INTERNATIONAL LAWYERS. Martti Koskenniemi

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "INTERNATIONAL LAWYERS. Martti Koskenniemi"

Transcription

1 INTERNATIONAL LAWYERS Martti Koskenniemi At the beginning of The Concept of Law H.L.A. Hart notes the striking fact that even among specialists, there is uncertainty about the meaning of the word law. This certainly extends to the meaning of international law as well. Is it rules or processes, values or facts? Cutting the Gordian knot, it may be suggested that whatever international law is, at least it is what international lawyers do and think. This is what Hart himself, too, seems to suggest: law is what legal officials recognise as such. This response has particular power in the international world. For international law has always been much more dependent on the profession that practices it than, say, contract law or administrative law that are firmly embedded in the domestic social world and thus have a certain distance from the thinking and acting of their respective specialists. Without international lawyers, there would have been no international law. From Hugo Grotius to the International Criminal Court, international law has been a project carried out by international lawyers. It has been sometimes a religious, sometimes a secular humanitarian project, a project for order, civilization, peace, security, development, rule of law and so on. Most of the time it has been a project by which European or European-origined lawyers or intellectuals have advanced their universalist ideals so as to substitute new rules and institutions for the present political or diplomatic world. But international lawyers have never been a fully homogeneous group. They have also disagreed on how the world ought to be and, thus, just what direction their project should take. Such disagreements have reflected political preferences, cultural backgrounds, as well as professional experiences and ambitions. In most periods, mainstream views and assumptions have been juxtaposed by typical challenges: right of sovereignty vs. the interests of an international community ; international security vs. cosmopolitan justice; self-determination and national autonomy vs. international rules on human rights, development and environment. Reform has proceeded through critique of earlier generations as either excessively utopian or then ignorant of the realities of an inter-sovereign world. A shared internationalist language has allowed wide divergence in local approaches. To be an international lawyer in India, Sweden or the United States has not been the same thing. In each period and location, there has been both a series of orthodox understandings of the field as well as more or less well established challenges.

2 2 1. Early Lawyers A professional vocabulary of international legality, distinct from theology, philosophy and the raison d état emerged in late-16 th and early 17 th centuries together with European expansion and the consolidation of early modern statehood, laying the ground rules for European diplomacy and warfare. But even as they were pleading international cases and writing treatises on the laws of war and diplomacy, neither the Italian Alberico Gentili nor the Dutchman Hugo Grotius saw themselves as international lawyers. Gentili was a Professor of Civil Law in Oxford, mixing the outlook of the Italian school with historical borrowings, Grotius a diplomat who regarded his religious writings as his most important work. Not before the end of the 17th and early 18 th centuries lawyers such as Samuel Pufendorf, a professor and writer of dynastic histories, as well as the Huguenot activist Jean Barbeyrac, articulated a project of law of nature and of nations (jus naturae et gentium) as the Grotian heritage to succeeding generations. This remained a wide project for a universal jurisprudence until the Swiss essayist and lawyer Emmerich de Vattel in 1758 dressed it in a coherent inter-sovereign structure of diplmacy, treaty-making and war in the sense we recognise as modern. By the end of the eighteenth century, diplomatic academies provided instruction in European treaty-making and inter-sovereign relations, conceptualised as Droit public de l Europe, and academic lawyers began to publish manuals and treaty collections for diplomats and lawyers with international clients. 2. The Profession Emerges: 1873 to the League of Nations The developments since the Congress of Vienna ( ) gave concreteness to writings on the law of nations and pushed natural law to the background. The collection of international treaties by the Göttingen academic, later diplomat G.F von Martens was widely distributed in European capitals and universities. His text-book was published in many languages through the early years of the 19 th century, laying the paradigm for historically and diplomatically oriented work of the period. But it was only in connection with the liberal ascendancy in Europe in the last third of the century that lawyers with an international interest, academics as well as practitioners, began to meet and discuss matters of domestic and international reform from a shared point of view. As a result, the first international law journal (Revue de droit international et de législation comparée) was published in 1869 and the first two professional associations (Institut de droit international, Association for the Reform and Codification of International, later International Law Association) set up in The first university chairs in international law proper,

3 3 distinguished from natural law, came about in the same period. Large international conferences such as those held in Brussels in 1874 and Berlin in 1885, as well as the Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907, prompted foreign ministries to employ lawyers such as Louis Renault in France or Sir Travers Twiss in Britain with specific competence in treaties and doctrine to give regular advise on international law matters. As the peace movement turned to advocating arbitration and pacific settlement, legal experts were increasingly found also in its ranks. During the inter-war era the League of Nations provided a principal platform for organised international legal activity. An esprit de corps developed at places of coordinated training such as The Hague Academy of International Law that began its work in Delegations at international conferences were accompanied by international lawyers and the subject was included in the curriculum of European and US law schools where it was treated sometimes as an independent subject, sometimes (as in Germany) as part of public law or (as in Italy) together with private international law. A common law approach stressed the importance of custom and the work of international tribunals such as the Permanent Court of International Justice, while civil lawyers focused on codification and relations with domestic law. New repertories of international case-law and accumulating commentary devoted to international law strengthened the sense of international lawyers as a distinct specialization and provided a platform for advancing international reform. Technically high-level analyses by scholars such as Hersch Lauterpacht in Cambridge or Georges Scelle in Paris put a critique of sovereign statehood and an emphasis on international organisations at the heart of their writings provoking thereby the standard suspicion about the profession s inherent utopianism. 3. The UN After 1945, international lawyers made a commitment to pragmatic work at the United Nations, their ambition limited by the Cold War but strengthened by decolonization that brought new countries to its compass. International lawyers saw themselves as speaking across both the East- West divide and the ever sharpening North-South confrontation by focusing on practical cooperation in such fields as economic and technological development, uses of the oceans and the outer space, protection of human rights and the environment. Oscar Schachter, a member of the UN legal staff and later Professor at the University of Columbia referred to the emergence of an invisible college of international lawyers, the humanitarian and welfarist legalism of which

4 4 appeared to cut across political divisions. But homogeneity at the United Nations betrayed important distinctions between three groups of international professionals. Lawyers engaged as foreign office legal advisers were accustomed to working with diplomats and often shared a political realist critique of the activities of international advocacy groups. Academic lawyers at European universities pursued the anti-sovereignty rhetoric of the inter-war generation while putting forward various proposals for constitutional reform of the system of intergovernmental organisations. US lawyers were divided between doing exactly the same, seeking methodological renewal from political science and enlisting themselves as supporters of US foreign policy. In the 1970 s lawyers from developing countries sought to protect the autonomy of their often fragile states while seeking a wholesale reform of the international economic system. The possibilities of legal codification and progressive development at the UN were largely conditioned by the North-South conflict. The development of more intensive human rights or economic integration regimes was directed into regional channels. 4. Diffusion In the last three decades, the profession has been marked by functional specialization and political controversy. The emergence of new institutional regimes reflecting new priorities has been accompanied by the consolidation of distinct forms of expertise in human rights law, international trade law, international environmental law, international criminal law, and so on. International law has developed through diffusion into distinct and often contradictory projects. As a result, intra-professional division no longer takes place so much by formal position (legal advisor, academic, expert, activist) as commitment to a particular specialisation. Among themselves human rights lawyers or trade lawyers tend to think and act in relatively homogeneous ways (with more or less significant minorities challenging the mainstream) while the objectives of such regimes may often be different, even contradictory. When environmental and trade preferences, for example, conflict (as they often do), lawyers are pushed into increasingly antagonistic positions. Likewise, the fight against terrorism has created a gap between human rights and security institutions that is often reflected in tensions between the corresponding legal experts. The profession s traditional commitment to the United Nations and third world development may have recently weakened as new alliances are made with private and public lawyers. The fragmentation of the international social world has led to interdisciplinary approaches within which lawyers today often articulate their contrasting sensibilities.

5 5 Bibliography: Richard Bilder, The Office of the Legal Adviser: The State Department Lawyer and Foreign Affairs, 56 American Journal of International Law (1962), ; Peter Haggenmacher, La pratique chez les fondateurs du droit international, (SFDI, Colloque de Genève, Paris, Pedone 2004), ; H.L.A. Hart, The Concept of Law (Oxford, Clarendon 1961). David Kennedy, When Renewal Repeats. Thinking against the Box, 32 New York University Journal of Int l law & Pol. (2000), ; Martti Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer of Nations. The Rise and Fall of International law (Cambridge University press, 2001); Martti Koskenniemi, Between Commitment and Cynicism: Outline for a Theory of International Law as Practice, in: Collection of Essays by Legal Advisers of States, Legal Adviser of International Organizations and Practitioners in the Field of International Law, (United Nations, NY, 1999), ; H.C.L. Merillat (ed.), Legal Advisers and Foreign Affairs (American Society of International Law, 1964); Guillaume Sacriste & Antoine Vauchez, Les bons offices droit international : la constitutin d unme autorité non politique dans le concdert diplomatique des années 1920, 26 Critique internationale(2005), Oscar Schachter, The Invisible College of International Lawyers, 72 Northwestern Univ. L. Rev. (1977), 217

Yonsei University Courses Political Science & International Studies

Yonsei University Courses Political Science & International Studies Yonsei University Courses Political Science & International Studies POL2101 Ancient and Medieval Western Political Thought The course examines the political ideologies and the backgrounds of principal

More information

AMBASSADOR ÁLVARO SANDOVAL BERNAL CURRICULUM VITAE. Álvaro SANDOVAL BERNAL. Date and Birth Place: Bogotá D.C., Colombia, May 11, 1963

AMBASSADOR ÁLVARO SANDOVAL BERNAL CURRICULUM VITAE. Álvaro SANDOVAL BERNAL. Date and Birth Place: Bogotá D.C., Colombia, May 11, 1963 AMBASSADOR ÁLVARO SANDOVAL BERNAL CURRICULUM VITAE GENERAL INFORMATION Name: Álvaro SANDOVAL BERNAL Date and Birth Place: Bogotá D.C., Colombia, May 11, 1963 Marital Status: Married Wife: Mme. Ángela Cordero

More information

SETON HALL UNIVERSITY FACULTY SENATE Meeting of January 30, :00 p.m. Beck Rooms Walsh Library. a. UN Studies Certificate Program Proposal

SETON HALL UNIVERSITY FACULTY SENATE Meeting of January 30, :00 p.m. Beck Rooms Walsh Library. a. UN Studies Certificate Program Proposal SETON HALL UNIVERSITY FACULTY SENATE Meeting of January 30, 2015 1:00 p.m. Beck Rooms Walsh Library 9. Committee Motions b. Academic Policy Committee ii. UN Studies Certificate Program a. UN Studies Certificate

More information

COURSE DESCRIPTION FOR THE BACHELOR DEGREE IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

COURSE DESCRIPTION FOR THE BACHELOR DEGREE IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COURSE DESCRIPTION FOR THE BACHELOR DEGREE IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Course Code 2507205 Course Name International Relations of the Middle East In this course the student will learn an historical and

More information

m a s t e r o f s c i e n c e i n

m a s t e r o f s c i e n c e i n m a s t e r o f s c i e n c e i n Global affairs The M.S. in Global Affairs is the flagship graduate program of the Center for Global Affairs (CGA), ranked by the Foreign Policy Association in 2010 and

More information

The European Security Strategy Austrian Perspective

The European Security Strategy Austrian Perspective Erich Reiter and Johann Frank The European Security Strategy Austrian Perspective The following essay gives the Austrian view on the ESS from a security political perspective and analyses the needs and

More information

May 2009 syllabus. Syllabus revised October 2009. For first examinations in May 2011

May 2009 syllabus. Syllabus revised October 2009. For first examinations in May 2011 This is an edited version of the subject guide, for use with extended essay candidates. Assessment details for the subject are not included: please refer to the assessment criteria in the Extended Essay

More information

Private University Education Master in European and International Studies E-learning Programmes Summer University Courses Research and Debate

Private University Education Master in European and International Studies E-learning Programmes Summer University Courses Research and Debate Private University Education Master in European and International Studies E-learning Programmes Summer University Courses Research and Debate Seminars Conferences Publications nnice berlin brussels istanbul

More information

Curriculum of the Vienna Master of Arts (M.A.) in Human Rights

Curriculum of the Vienna Master of Arts (M.A.) in Human Rights Curriculum of the Vienna Master of Arts (M.A.) in Human Rights This interdisciplinary and practice-oriented postgraduate programme comprises of 9 obligatory modules (88 ECTS), a Master thesis (30 ECTS)

More information

Undergraduate Catalog

Undergraduate Catalog Department Head: Professor John T. Rourke Department Office: Room 137, Monteith Building Undergraduate Catalog 1998-1999 POLITICAL SCIENCE (POLS) For major requirements, see the College of Liberal Arts

More information

POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION

POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION Programme Title: Awarding Body: Final Awards: Teaching Institution: MA International Relations MA International Policy and Diplomacy Staffordshire University MA, PG

More information

*X259/12/01* X259/12/01. HISTORY HIGHER Paper 1 NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS 2014 WEDNESDAY, 7 MAY 1.00 PM 2.20 PM

*X259/12/01* X259/12/01. HISTORY HIGHER Paper 1 NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS 2014 WEDNESDAY, 7 MAY 1.00 PM 2.20 PM X259/12/01 NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS 2014 WEDNESDAY, 7 MAY 1.00 PM 2.20 PM HISTORY HIGHER Paper 1 Candidates should answer two questions, one from Historical Study: British History and one from Historical

More information

Historical Perspective. International Systems The Rise of the European State System 20 th Century Hegemonic Systems & The Cold War

Historical Perspective. International Systems The Rise of the European State System 20 th Century Hegemonic Systems & The Cold War Historical Perspective International Systems The Rise of the European State System 20 th Century Hegemonic Systems & The Cold War Historical Perspective This chapter introduces various historical examples

More information

REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS (PDIPIA) AND THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF INTERNATIONAL AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS (MIPA)

REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS (PDIPIA) AND THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF INTERNATIONAL AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS (MIPA) 731 REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS (PDIPIA) AND THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF INTERNATIONAL AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS (MIPA) (See also General Regulations) Any publication based on

More information

Political Science. 222 2014-2016 Haigazian University

Political Science. 222 2014-2016 Haigazian University Political Science Coordinator: Maximilian Felsch, Ph.D. The Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences offers the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in Political Science. On completion of the degree in Political

More information

B. A - V Semester Course - VI: Principles of International Relations

B. A - V Semester Course - VI: Principles of International Relations KUVEMPU UNIVERSITY Faculty of Arts B. A - V Semester Course - VI: Principles of International Relations Syllabus/Course Inputs (Syllabus introduced from the academic year 2005-06) Course Rationale: 01.

More information

Political Science Courses-1. American Politics

Political Science Courses-1. American Politics Political Science Courses-1 American Politics POL 110/American Government Examines the strengths and weaknesses, problems and promise of representative democracy in the United States. Surveys the relationships

More information

Master in EU Studies Online

Master in EU Studies Online Centre international de formation européenne European Online Academy Master in EU Studies Online EU Expertise for Professionals Interdisciplinary Studies Professional Insight into Europe E-Learning Intensive

More information

FROM TERRIBLE TO TERRIFIC UNDERGRADUATE

FROM TERRIBLE TO TERRIFIC UNDERGRADUATE FROM TERRIBLE TO TERRIFIC UNDERGRADUATE ECONOMICS CURRICULA: An evidence- based assessment of an intellectual disaster, and a proposal for an alternative approach to economics teaching 1 PEPS- Économie

More information

Dr. Başak Çalı Curriculum Vitae

Dr. Başak Çalı Curriculum Vitae Contacts and Personal Information cali@hertie-school.org Dr. Başak Çalı Curriculum Vitae Current Academic Appointments Professor of International Law Hertie School of Governance, Berlin Founding Director

More information

Marital status: Married with one daughter

Marital status: Married with one daughter Annex to Press Release No. 2010/19 Curriculum vitae Ms Xue Hanqin (China) Date of birth: 15 September 1955 Place of birth: Shanghai, China Nationality: Chinese Marital status: Married with one daughter

More information

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES MASTER OF SCIENCE IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS CENTER FOR GLOBAL AFFAIRS

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES MASTER OF SCIENCE IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS CENTER FOR GLOBAL AFFAIRS NEW YORK UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES MASTER OF SCIENCE IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS CENTER FOR GLOBAL AFFAIRS MASTER OF SCIENCE IN GLOBAL AFFAIRS NYU s Master of Science in Global Affairs

More information

What is the Congress of Vienna?

What is the Congress of Vienna? Congress of Vienna What is the Congress of Vienna? Where is Vienna? Austria The Congress of Vienna was called by all of the Kings of Europe. After Napoleon was exiled, they met in order to decide how to

More information

The Congress of Vienna ( )

The Congress of Vienna ( ) The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) The Legacy of the French Revolution and Napoleon Liberalism: Most of the Enlightenment can fit into this theory. It means maximizing individual human rights. Governments

More information

CURRICULUM VITAE. LL.M., Tulane Law School, New Orleans, USA, as a Fulbright Fellow (1968)

CURRICULUM VITAE. LL.M., Tulane Law School, New Orleans, USA, as a Fulbright Fellow (1968) CURRICULUM VITAE Judge SANG-HYUN SONG PERSONAL INFORMATION Date of Birth: 21 December 1941 Nationality: Republic of Korea Languages: Korean, English (fluent), French (good) ACADEMIC BACKGROUND LL.B., Seoul

More information

Danish lessons learned: The comprehensive/integrated approach after Iraq and Afghanistan

Danish lessons learned: The comprehensive/integrated approach after Iraq and Afghanistan Military Studies Magazine Danish lessons learned: The comprehensive/integrated approach after Iraq and Afghanistan by Peter Viggo Jakobsen Photo: Forsvaret ISSUE 01, VOLUME 02, 2014 1 Subcribe at fak.dk/eng/magazine

More information

Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1

Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 PURPOSE 1 1.2 THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM 1 1.3 BACKGROUND 3 1.3.1 THE CONCEPT OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS 4 1.3.2 HISTORICAL OUTSETS 5 1.4 INTERNATIONAL LEGAL PERSONALITY

More information

NATO Flirting with a More Comprehensive Approach to Alliance Security

NATO Flirting with a More Comprehensive Approach to Alliance Security Analysis, Modeling, Simulation and Experimentation NATO Flirting with a More Comprehensive Approach to Alliance Security 13 th ICCRTS June 17-19 2008 Mark N. Clemente Senior Effects-Based Analyst The Boeing

More information

The codification of criminal law and current questions of prison matters

The codification of criminal law and current questions of prison matters The codification of criminal law and current questions of prison matters Kondorosi Ferenc Under Secretary of State Ministry of Justice Hungary Criminal law is the branch of law, in which society s expectations

More information

World History Course Summary Department: Social Studies. Semester 1

World History Course Summary Department: Social Studies. Semester 1 World History Course Summary Department: Social Studies All World History courses (Honors or otherwise) utilize the same targets and indicators for student performance. However, students enrolled in Honors

More information

MICHAEL P. VAN ALSTINE Tel.: 410-706-1055 Fax: 410-706-2184 mvanalstine@law.umaryland.edu

MICHAEL P. VAN ALSTINE Tel.: 410-706-1055 Fax: 410-706-2184 mvanalstine@law.umaryland.edu MICHAEL P. VAN ALSTINE Tel.: 410-706-1055 Fax: 410-706-2184 mvanalstine@law.umaryland.edu PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: 2001-present THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF LAW Professor of Law (2002-present)

More information

Chapter 23 America and the Great War, 1914 1920

Chapter 23 America and the Great War, 1914 1920 Chapter 23 America and the Great War, 1914 1920 Chapter Summary Chapter 23 introduces the student to the American role in World War I. Among the topics covered in this chapter are the complexity of the

More information

APPENDIX IV MODERN WORLD HISTORY DETAILED KEY CONCEPTS TOPIC 1: REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT

APPENDIX IV MODERN WORLD HISTORY DETAILED KEY CONCEPTS TOPIC 1: REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT APPENDIX IV MODERN WORLD HISTORY DETAILED KEY CONCEPTS TOPIC 1: REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT KEY CONCEPT 1.1: Analyze how the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment ideas impacted human thought. a. Identify

More information

Lesson 3 The Rise of Napoleon and the Napoleonic Wars

Lesson 3 The Rise of Napoleon and the Napoleonic Wars Reading Essentialsand Study Guide The French Revolution and Napoleon Lesson 3 The Rise of Napoleon and the Napoleonic Wars ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What causes revolution? How does revolution change society?

More information

Vienna School of International Studies École des Hautes Études Internationales de Vienne

Vienna School of International Studies École des Hautes Études Internationales de Vienne Vienna School of International Studies École des Hautes Études Internationales de Vienne MASTER OF ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL STUDIES (MAIS) POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMME FULL TIME Master of Advanced International

More information

Restorative Justice & the United Nations

Restorative Justice & the United Nations Restorative Justice & the United Nations Paul McCold, Ph.D. Professor, IIRP Graduate School Chair, Alliance of NGOs on Crime Prevention & Criminal Justice (NY) Restorative justice is a paradigm, not a

More information

International Treaties Authenticated in Two or More Languages

International Treaties Authenticated in Two or More Languages International Treaties Authenticated in Two or More Languages Enrico Zamuner This article briefly discusses the problem of interpretation of international treaties drawn up in two or more languages with

More information

HIS 13 Introduction to Modern European History

HIS 13 Introduction to Modern European History HIS 13 Introduction to Modern European History Basic Information Instructor Name Home Institution Email Office Hours Naum G. Katz Carnegie Mellon University kats@andrew.cmu.edu by Appointment Course Description

More information

World War 1: Alliances. Kyra Chan, Rachel Koh, Jeff Lu, Jae Jin Shin, Chris Tang

World War 1: Alliances. Kyra Chan, Rachel Koh, Jeff Lu, Jae Jin Shin, Chris Tang World War 1: Alliances Kyra Chan, Rachel Koh, Jeff Lu, Jae Jin Shin, Chris Tang What is an Alliance? A union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or organizations Political

More information

The New Delhi Commitment: Delivering Inclusive, Relevant Quality Education for All. New Delhi, India 8th 10th November 2012

The New Delhi Commitment: Delivering Inclusive, Relevant Quality Education for All. New Delhi, India 8th 10th November 2012 ED/EFA/2012/ME/1 Original : English The New Delhi Commitment: Delivering Inclusive, Relevant Quality Education for All New Delhi, India 8th 10th November 2012 Ninth E-9 Ministerial Review Meeting: Inclusive,

More information

CURRICULUM VITAE. Professor Dr. Young Sok KIM

CURRICULUM VITAE. Professor Dr. Young Sok KIM CURRICULUM VITAE Ewha Womans University School of Law EDUCATION Professor Dr. Young Sok KIM Doctor of Science of Law (J.S.D., Public International Law), 2000 College of Law, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

More information

International Relations Networking of the Austrian Armed Forces

International Relations Networking of the Austrian Armed Forces International Relations Networking of the Austrian Armed Forces Address given by General Roland ERTL Chief of General Staff, Austrian Armed Forces Ladies and Gentlemen, distinguished guests, The Austrian

More information

Curriculum Change A Multidimensional Task

Curriculum Change A Multidimensional Task Curriculum Change A Multidimensional Task University of New South Wales Law School Chief Justice Robert French AC 20 October 2014, Sydney This evening's event marks a significant change in direction in

More information

FAST TRACK YOUR CAREER MA INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

FAST TRACK YOUR CAREER MA INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS MA INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS FAST TRACK YOUR CAREER 4 CONTINENTS 9 COUNTRIES 61 CITIES 1 UNIVERSITY Webster University founded in 1915 with its home campus based in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, is the only

More information

Ethics in the Qualifying Law Degree

Ethics in the Qualifying Law Degree Ethics in the Qualifying Law Degree Welcome, introduction and background to the Law Society s work on legal ethics Tony King Chair The Law Society s Education & Training Committee Keynote address Sir Mark

More information

POLITICAL SCIENCE. Major in Political Science. Faculty

POLITICAL SCIENCE. Major in Political Science. Faculty SACRED HEART UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE CATALOG 2012-2013 POLITICAL SCIENCE The Political Science major seeks to awaken in students an appreciation and an understanding of politics and government in the

More information

www.globalstudymagazine.com Ashridge Business School UK - http://www.ashridge.org.uk

www.globalstudymagazine.com Ashridge Business School UK - http://www.ashridge.org.uk www.globalstudymagazine.com All you need to know about Business Schools and MBA Programmes. By Kai Peters MBA challenge 36 GLOBAL STUDY MAGAZINE 4.2 w w w. g l o b a l s t u d y m a g a z i n e. c o m

More information

United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law. Curriculum Vitae

United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law. Curriculum Vitae United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law MS. HANQIN XUE Chairman International Law Commission Curriculum Vitae Education: 1991-1995: Columbia University School of Law, J.S.D. 1982-1983:

More information

IBA Business and Human Rights Guidance for Bar Associations. Adopted by the IBA Council on 8 October 2015

IBA Business and Human Rights Guidance for Bar Associations. Adopted by the IBA Council on 8 October 2015 IBA Business and Human Rights Guidance for Bar Associations Adopted by the IBA Council on 8 October 2015 With Commentaries 2015 IBA Business and Human Rights Guidance for Bar Associations With Commentaries

More information

SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION IN FRANCE:

SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION IN FRANCE: SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION IN FRANCE: The importance of work-based learning in training. EUROPE - UNITED IN DIVERSITY. United in diversity is the EU slogan. We all of us could hear, yesterday, how appropriate

More information

Foreign Affairs and National Security

Foreign Affairs and National Security Foreign Affairs and National Security Objectives: TLW understand and explain the following questions as it relates to the Foreign affairs of the American Government What is foreign policy? What is the

More information

Name: Cold War Mr. Baffuto/Mr. LaMar DO NOW Questions

Name: Cold War Mr. Baffuto/Mr. LaMar DO NOW Questions Name: Cold War Mr. Baffuto/Mr. LaMar DO NOW Questions 1. Korea Divided at 38th Parallel Hungarian Revolution Crushed Missile Sites Spotted in Cuba The events in these headlines contributed to the 1) development

More information

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBODIA DOCTORAL DEGREE PROGRAMS

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBODIA DOCTORAL DEGREE PROGRAMS UNIVERSITY OF CAMBODIA DOCTORAL DEGREE PROGRAMS 1. DEGREE PROGRAMS The University of Cambodia offer the following Doctoral Degree Programs: I. College of Education Educational Administration (DEd) II.

More information

POL 140-A INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. Fall 2009. Instructor: Dr. Gilbert Gagné Office: N 102 Tel: 822-9600, ext. 2439

POL 140-A INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. Fall 2009. Instructor: Dr. Gilbert Gagné Office: N 102 Tel: 822-9600, ext. 2439 POL 140-A INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Fall 2009 Tuesday - Thursday 8:30-10:00 Bishop Williams Hall Instructor: Dr. Gilbert Gagné Office: N 102 Tel: 822-9600, ext. 2439 Office Hours: Tuesday 14:30-17:00 E-mail:

More information

YOUNG DIPLOMATS TOUR 2017

YOUNG DIPLOMATS TOUR 2017 YOUNG DIPLOMATS TOUR 2017 From the Convenor Hey there! In 2016, UN Youth Australia is offering an exciting new opportunity to explore one of the most historically significant regions of the world. Next

More information

Europeanisation of Family Law

Europeanisation of Family Law Europeanisation of Family Law I. The increasing importance of comparative law * II. Family law and culture * III. Unification of family law in Europe. A status questionis * IV. Harmonisation and the search

More information

Bridging the Common Law Civil Law Divide in Arbitration

Bridging the Common Law Civil Law Divide in Arbitration Bridging the Common Law Civil Law Divide in Arbitration by SIEGFRIED H. ELSING * AND JOHN M. TOWNSEND * * INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION has evolved as a system for resolving disputes among parties from different

More information

University of Geneva Legal Studies reform

University of Geneva Legal Studies reform University of Geneva Legal Studies reform Feedback from Leiden Law School, the Netherlands Our feedback has been composed on the basis of the provided documentation in the form of the report of the commission,

More information

AP Practice Exam Questions

AP Practice Exam Questions The Bill of Rights did not come from a desire to protect the liberties won in the American Revolution, but rather from a fear of the powers of the new federal government. Assess the validity of the statement.

More information

European Centre for Information Policy and Security (ECIPS) DO NOT COPY! PROPERTY OF ECIPS

European Centre for Information Policy and Security (ECIPS) DO NOT COPY! PROPERTY OF ECIPS European Centre for Information Policy and Security (ECIPS) DO NOT COPY! PROPERTY OF ECIPS Due to the authority vested in the European Centre for Information Policy and Security (ECIPS) Decree / Statute

More information

Assessing The Acceptance of International Criminal Justice in Situation Countries A Methodology

Assessing The Acceptance of International Criminal Justice in Situation Countries A Methodology INTERNATIONAL NUREMBERG PRINCIPLES ACADEMY Assessing The Acceptance of International Criminal Justice in Situation Countries A Methodology Prof. Dr. Susanne Buckley-Zistel Dr. des. Friederike Mieth Marjana

More information

Although the dominant military confrontations of the 20 th century were centered on the

Although the dominant military confrontations of the 20 th century were centered on the To what extent were the policies of the United States responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949? Although the dominant military confrontations of the 20 th century

More information

COMMENTARY. ArbiTRATiON in FRANCE: The 2011 REFORM JONES DAY

COMMENTARY. ArbiTRATiON in FRANCE: The 2011 REFORM JONES DAY June 2011 JONES DAY COMMENTARY ArbiTRATiON in FRANCE: The 2011 REFORM On January 13, 2011, the French Ministry of Justice issued its Decree no. 2011-48 regarding reform of arbitration. The Decree implemented

More information

Expert Group Meeting The role of national mechanisms in promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women: Achievements, gaps and challenges

Expert Group Meeting The role of national mechanisms in promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women: Achievements, gaps and challenges Division for the Advancement of Women United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs in collaboration with the United Nations regional commissions ECA, ECE, ECLAC, ESCAP and ESCWA Expert Group

More information

GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1

GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1 GREECE S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 21 ST CENTURY By George A. Papandreou 1 Abstract Greece is committed to embracing all those nations who strive for democracy within their frontiers, and peaceful cooperation

More information

Juristische Zeitschriften der EBSCO-Datenbank

Juristische Zeitschriften der EBSCO-Datenbank Juristische Zeitschriften der EBSCO-Datenbank 1. A-Z of Employment Law 2. ABA Journal 3. ATA Journal of Legal Tax Research 4. Administrative Law Review 5. Administrative Science Quarterly 6. Advisor Today

More information

A PROFESSIONAL MASTER S DEGREE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW, DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

A PROFESSIONAL MASTER S DEGREE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW, DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS A PROFESSIONAL MASTER S DEGREE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW, DIPLOMACY AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS EXCEPTIONAL MASTER S DEGREE FOR INTERNATIONAL CAREERS 1 THE LAW FACULTY OF THE PARIS-DESCARTES

More information

International Relations / International Studies / European Studies

International Relations / International Studies / European Studies International Relations / International Studies / European Studies Degree Courses BA International Relations and Politics 166 BA International Relations and Modern History 167 BA International Studies

More information

DIPLOMATIC COMMUNICATION IN THE DYNAMICS OF THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

DIPLOMATIC COMMUNICATION IN THE DYNAMICS OF THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS DIPLOMATIC COMMUNICATION IN THE DYNAMICS OF THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Theodora Magdalena MIRCEA Special representative with the rank of general director Coordinator of the Infoeuropa Center Ministry

More information

Broken Arrow Public Schools AP World and European History Local Objectives

Broken Arrow Public Schools AP World and European History Local Objectives 1 st six weeks 1 Analyze the major civilizations before 1500 and evaluate the contributions of each era to the development of western civilization. (PASS 2-8) 2 Describe the political, social, and economic

More information

The School of Policy, Government, and International Affairs (SPGIA) GOVT 322 002 CRN 75997 International Relations Theory. Overview.

The School of Policy, Government, and International Affairs (SPGIA) GOVT 322 002 CRN 75997 International Relations Theory. Overview. The School of Policy, Government, and International Affairs (SPGIA) GOVT 322 002 CRN 75997 International Relations Theory Fall 2014 Wednesday 7:20 pm 10:00 pm in Planetary Hall room 206 Instructor: Prof.

More information

efficiency of judicial administration largely depends on the competence of the Bar.

efficiency of judicial administration largely depends on the competence of the Bar. 1 ADDRESS BY HON BLE MINISTER OF LAW AND JUSTICE AT THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LEGAL SERVICES, LEGAL EDUCATION AND THE STATE OF THE PROFESSION: EMERGING CHALLENGES HELD ON 25-26 APRIL, 2015 AT NATIONAL

More information

INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS SUB Hamburg B/101060 INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Edited by Ba ak OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Contents Summary Guided tour of Learning Features Guided tour of the Online Resource Centre Contributors

More information

Paola Guzzo. The influence of French feminism on English feminism during the XXst century

Paola Guzzo. The influence of French feminism on English feminism during the XXst century Paola Guzzo The influence of French feminism on English feminism during the XXst century Table of Content Introduction... 3 I. The premices of a movement... 3 The first feminists... 3 The Age of Enlightment...

More information

Prince George County Public Schools

Prince George County Public Schools World History II Honors Advanced students will study the history of the modern world. Concentration is on the geographical, economic, political, and social factors that have influenced global development.

More information

THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM HANDBOOK

THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM HANDBOOK THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES POLITICAL SCIENCE PROGRAM HANDBOOK MAY 2015 Political Science Objectives 1. To study the structure and functions of government. 2. To understand political

More information

Bachelor's Degree in Political Science

Bachelor's Degree in Political Science Description for all courses in Political Sciences for Bachelor's Degree in Political Sciences. Bachelor's Degree in Political Science Department s Compulsory & Elective Requirements Course Descriptions

More information

POLITICAL SCIENCE Chair: Kevin S. Freeman

POLITICAL SCIENCE Chair: Kevin S. Freeman Political Science 243 POLITICAL SCIENCE Chair: Kevin S. Freeman Nicholas A. Giannatasio Carole Graham Emily A. Neff-Sharum Elizabeth L. Normandy Martin Slann Junfeng Wang Political Science is the systematic

More information

U.S History I - Constitution through World War II

U.S History I - Constitution through World War II U.S History I - Constitution through World War II Unit Themes Enduring Understandings Essential Questions Historical Questions Wisconsin State Social Studies Standards Curriculum Revision 2011-2012 Declaration

More information

DAVID LOUIS CAMERON. Northwestern University School of Law 357 East Chicago Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60611 (312) 503-1747

DAVID LOUIS CAMERON. Northwestern University School of Law 357 East Chicago Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60611 (312) 503-1747 DAVID LOUIS CAMERON Northwestern University School of Law 357 East Chicago Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60611 (312) 503-1747 Current Position Associate Director, Tax Program, and Professor of Practice, Northwestern

More information

Speech by Mr Frank Poon, JP Solicitor General of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Hong Kong to India Road Show February 2013

Speech by Mr Frank Poon, JP Solicitor General of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Hong Kong to India Road Show February 2013 Speech by Mr Frank Poon, JP Solicitor General of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Hong Kong to India Road Show February 2013 Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, It is a great pleasure

More information

Master of European Studies: Transnational and Global Perspectives

Master of European Studies: Transnational and Global Perspectives Master of European Studies: Transnational and Global Perspectives KU Leuven. Inspiring the outstanding. Discover KU Leuven Situated in Belgium, in the heart of Western Europe, KU Leuven has been a centre

More information

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ACADEMIC YEAR: DEGREE COURSE YEAR: 1º SEMESTER 2º SEMESTER CATEGORY: CORE COMPULSORY OPTIONAL NO. OF CREDITS (ECTS): 6 LANGUAGE: English TUTORIALS: FORMAT: PREREQUISITES: 1- SUBJECT

More information

Globalization: The end of state Sovereignty?

Globalization: The end of state Sovereignty? Free University of Amsterdam Faculty of social sciences Department of political science Globalization: The end of state Sovereignty? Ofran Badakhshani: 1586513 Words: 1442 Index Introduction... 3 Globalization...

More information

HIGH SCHOOL: WORLD HISTORY

HIGH SCHOOL: WORLD HISTORY HIGH SCHOOL: WORLD HISTORY Standard 1 Historical Thinking Skills Students use information and concepts to solve problems, interpret, analyze, and draw conclusions from historical events. WH.1.1 Produce

More information

GRADUATE INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AND STRATEGIC STUDIES

GRADUATE INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AND STRATEGIC STUDIES COLLEGE OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES 351 GRADUATE INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AND STRATEGIC STUDIES Degrees Offered: M.A. or M.S.S, Ph.D. Chair: Wong, Ming-hsien ( 翁 明 賢 ) The Institute Founded in 1983,

More information

Curriculum Vitae. Educational Background:

Curriculum Vitae. Educational Background: Dr. Raymond Kolter, B.A., LL.M., J.D. Shanghai International Studies University Schools of International Affairs and Law 1550 Wenxiang Rd., Shanghai P.R.C. 200083 Mobile Telephone Number: 86-13651993974

More information

YOUNG PEOPLE, EDUCATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: EXPLORING PRINCIPLES, PERSPECTIVES, AND PRAXIS EDITORS: PETER BLAZE CORCORAN AND PHILIP M.

YOUNG PEOPLE, EDUCATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: EXPLORING PRINCIPLES, PERSPECTIVES, AND PRAXIS EDITORS: PETER BLAZE CORCORAN AND PHILIP M. Background YOUNG PEOPLE, EDUCATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: EXPLORING PRINCIPLES, PERSPECTIVES, AND PRAXIS EDITORS: PETER BLAZE CORCORAN AND PHILIP M. OSANO CONCEPT STATEMENT Almost half of the current

More information

Alternative Dispute Resolution

Alternative Dispute Resolution Alternative Dispute Resolution Michael Cohen, Chairman Emeritus, The Academy of Experts, Past President, EuroExpert Before even starting to look at ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) it is important

More information

Rank Full Journal Title Total Cites

Rank Full Journal Title Total Cites Rank Full Journal Title Total Cites Journal Impact Factor 1 HARVARD LAW REVIEW 4,274 6.567 2 YALE LAW JOURNAL 3,554 3.273 3 STANFORD LAW REVIEW 2,289 2.887 4 MICHIGAN LAW REVIEW 1,780 2.712 5 COLUMBIA

More information

Geneva CUSD 304 Content-Area Curriculum Frameworks Grades 6-12 Social Studies

Geneva CUSD 304 Content-Area Curriculum Frameworks Grades 6-12 Social Studies Geneva CUSD 304 Content-Area Curriculum Frameworks Grades 6-12 Social Studies Mission Statement It is our belief that Social Studies education is ultimately to prepare students to assume the responsibilities

More information

Minor in Arabic and Islamic Studies Proposed by World Languages and Cultures (WLAC) and Religious Studies

Minor in Arabic and Islamic Studies Proposed by World Languages and Cultures (WLAC) and Religious Studies Minor in Arabic and Islamic Studies Proposed by World Languages and Cultures (WLAC) and Religious Studies I. School of Liberal Arts Department: Multiple II. III. Proposed Minor: Arabic and Islamic Studies

More information

Double Master s Degree Program in International Relations between The University of Haifa and The University of Warsaw

Double Master s Degree Program in International Relations between The University of Haifa and The University of Warsaw Double Master s Degree Program in International Relations between The University of Haifa and The University of Warsaw Beginning in October 2015, students at the University of Haifa will have an opportunity

More information

Summary of key points & outcomes

Summary of key points & outcomes Roundtable discussion on Prospects for international criminal justice in Africa: lessons from eastern and southern Africa, and Sudan 8 Dec 2008, Pretoria Summary of key points & outcomes Aims of the roundtable

More information

P: E: APRIL 2015 ISSUE 19

P: E: APRIL 2015 ISSUE 19 P: +61 7 3346 6435 E: r2pinfo@uq.edu.au APRIL 2015 ISSUE 19 Panel of discussants chaired and moderated by Dr Pranee Thiparat, Chulalongkorn University and APR2P country program coordinator for Thailand.

More information

The development of Shinawatra University s international graduate program in joint public and business administration (PBA)

The development of Shinawatra University s international graduate program in joint public and business administration (PBA) The development of Shinawatra University s international graduate program in joint public and business administration (PBA) Introduction: Given the fact that management challenges in terms of political-economic-societaltechnological

More information

Strategy of the Federal and Länder Ministers of Science. for the Internationalisation of the Higher Education Institutions.

Strategy of the Federal and Länder Ministers of Science. for the Internationalisation of the Higher Education Institutions. Strategy of the Federal and Länder Ministers of Science for the Internationalisation of the Higher Education Institutions in Germany (Resolution of the 18th Meeting of the Joint Science Conference in Berlin

More information

The Secularization of the Modern American University

The Secularization of the Modern American University The Secularization of the Modern American University BY J. A. APPLEYARD, S.J. IN CONVERSATIONS ON JESUIT HIGHER EDUCATION, 10 (1996): 31-33 Appleyard is a Professor of English literature and the Vice President

More information

BSC. Planning for the Berlin Security Conference 2016 Review 2015. Europe at risk what are our answers to common threats? Berlin Security Conference

BSC. Planning for the Berlin Security Conference 2016 Review 2015. Europe at risk what are our answers to common threats? Berlin Security Conference BSC Berlin Security Conference 1 5 t h C o n g r e s s o n E u r o p e a n S e c u r i t y a n d Defenc e e Europe at risk what are our answers to common threats? Planning for the Berlin Security Conference

More information

EUI Working Group on International Criminal Law Special Session of

EUI Working Group on International Criminal Law Special Session of EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE DEPARTMENT OF LAW EUI Working Group on International Criminal Law Special Session of 06.06.2005 Universal Jurisdiction and the International Criminal Court: A Complementary

More information