emphasizes participatory design, muliliteracies, and local, as well as global civic engagement.
16 REFERENCES Barton, K. & Levtstik, L. (2004). Teaching history for the common good. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Cox, C. D., Harrison, S., & Hoadley, C. (2009). Applying the studio model to learning technology design. In C. DiGano, S. Goldman, M. Chorost (Eds.), Educating learning technology designers (pp ). New York, NY: Routledge. Crowley, K., & Jacobs, M. (2002). Building islands of expertise in everyday family activities. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, & K. Knutson (Eds.), Learning conversations in museums (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Games, I. A., & Squire, K. (2008). Design thinking in gamestar mechanic: The role of gamer experience on the appropriation of the discourse practices of game designers. In Proceedings of the International Society of the Learning Sciences. The Netherlands: Utrecht University. Gee, J. P. (2004). Situated Language and Learning: A Critique of Traditional Schooling. New York, NY: Routledge. Gee, J. P. (2007, July). Getting young people to think like game designers. Retrieved March 12, 2009, from Hess, D. (2009). Controversy in the classroom: The democratic power of discussion. New York, NY: Routledge. New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66(66), Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Clinton, K., Weigel, M., and Robison, A. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st Century. Chicago, IL: The MacArthur Foundation. Kalantzis, M., & Cope, B. (2005). Learning by design. Melbourne, Australia: Victorian Schools Innovation Commission. Kafai,Y. B. (1995). Minds in play: Computer game design as a context for children s learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the New Media age. New York: Routledge. Kuhn, S. (1998). The software design studio: An exploration. IEEE Software, 15(2), Lankshear, C. & Knobel, M. (2007). Sampling the new in new literacies. In M. Knobel & C. Lankshear (Eds.), A new literacies sampler (pp. 1-24). New York, NY: Peter Lang. Mathews, J. & Squire, K. (2009). Augmented Reality gaming and game design as a new literacy practice. In K. Tyner (Ed.), Media literacy: New agendas in communication ( ). New York, NY: Routledge. New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), Norris, C. & Soloway, E. (2009). A disruption is coming: A primer for educators on the mobile technology revolution. In A. Durin (Ed.), Mobile technology for children: Designing for interaction and learning (pp ). Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufman. Robison, A. (2009). New media literacies by design: The game school. In K. Tyner (Ed.), Media Literacy: New Agendas in Communication ( ). New York, NY: Routledge.
17 Rogers, Y. & Price, S. (2009). How mobile technologies are changing the way children learn. In A. Durin (Ed.), Mobile technology for children: Designing for interaction and learning (3-22). Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufman. Salen, K. (2007). Gaming literacies: A game design study in action. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 16(3), Salen, K. & Zimmerman, E. (2004). Rules of play: Game design fundamentals. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Schön, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY: Basic Books. Sharples, M. (2002). Disruptive devices: mobile technology for conversational learning. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life Long Learning, 12(5/6), Sharples, M., Taylor, J., and Vavoula, G. (2005). Towards a theory of mobile learning. Paper presented at mlearn Cape Town, South Africa. Shelton, B. (2009). Teaching educational design through computer game design: Balancing expectations, abilities, and outcomes. In C. DiGano, S. Goldman, M. Chorost (Eds.), Educating learning technology designers (pp ). New York, NY: Routledge. Squire, K. (2009). Mobile media learning: multiplicities of place. On The Horizon, 17(1), Squire, K. D., DeVane, B., & Durga, S. (2008). Designing centers of expertise for academic learning through video games. Theory Into Practice, 47(3),
lawandjustice.edc.org Introduction Welcome to the Law and Justice curriculum! Developed by Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC), with support from The James Irvine Foundation, the Law and Justice curriculum
PROGRAM Our design process, philosophy and values. Program Design and Development is one of our core services in which we work with faculty to design and develop courses that are part of a new or redesigned
Kathy Mackey Manager Queensland Academies Education Queensland Queensland Government Smithsonian Fellow 2015 Museum and School Partnerships: a Teacher s Perspective The influence of cultural partnerships
Exploring web design principles for joint meaningmaking in health-related issues Jonna Wiblom email@example.com Carl-Johan Rundgren firstname.lastname@example.org Maria Andrée email@example.com
Committee On Public Secondary Schools Standards for Accreditation Effective 2011 New England Association of Schools & Colleges 3 Burlington Woods Drive, Suite 100 Burlington, MA 01803 Tel. 781-425-7700
Global Competence Matrices on issues of global significance. Global Competence can be developed within any discipline, and it can cut across disciplines. The seven global competence matrices one main matrix
Key Principles for ELL Instruction (v6) The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts and Mathematics as well as the soon-to-be released Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) require
College Credit College Ready Skills (High School) Course of Study NCNSP Design Principle 1: Ready for College Students are tracked according to past performance into regular and honors level courses. All
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 27 AUGUST 2014 FOR STUDENTS BY STUDENTS: REGAINING INTEREST IN STUDIES THROUGH VIDEO GAMES 12 students from ITE College West have created a 3D Game, Red Sentinels, for their fellow
c o n t e m p o r a r y MCEETYA A u s t r a l i a - N e w Z e a l a n d 21 st century education integrates technologies, engaging students in ways not previously possible, creating new learning and teaching
TAMALPAIS UNION HIGH SCHOOL DISTRICT Larkspur, California Course of Study Honors World History I. INTRODUCTION Honors World History is a rigorous version of World History, designed to follow the same content
Kleiman, G.M. (2004). Myths and realities about technology in k-12 schools: Five years later. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 4(2), 248-253. Myths and Realities About Technology
Students design, develop, and deploy their own location-based augmented reality games to understand science issues in their communities. 8 Augmenting your own reality: Student authoring of science-based
Using Technology in the Classroom Teaching and Projects EdTechTeacher Technology Projects Technology affords social studies teachers exciting opportunities to develop innovative, project-based learning
Extending Classroom Interaction to the Cyberspace with Facebook, Moodle and Blogger Evrim Baran (Iowa State University) N106 Lagomarcino Hall Center for Technology in Learning and Teaching Iowa State University
P21 Framework Definitions To help practitioners integrate skills into the teaching of core academic subjects, the Partnership has developed a unified, collective vision for learning known as the Framework
Research and Digital Game- based Play: A Review of Martha Madison White Paper Compiled by Anne Snyder, Ph.D. Second Avenue Learning is a certified women- owned business, specializing in the creation of
The ISTE National Educational Technology Standards (NETS S) and Performance Indicators for Students 1. Creativity and Innovation Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop
Augmenting Learning Mobile Simulation Games for Learning Eric Klopfer MIT Scheller Teacher Education Program Media Lab The Education Arcade http://education.mit.edu/ar Mobile Games Facilitate a new type
21 st Century Curriculum and Instruction The relationship between curriculum and instruction is obviously a very close one. Curriculum is essentially a design, or roadmap for learning, and as such focuses
English sample unit: Online magazine Stage 4 Focus outcomes: EN4-1A,, EN4-3B, EN4-4B, EN4-5C, EN4-9E Duration: 5 6 weeks Unit overview In this unit students design, develop and publish a class magazine
Interactive Multimedia Courses-1 IMM 110/Introduction to Digital Media An introduction to digital media for interactive multimedia through the study of state-of-the-art methods of creating digital media:
No.1 In this Issue Qualities of Quality: Understanding Excellence in Arts Education An ARTS EDUCATION COLLABORATIVE Series Qualities of Quality: Understanding Excellence in Arts Education is a research
Going Digital with Service Learning in Online Courses Dr. Bruce Taylor Oct. 6, 2015 National Society for Experiential Education 44 th NSEE Annual Conference In this Presentation We will look at the development
MA in Visual Arts Education (VAE) Degree Program Mission Statement: The Master of Arts in Visual Arts Education (MA-VAE) program is designed for persons currently teaching art or who have earned a teaching
K-12 Information Digital Literacy K-12 Information Digital Literacy It is the goal of the educators of the Burlington Public Schools to foster a dynamic learning environment that promotes engagement, relevant
Electronic Portfolios in Evolution Roger Olsen firstname.lastname@example.org Nancy Wentworth Nancy_Wentworth@byu.edu David Dimond email@example.com Abstract: Electronic Portfolios in Evolution describes a dynamic
Research Into Practice READING Reading Instruction and Reading Achievement Among ELL Students Principles of ELL Reading Instruction Some very straightforward principles, directly supported by research,
CEHD ipad Initiative YEAR TWO REPORT FALL 2011 SPRING 2012 Treden Wagoner, M.A.Ed. Anne Schwalbe Sheila Hoover, Ph.D. David Ernst, Ph.D. 2 Mobile Learning learning within various contexts and locations
Canada (British Columbia) Elementary Connected Classrooms This is a pilot project in which three mixed-age classrooms (years 4 to 7) from three elementary schools participate in videoconferencing, online
p e d a g o g y s t r a t e g y MCEETYA A u s t r a l i a N e w Z e a l a n d Pedagogies that integrate information and communication technologies can engage students in ways not previously possible, enhance
Supporting the Implementation of NGSS through Research: Curriculum Materials Janet Carlson, BSCS/Stanford University Elizabeth A. Davis, University of Michigan Cory Buxton, University of Georgia Curriculum
CO-DESIGNING A KNOWLEDGE BUILDING ACTIVITY WITH SECONDARY SCHOOL BIOLOGY TEACHERS Vanessa L. Peters Ontario Institute for Studies in Education University of Toronto firstname.lastname@example.org James D. Slotta
Specifying the Scholarship of Engagement Skills for Community-based Projects in the Arts, Humanities, and Design I. SCHOLARSHIP AND CREATIVITY IN THE REAL WORLD Skills of Place Ability to read and to map
24 MEDIA LITERACY, GENERAL SEMANTICS, AND K-12 EDUCATION RENEE HOBBS* HEN THE Norrback Avenue School in Worcester, Massachusetts, opened Wits doors in a new building in September of 1999, it had reinvented
2015-2016 Academic Catalog Communication Studies Associate Professors: Parry (Chair) Assistant Professors: Knight, Lyons, Hammer, Sullivan Visiting Assistant Professors: Famiglietti The BA in Communication
Course Guide Masters of Education Program Note: 1 course = (3) credits Students need 12 credits (4 courses) to obtain Graduate Diploma Students need 30 credits (10 courses) to obtain M.Ed. or M.A Graduate
Study Guide Developing Literate Mathematicians: A Guide for Integrating Language and Literacy Instruction into Secondary Mathematics Wendy Ward Hoffer The purpose of the book, Developing Literate Mathematicians,
2010-2016 TECHNOLOGY PLAN Bland County Public Schools 361 Bears Trl. Bastian, VA 24315 www.bland.k12.va.us Six Year Technology Plan for Bland County Public Schools APPROVED BY SCHOOL BOARD MAY 23, 2011
To Individualize, Make it Personalized: Creating Project Based Service elearners Mara Kaufmann, N.D., MSN, APRN Associate Professor, Center for Distance Learning State University of New York, Empire State
COMMUNICATION COMMUNITIES CULTURES COMPARISONS CONNECTIONS STANDARDS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING Preparing for the 21st Century Language and communication are at the heart of the human experience. The
Connecting People, Practices, and Policies: Evaluation of the Outreach and Technical Assistance Network (OTAN) Executive Summary Cambridge, MA Lexington, MA Hadley, MA Bethesda, MD Washington, DC Chicago,
Guidelines for Integrative Core Curriculum Themes and Perspectives Designations The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for faculty wishing to have new or existing courses carry Themes and
July 15 2015 100-Day Plan A Report for the Boston School Committee By Dr. Tommy Chang, Superintendent of Schools Boston Public Schools, 2300 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02119 About this plan Over the
Final Project Design Document Stacy Mercer Purpose: The purpose of my website is to create my eportfolio as a demonstration of program mastery for the Instructional Master s Program at the University of
Fall 2014: Graphic Design Graphic design is a large and growing profession in demand in the global communications world. In addition to an emphasis on traditional skills and production methods, the program
Preamble The Statewide Strategic Plan for Science serves as a planning and implementation guide to support newly adopted P-12 science learning standards. The strategic plan begins with mission and vision
COMMUNICATION COMMRC 0005 INTERVIEWING AND INFORMATION GATHERING 3 cr. Students are introduced to the fundamental principles of interviewing, including the interpersonal communication process, the structure
Connecticut State Board of Education Hartford Position Statement on Science Education Adopted September 3, 2008 The Connecticut State Board of Education regards scientific literacy as evidence of a high-quality
Indiana s Department of Education STEM Education Rubric The rubric that follows provides an outline for the implementation of STEM attributes in schools. The rubric is designed to show varying levels of
Rubric for Evaluating North Carolina s Instructional Technology Facilitators Standard 1: Instructional Technology Facilitators demonstrate leadership. Not Demonstrated Developing Proficient Accomplished
Learning Skills for Information, Communication, and Media Literacy Information and Media Literacy Accessing and managing information. Integrating and creating information. Evaluating and analyzing information.
Session Title: Teaching Computational Thinking through Mobilize and the New Big Data Explosion MSP Project Name: MOBILIZE: Mobilizing for Innovative Computer Science Teaching and Learning Presenters: Jane
Informed Design: A Contemporary Approach to Design Pedagogy M. David Burghardt and Michael Hacker Co-directors, the Hofstra University Center for Technological Literacy Design as The Core Process in Technology
Chariho Regional School District Technology Education Curriculum Grades K-8 March 13, 2012 Chariho Regional School District Technology Education Curriculum Grades K - 8 Table of Contents Page Section One
The CS Principles Project 1 Owen Astrachan, Duke University Amy Briggs, Middlebury College Abstract The Computer Science Principles project is part of a national effort to reach a wide and diverse audience
MA Knowledge and Interaction in Online Environments A new, fully online course for professionals in online education, communication and information to be launched in October 2009 What is this course about?
DISCUSSION 5.0 Office of the Superintendent of Schools MONTGOMERY COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS Rockville, Maryland May 30, 2013 MEMORANDUM To: From: Subject: Members of the Board of Education Joshua P. Starr,
BS Environmental Science (2013-2014) Program Information Point of Contact Brian M. Morgan (email@example.com) Support for University and College Missions Marshall University is a multi-campus public
1 Cellular Phones as a primary communications device: What are the implications for a global community? Bill Clark Claflin University, Orangeburg, SC Abstract Recent statistics show that more individuals
CG: Computer Graphics CG 111 Survey of Computer Graphics 1 credit; 1 lecture hour Students are exposed to a broad array of software environments and concepts that they may encounter in real-world collaborative
CURRICULUM FOR INTRODUCTION TO JOURNALISM GRADES 9 & 10 This curriculum is part of the Educational Program of Studies of the Rahway Public Schools. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Christine H. Salcito, Director of Curriculum
Revolutionary Scholarship: Innovation of Community Engagement Models Welcome to Boston, where tradition meets innovation! Boston is home to historic Faneuil Hall and The Old State House, places where revolution
Arkansas Teaching Standards The Arkansas Department of Education has adopted the 2011 Model Core Teaching Standards developed by Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) to replace
Revisioning Graduate Teacher Education in North Carolina Master of Arts in Middle Grades Education, with Licensure in Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies Appalachian State University
The Arts at Virginia Tech Strategic Directions and Opportunities Submitted to the Offices of the President and Senior Vice President and Provost by the Chair of the Arts Strategic Planning Team Paul Knox
Leadership Development at YouthBuild Framing Questions 1. What is leadership development? 2. How can your program nurture it? 3. What are the benefits of leadership dev? 4. How is it linked to higher program
Engagement and motivation in games development processes Engagement and motivation in games development processes Summary... 1 Key findings... 1 1. Background... 2 Why do we need to engage with games developers?...
Springboard to knowledge 9 10 5 8 6 7 Ten Principles for successful E-learning 4 3 2 1 E-learning has been developed to cost-effectively provide auxiliary and improved learning experiences beyond those
KORAN BY HEART A FILM BY GREG BARKER EDUCATORS SUPPLEMENT TRIBECA YOUTH SCREENING SERIES FOR TEACHERS THEMES Koran by Heart offers a rare glimpse into the world of competitive Koran recitation and by doing
Engaging Students for Optimum Learning Online Informing the Design of Online Learning By the Principles of How People Learn What Is Engagement? As early as 1995, student engagement was "the latest buzzword
1 Doctor of Education - Higher Education The University of Liverpool s Doctor of Education - Higher Education (EdD) is a professional doctoral programme focused on the latest practice, research, and leadership
A STATISTICS COURSE FOR ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS Gary Kader and Mike Perry Appalachian State University USA This paper will describe a content-pedagogy course designed to prepare elementary
What is Effective Integration of Technology, and Does it Make a Difference? Debra Rein Apple Computer, Inc. Cupertino, CA, USA Effective technology integration can make a difference in student learning
GIVING WINGS TO NEW IDEAS Wingspread Journal, Summer 1996 CHAOS, COMPLEXITY, AND FLOCKING BEHAVIOR: METAPHORS FOR LEARNING by Stephanie Pace Marshall Sir Isaac Newton saw the universe as an orderly clock.
Colorado Professional Teaching Standards Standard I: Teachers demonstrate knowledge of the content they teach a. Teachers provide instruction that is aligned with the Colorado Academic Standards and their
DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS EduStat Case Study Denver Public Schools: Making Meaning of Data to Enable School Leaders to Make Human Capital Decisions Nicole Wolden and Erin McMahon 7/19/2013. Title: Making Meaning
Art, Photography, Graphic Arts Overview of Courses and Opportunities STRAND TIER 1 TIER 2 TIER Planning and Instruction Art Standards in VA: Alignment and Grade level expectations within the Hanover Art
LEVERAGING ONLINE PROFESSIONAL NETWORKS BETWEEN TEACHERS AND THEIR COACHES AND MENTORS: LESSONS LEARNED FROM PBS TEACHERLINE S PEER CONNECTION RESEARCH Hezel, R.T., Hezel Associates, USA Summary Multiple
The : Overview Learning Together to Reinvent Learning Background The (IIE) is an incubator of ideas, projects, and partnerships at the intersection of technology and learning, based at the University of
WEB AND MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTS Course Descriptions and Outcomes WMM 3010 Installation + Performance 3 cr. This class offers an in-depth exploration of the art and design concepts related to physical space:
Catherine Montgomery (and Val Clifford) Dramatic demographic changes in the cultural and linguistic diversity of people are occurring in many nations. These changes have challenged higher education institutions
Art as essential component The mission of the Tacoma School of the Arts is to establish an urban center offering a creative path of learning, which emphasizes human expression through the visual and performing
The Bennington College Plan Process April 23, 2012 INTRODUCTION OF THE PLAN PROCESS Central to Bennington s founding vision was the belief that a dynamic, relevant education could best be achieved when
BUILDING CURRICULUM ACCOMMODATION PLAN 2014-2015 ERIC STARK, PRINCIPAL KATE PERETZ, ASSISTANT PRINCIPAL Alone we can do so little; together we can do so much. Helen Keller FRANKLIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS VISION
FY15 DANVERS PUBLIC SCHOOLS DISTRICT GOALS THEME I ACHIEVEMENT Goal: Curriculum, instruction and assessment necessary to support 21 st century learning and effectively meet the needs of all students are