1 MEXICO Attainent rates are steadily increasing Mexico has the highest average annual rate of growth of first-tie upper secondary graduation rates aong OECD countries for which inforation is available. Between 2000 and, upper secondary graduation rates grew by 3.6% annually. Based on these patterns, it is estiated that 49% of today s young Mexicans will graduate fro upper secondary education. By coparison, in 2000, it was estiated that 33% of young Mexicans would attain that level of education (Table A2.2a). Younger Mexicans are attaining higher levels of education than older generations. At 44% the proportion of year-olds with at least an upper secondary qualification is alost twice that of year-olds with the sae level of attainent (23%). A siilar evolution can be seen at the tertiary level. Only 12% of year-olds have attained a tertiary education while 23% of year-olds have done so (Table A1.4a). Even if this proportion of tertiary graduates is still far below the OECD average of 39%, tertiary attainent levels increased by 6 percentage points between 2000 (17%) and (23%) and are now higher than those in Austria (21%), Brazil (13%), Italy (21%) and Turkey (19%) (Tables A1.2a and A1.4a). and virtually all 4-year-olds are now enrolled in education. The proportion of 4-year-olds enrolled in education in Mexico has increased significantly since 2005, when 70% of 4-year-olds were enrolled. In, virtually all 4 year-olds were enrolled in education (A 2002 refor ade pre-priary education copulsory as of the acadeic year ). Mexico devotes 0.6% of its GDP to early childhood education, on par with the OECD average (Table C2.2). Participation in early childhood education has long-lasting benefits: the OECD Prograe for International Student Assessent (PISA) finds that 15-year-old students who had attended at least one year of pre-priary education perfor better in reading than those who did not, even after accounting for socio-econoic background.
2 Chart C2.1. Enrolent rates at age 4 in early childhood and priary education (2005 and ) % Year of reference 2006 instead of Year of reference 2010 instead of. Countries are ranked in descending order of the enrolent rates of 4 year-olds in. Source: OECD. Argentina and Indonesia: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (World Education Indicators Prograe). Table C2.1. See Annex 3 for notes (www.oecd.org/edu/eag.ht). Mexico s overall investent in education reains close to the OECD average One way of looking at spending on education is in relation to a country s national wealth. In 2010, 6.2% of Mexico s GDP was devoted to expenditure on educational institutions, slightly below the OECD average (6.3%), but higher than the proportion of GDP spent on education in Australia (6.1%), Brazil (5.6%), the Russian Federation (4.9%), Spain (5.6%) and Switzerland (5.6%) (Table B2.1). Between 2005 and 2010, expenditure per student by priary, secondary and post-secondary nontertiary educational institutions increased by 4%. Although this rate of increase is far lower than the OECD average of 17% (Table B1.5), expenditure on educational institutions at these levels represented 4% of GDP in 2010 higher than the OECD average of 3.9% of GDP, higher than the proportion of GDP in Canada (3.9%), Chile (3.4%), Spain (3.3%), and equal to that in the United States (Table B2.1) During the sae period, expenditure per student by tertiary educational institutions increased 5%, also below the OECD average increase of 8%, but greater than the increase seen in Australia (1%), Denark (2%), the Netherlands (2%), the Slovak Republic (3%) and Slovenia (4%) (Table B1.5). Expenditure on educational institutions at this level represented 1.4% of GDP in 2010, below the OECD average of 1.6%, but greater than the proportion of GDP spent on tertiary education in Brazil (0.9%), Spain (1.3%) and Switzerland (1.3%), and equal to that seen in the United Kingdo (Table B2.1). yet expenditure per student is low Given the size of Mexico s youth population, increasing expenditure on education does not translate into ore spending per student. Annual expenditure per priary student is 15% of GDP per capita, expenditure per secondary student is 17% of GDP per capita, and per tertiary student, annual OECD 2
3 expenditure jups to 52% of GDP per capita. The average annual expenditure per student fro priary through tertiary education is 20% of GDP per capita well below the OECD average of 28% of GDP per capita (Table B1.4). and ost resources are spent on staff copensation. Mexico devotes 83.1% of its education budget to teachers salaries and 93.3% to copensation of staff all together the highest proportions aong OECD countries (the OECD averages are 62% and 78.2%, respectively) (Table B6.2). Soe 87.2% of spending on priary education is allocated to teachers salaries (the highest proportion aong OECD countries), while 78.1% of spending on secondary education is devoted to teachers salaries (the second highest proportion after Portugal, which allocates 82.9% of spending on secondary education to teachers salaries). By coparison, the OECD average proportions allocated to teachers salaries are 61.8% at the priary level and 62.0% at the secondary level (Table B6.1). Chart B6.1. Distribution of current expenditure by educational institutions for priary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (2010) % of current expenditure 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Copensation of all staff Other current expenditure Mexico¹ 1 Portugal¹ Belgiu Turkey¹ Japan² Luxebourg Switzerland¹ Israel Spain¹ Netherlands Italy¹ United States Ireland¹ Denark² France Slovenia Norway Iceland² OECD Average average Canada² Austria Australia Hungary¹ Brazil¹ Korea Poland¹ Sweden Slovak Republic² Finland Czech Republic United Kingdo 1. Public institutions only. 2. Soe levels of education are included with others. Refer to x code in Table B1.1a for details. Countries are ranked in descending order of the share of copensation of all staff in priary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. Source: OECD. Argentina, Indonesia: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (World Education Indicators Prograe). South Africa: UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Table B6.2. See Annex 3 for notes (www.oecd.org/edu/eag.ht). Despite iproveents, participation rates, particularly after copulsory education, are low... Most Mexicans (64%) have attained below upper secondary education. The proportion of adults who have attained at least upper secondary education (36%) is one of the sallest aong OECD countries, only slightly above those in Portugal (35%) and Turkey (32%) and considerably below the OECD average of 75% (Tables A1.2a and A1.4a). OECD 3
4 Mexico has the lowest enrolent rates aong year-olds (56%) aong OECD countries, even though it has the largest population of this age group in the country s history. (Mexico is changing coverage of copulsory education to include upper secondary education in the cycle, with the ai of attaining universal upper secondary education by Data in this edition of Education at a Glance do not reflect this change.) While the proportion of year-olds who are enrolled in education grew by 14 percentage points since 2000, it is still lower than the OECD average of 84% and that of other Latin Aerican countries such as Argentina (72%), Brazil (77%) and Chile (76%) (Tables C1.1a and C1.2). 100 % Enrolent rates, by age () Mexico OECD average Ages 3 and 4 Ages 5 to 14 Ages 15 to to to 39 Ages 40 and over Source: OECD. See Annex 3 for notes (www.oecd.org/edu/eag.ht). Within four years of leaving copulsory schooling, ore than two-thirds of students have left the education syste entirely. Soe 64% of 16-year-olds are enrolled in upper secondary education, while 37% of 18-year-olds are enrolled in education (20% in upper secondary school and 17% in tertiary education). Only 27% of 20-year-olds are enrolled in education (3% in upper secondary school and 24% in tertiary education) (Table C1.1b). Only 12% of the country s year-olds participate in education three percentage points higher than the participation rate in 2000 and less than half the rate seen aong the sae age group in Argentina (28%) and Chile (27%) and across of OECD countries (28%) (Tables C1.1a and C1.2). which increases the risk of disengageent fro both education and the labour arket In, soe 66.1% of year-olds in Mexico were not in education and 24.7% of that age group were neither eployed nor in education or training (NEET) (Table C5.3a). Mexico has the third highest proportion of NEETs of this age group aong all OECD countries, after Turkey (34.6%) and Israel (27.6%). Within this population of young adults, the proportion of NEETs increases with age: 18.9% of year-olds, 27.2% of year-olds, and 29.5% of year-olds are NEET. However, the OECD 4
5 proportion of NEETs aong year-olds shrinks with educational attainent: 27.6% of young adults with below upper secondary attainent, 18.9% of young adults with upper secondary education, and 16.8% of young adults with tertiary education are NEET (Table C5.4d). The sharp rise in the proportion of NEETs seen in ost OECD countries during the first years of the econoic crisis ( ) was not observed in Mexico. In contrast to other OECD countries, the proportion of NEETs in Mexico has reained stable for ore than a decade (24.6% in 2000, 24.9% in 2005, and 24.7% in ) (Table A5.3a), which indicates that a structural flaw is at the root of the proble. Table 1. Trends in the percentage of the young population neither in education nor eployed in Mexico (1997-) Age group Gender TOTAL MEN WOMEN Ratio % of woen to % of en TOTAL MEN WOMEN Ratio % of woen to % of en Source: OECD, Tables C5.4a, C5.4b and C5.4c especially aong young woen. While woen and en spend siilar aounts of tie in education (an average of 5.0 years and 5.2 years, respectively), based on current patterns, year-old woen are expected to spend ore tie as NEET (5.7 years) than in education. By contrast, en are expected to be NEET for 1.7 years (Tables C51a, b, and c). Indeed, the proportion of woen who were NEET in (37.8%) is ore than three ties larger than the proportion of en who were (11%) (Tables C5.3a and C5.3b); and the proportions grow as this population ages. While the proportion of ale NEETs does not exceed 12% in any age group, ore than a quarter of woen aged 15 to 19, 42% of woen aged 20 to 24, and alost half the woen (47.3%) aged 25 to 29 are NEET. Studies based in the Encuesta Nacional de la Juventud (2010) indicate that ost young NEET woen are housewives, suggesting that the gender gap ay be largely related to cultural atters, such as early arriages and pregnancies. Being neither eployed nor in education or training has serious adverse repercussions on eployability later on, self-sufficiency and gender equality (Tables C5.4b and c). In Mexico, higher educational attainent does not necessarily iply lower uneployent rates. Eployent rates in Mexico tend to be above the OECD average for people with below upper secondary attainent (62% in Mexico copared with the OECD average of 55%), and below the OECD averages at higher levels of attainent (for people with upper secondary or post-secondary non- OECD 5
6 tertiary education, the eployent rate is 71% in Mexico copared with the OECD average of 74%; for tertiary-educated people, the eployent rate is 79% in Mexico copared with the OECD average of 83%) (Table A5.3a). Meanwhile, eployent rates aong woen are substantially lower than those aong en, especially at lower levels of attainent. Soe 42% of woen with below upper secondary education are eployed copared with 87% of en with the sae level of education (Tables A5.3c and d, and Tables A5.4c and d). In, Chile and Mexico were the sole countries where uneployent rates were higher (5.4% and 4.8%, respectively) aong tertiary-educated adults than aong those who had attained an upper secondary education (5.0% and 4.4%, respectively) and aong those who had attained a below upper secondary education (4.4% and 4%, respectively)( Table A5.4a). Even if younger Mexicans have higher levels of educational attainent, they are ore vulnerable to uneployent. Soe 5.8% of year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualifications are uneployed copared to 4% of year-olds with the sae level of attainent. Meanwhile, 7.2% of tertiary-educated year-olds are uneployed copared with 3.4% of year-olds with a tertiary education (Table A5.5c). Other findings Based on current patterns, year-olds in Mexico are expected to spend 5.1 years in education. This one of the shortest aounts of tie in education aong OECD countries slightly longer than in Brazil (5.0 years) and Turkey (4.8 years) and 2 years less than the OECD average (7.1 years). Mexico is also one of three countries, together with Turkey and the United Kingdo, where year-olds are expected to spend ore tie in eployent (6.2 years) than in education and training (5.1 years); and Mexican year-olds are expected to spend 3.7 years neither eployed nor in education or training (NEET). This is the third longest period of being NEET after Israel (4.1 years) and Turkey (5.2 years), equal to that in Spain, and higher than the OECD average of 2.4 years (Table C5.1a). Copared with all other OECD countries, Mexico has the highest student-teacher ratios at all levels of copulsory education. In early childhood education, the ratio is ore than 25 pupils per teacher, far higher than the OECD average of 14.3 pupils per teacher (Table C2.2). The ratio is even higher 28.1 students per teacher in priary education, and highest 29.9 students per teacher at the secondary level (Tables D2.2 and D2.3). The nuber of teaching hours per year at the secondary level is one of the highest of countries with available data. Only in Argentina, Chile and the United States (and Scotland for upper secondary education) are secondary teachers required to teach ore hours than in Mexico. In addition, Mexico s priary level teachers have the largest percentage of working tie at school. (Table D4.1). Please note: all Tables, Charts and Indicators are found in Education at a Glance 2013 (www.oecd.org/edu/eag.ht) Questions can be directed to: Andreas SCHLEICHER Advisor to the Secretary-General on Education Policy, Deputy Director for Education and Skills Eail: Telephone: Country Note Authors: Rodrigo CASTANEDA VALLE Cuauhteoc REBOLLEDO GÓMEZ OECD 6
7 Key Facts for Mexico in EAG 2013 Table Indicator Mexico OECD average Rank aong OECD countries and other G20 countries** Educational Access and Output Enrolent rates C2.1 3-year-olds (in early childhood education) 44% 23% 67% 64% 29 of 36 4-year-olds (in early childhood and priary education) 100% 70% 84% 79% 2 of 36 C1.1a 5-14 year-olds (all levels) 100% 99% 1 of 38 Percentage of population that has attained below upper secondary education A1.4a year-olds 64% 71% 26% 34% 3 of 35 Percentage of population that has attained upper secondary education A1.4a year-olds 19% 14% 44% 44% 34 of 36 Percentage of population that has attained tertiary education year-olds 17% 15% 31% 22% 32 of 36 A1.3a A1.4a C3.1a year-olds 20% 39% 32 of year-olds 23% 17% 39% 26% 32 of year-olds 12% 7% 24% 15% 32 of 36 Entry rates into tertiary education Vocational prograes (Tertiary-type B) 3% 1% 19% 16% 26 of 32 University prograes (Tertiary-type A) 34% 24% 60% 48% 33 of 36 Graduation rates A2.1a A3.1a Percentage of today s young people expected to coplete upper secondary education in their lifetie Percentage of today s young people expected to coplete university education (tertiary-type A) in their lifetie Econoic and Labour Market Outcoes 49% 33% 83% 76% 27 of 27 21% 39% 28% 25 of 26 Uneployent rate of year-olds - Men and Woen A5.4b A5.4d Below upper secondary 4.0% 2.4% 12.6% 8.8% 34 of 35 Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 4.4% 2.9% 7.3% 4.9% 28 of 36 Tertiary 4.8% 3.3% 4.8% 3.3% 14 of 36 Uneployent rate of year-olds - Woen Below upper secondary 3.7% 2.3% 12.2% 9.5% 34 of 35 Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 4.6% 3.3% 8.0% 5.7% 30 of 35 Tertiary 4.9% 3.8% 5.1% 3.6% 14 of 36 Average earnings preiu for year-olds with tertiary education* or latest year available Men and woen 157 A6.1 Men 162 Woen 161 Average earnings penalty for year-olds who have not attained upper secondary education* or latest year available A6.1 C5.4d Men and woen Men Woen Percentage of people not in eployent, education or training for year-olds, by level of education attained Below upper secondary 27.6% 26.9% 15.8% 14.4% 3 of 34 Upper secondary 18.9% 16.7% 16.2% 13.6% 12 of 34 Tertiary 16.8% 15.3% 13.3% 10.6% 9 of 34
8 Key Facts for Mexico in EAG 2013 Table Indicator Mexico OECD average Rank aong OECD countries and other G20 countries** Financial Investent in Education Annual expenditure per student (in equivalent USD, using PPPs) B1.1a Pre-priary education 2280 USD 6762 USD 31 of 32 Priary education 2331 USD 7974 USD 33 of 34 Secondary education 2632 USD 9014 USD 32 of 34 Tertiary education 7872 USD USD 27 of 33 Total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP B2.1 As a percentage of GDP 6.2% 5.0% 6.3% 5.4% 18 of 33 Total public expenditure on education B4.1 As a percentage of total public expenditure 20.6% 23.4% 13.0% 12.6% 1 of 32 Share of private expenditure on educational institutions B3.2a Pre-priary education 16% 18% 14 of 28 B3.2a Priary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education 17% 14% 8% 7% 4 of 31 B3.2b Tertiary education 30% 21% 32% 23% 13 of 30 B3.1 All levels of education 20% 15% 16% 12% 9 of 29 Schools and Teachers D2.2 D1.1 Ratio of students to teaching staff Pre-priary education 25 students per teacher 14 students per teacher 1 of 31 Priary education 28 students per teacher 15 students per teacher 1 of 35 Secondary education 30 students per teacher 14 students per teacher 1 of 36 Total intented instruction tie for students (hours) Priary education 4800 hours 4717 hours 14 of 31 Lower secondary education 3500 hours 3034 hours 10 of 31 Nuber of hours of teaching tie per year (for teachers in public institutions) Pre-priary education 532 hours 994 hours 28 of 29 D4.2 D3.4 Priary education 800 hours 800 hours 790 hours 780 hours 16 of 31 Lower secondary education 1047 hours 1182 hours 709 hours 697 hours 3 of 30 Upper secondary education 848 hours 664 hours 628 hours 3 of 31 Index of change in statutory teachers salaries for teachers with 15 years of experience/iniu training (2000 = 100) Priary school teachers of 23 Lower secondary school teachers of 22 Upper secondary school teachers Ratio of teachers salaries to earnings for full-tie, full-year adult workers with tertiary education Pre-priary school teachers 0.80 D3.2 Priary school teachers Lower secondary school teachers Upper secondary school teachers 0.89 * Copared to people with upper secondary education; upper secondary = 100. ** Countries are ranked in descending order of values. Note: Enrolent rates above 100% in the calculation are shown in italics. '': data is not available.