: A Look at Year Olds Who Are Not Working or In School

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1 : A Look at Year Olds Who Are Not Working or In School Prepared By: Joseph McLaughlin, Boston Private Industry Council Ishwar Khatiwada, Center for Labor Market Studies July 2013 Opportunity Youth Disconnected Youth Opportunity Youth and Disconnected Youth are often used interchangeably. The size of the disconnected pool of youth can be measured in a few different ways. The most common measure is the number of year olds who are not in school or working at a point in time (Based on CPS and ACS/ Census surveys). -24 year olds who are insufficiently attached to the labor market or schooling. The phrase insufficiently attached has led some researchers and policymakers to include the following three groups as members of the Opportunity Youth population: Enrolled dropouts- students enrolled in school, but not showing up regularly and not progressing; Youth who are enrolled in college half-time, and not employed; and Youth who are not-enrolled in school, and only working part-time.

2 Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Disconnection Among -24 Year Old Population: Based on Findings From the American Community Surveys Group Total Population # of Disconnected % Disconnected All (16-24) 122,408 11, % Male 58,219 6, % Female 64,190 5, % ,246 2, % ,162 9, % 24% of disconnected females are single mothers. Comparing Disconnection Rates of Olds to State and National Averages -24 Year Group Boston Massachusetts U.S. All (16-24) 9.6% 10.1% 14.6% Male 10.9% 11.4% 15.1% Female 8.5% 8.9% 14.1% % 5.6% 8.7% % 13.8% 19.4%

3 Youth Hispanic, 34.0% Race-Ethnic Distribution Other, 4.4% White, 15.1% Native and Foreign Born Shares Foreign- Born, 27% Asian, 7.4% Black, 39.1% Native Born, 73% Disconnection Rates By Race-Ethnic Group and Nativity Status, Boston, Group Total Population # of Disconnected % Disconnected White 60,269 1, % Black 23,129 4, % Asian 12, % Hispanic 21,579 3, % Other 5, % Foreign-Born 22,587 3, % Native Born 99,822 8, %

4 Comparison of Disconnection Rates of Year Olds Across Race-Ethnic Groups, Boston vs. U.S., % 22.4% 20.0% 19.9% 18.5% 18.4% 15.0% 11.6% 10.0% 7.9% 7.1% 5.0% 2.9% 0.0% White Black Asian Hispanic Boston U.S. Country of Origin of Foreign Born Opportunity Youth in Boston, Country of Birth Number Percent Dominican Republic % Puerto Rico* % Colombia % China % Jamaica % El Salvador % Somalia % Vietnam % Haiti % Cape Verde % Guatemala % Above Countries Combined 2, % Total 3, %

5 Disconnection Rates Across Census Subdivisions of Boston Area of Boston All, Allston/Brighton/Fenway/ Kenmore Charlestown/East Boston/Central/South Boston Roxbury/Mission Hill/ Mattapan South Boston/North Dorchester/South Dorcester Jamaica Plain/West Roxbury/Roslindale/ Hyde Park 1.0% 4.3% 3.0% 5.9% 12.6% 10.4% 11.7% 19.5% 16.6% 11.1% 15.1% 13.6% 4.5% 11.4% 8.9% Educational Attainment Levels of Opportunity Youth in Boston By Age Group, Educational Attainment # % # % High School Dropout 1,077 51% 2,211 23% GED or Alternative Credential 176 8% 1,102 11% Regular High School Diploma % 3,185 33% Some College, but less than 1 year 163 8% 515 5% 1 or more years of college credit, no degree 71 3% 1,525 16% Associate's degree 0 0% 179 2% Bachelor's or Higher degree 0 0% % Total 2, % 9, %

6 Percent of Year Olds Reporting a Disability: Connected vs. Disconnected, % 16.0% 16.4% 14.0% 12.0% 11.9% 10.0% 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% 3.2% Boston Connected Disconnected 4.4% Massachusetts Poverty and Low Income Status of Year Olds in Boston (Connected Vs. Disconnected) Group Connected Disconnected Disconnected Connected (in Percentage Points) Poor 20.5% 37.9% Poor or Near Poor 24.9% 43.4% Low Income 35.8% 54.7% +18.9

7 Employment/Population Ratios of Year Olds in Selected Educational Attainment Groups in the U.S., Per Cent H.S. Dropout H.S. Graduate Years BA or Higher Degree The Full-Time Employment / Population Ratios of Non-College Bound High School Graduates in October 2011, Class of 2011, All and by Race-Ethnic Group, U.S Per Cent All Black Hispanic White, not Hispanic Group

8 Median Weekly Earnings of Young Men (16-24) Relative to Older Men (25 and Over), Selected Years, (in %) Comparisons of the Actual MedianReal Weekly Earnings of Full-Time EmployedYoung Men and the MedianWeekly WagesThey WouldHave EarnedIf They Had MaintainedTheir Real Weekly Earnings GrowthRates, Selected Years (in 2010 Dollars) Actual Weekly Earnings Hypothetical Weekly Earnings

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11 Program Type: Dropout Recovery High School Plus Status / Age: Dropouts / Focus: Diploma + Career Focus and/or Industry-Recognized Credential Program Features Extended school day/year to allow for academic program, vocational training, & field work Specific career-track programs with experience and/or an industry-recognized credential Engages local employers in curriculum design, instruction, and job placement Program Type: Gateway to College Status / Age: Dropouts / Focus: Diploma + Significant College Credit Attainment Foundation Term Small cohort, intensive instruction Learn and practice college ready behaviors Transition to Partner Community College Students take classes at partner community college along with general student population for dual credit Students focus in a pathway/major that is aligned with high school completion. (Allows for maximum college credit acquisition while students complete diploma) Students have total access to college resources. (Fosters sense of engagement and attachment to college and community)

12 Program Type: ChalleNGe Status / Age: Dropouts / Focus: National Comprehensive Programs for Dropouts YouthBuild, Job Corps, Conservation & Service Corps, National Guard Youth Secondary Credential to Employment Program Features Integrate HS education & job training through work/service experience Paid work-based learning & job training Individualized or small group instruction towards HSD/GED Leadership development; play role in program decisions Develop sense of connection to community through service Transition supports to employment or further training (& education to a lesser degree) *Conservation & Service Corps serves dropouts AND graduates Program Type: GED to College Status / Age: Dropouts / Focus: GED + Bridging to Postsecondary Education GED to College Programs College access & completion = indicator of success Academic program to prepare students for college courses (GED preparation supplemental, not the goal) career-oriented curriculum Use pre/post assessments to measure college readiness More Traditional GED Programs GED pass = indicator of success Academic program to prepare students to pass GED test GED textbook Limited/no assessment Clear entry / exit points to build cohorts of students Multiple entry/exit points for individuals Postsecondary bridging & support services (See page on Postsecondary Bridging & First Year College Supports for details) More hours/week over longer period of time Limited/no bridging or support services 6 months or less / hours per week

13 Program Type: Year Up Status / Age: Graduates / Focus: Employment (and postsecondary education to lesser degree) First 6 Months Full time coursework in technical and professional skills training in IT or financial services Students earn college credits (avg. 16) for coursework Employers & community colleges engaged in designing curriculum Professional & communication classes (time management, conflict resolution, business writing, etc) Second 6 Months Paid internship placements at leading US Companies (AOL, American Express, JP Morgan, etc.) Employability skills development (resume writing, mock interviews, etc.) Weekly meetings for students to meet as a cohort & debrief internship experiences Support from Year Up staff & business community members Program Type: Postsecondary bridging & first year college supports Status / Age: Graduates / Focus: Postsecondary education Through College Model Enriched Preparation for College Explicit college going culture College ready curriculum Development of individualized postsecondary plans Postsecondary Bridging Bridging coursework mimics college instruction Development of college-ready behaviors & navigation skills Application & financial aid assistance Programming to build strong peer-to-peer support systems for cohorts that will be enrolling together First Year College Supports Students check in regularly with a designated staff member (min. once a month) Connection to college-friendly work opportunities to help mitigate costs Intensive, unstigmatized academic support to ensure success in credit-bearing courses Performance / effort based incentives & emergency funds available Engage program alumni as mentors *There are few standalone bridging programs. *Most located within existing programs (dropout recovery HS, GED to College programs, programs serving homelessness youth, etc.)

14 Dropout Recovery HS: South Brooklyn Community High School (NYC) Dropout Recovery HS Plus: Mound Street Academies Gateway to College National Network 65% graduation rate One year follow up on 2010 grads: 40% attending school full time 49% fall-to-fall persistence rate (9% higher than persistence for regular students at same partner colleges) More than 90% go on to postsecondary education and/or employment 20% working full time 32 college credits accrued on average during time in program *Funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to codify & replicate model 30% attending school AND working Approximately 75% of Gateway students continue in college after completing program National Comprehensive Program for Dropouts: YouthBuild USA GED to College: LaGuardia Community Business Program Year Up 78% enrollees complete program 63% completers obtained HSD/GED 60% went on to jobs averaging $9.20 per hour 68% GED course completion vs. 47% for comparison traditional GED program 53% GED Exam passing rate 44% passed GED in first 6 months after program 24% enrolled in CUNY 84% graduates employed or attending college full time within 4 months of graduation Employed Year Up grads earn average of $15 per hour Recidivism rates for courtinvolved YB students 40% lower than national average 12% college persistence rate 90% corporate partners would recommend Year Up program to colleague

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