OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol (OFP) Implementation Agreement

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1 IA OIF-OFP-0.0 f OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol (OFP) Implementation Agreement IA # OIF-OFP-0.0 November 0 Implementation Agreement created and approved by the Optical Internetworking Forum

2 IA OIF-OFP-0.0 The OIF is an international non profit organiation with over 90 member companies, including the world s leading carriers and vendors. Being an industry group uniting representatives of the data and optical worlds, OIF s purpose is to accelerate the deployment of interoperable, cost-effective and robust optical internetworks and their associated technologies. Optical internetworks are data networks composed of routers and data switches interconnected by optical networking elements. With the goal of promoting worldwide compatibility of optical internetworking products, the OIF actively supports and extends the work of national and international standards bodies. Working relationships or formal liaisons have been established with IEEE 80., IEEE 80.3ba, IETF, IP-MPLS Forum, IPv6 Forum, ITU-T SG3, ITU-T SG5, MEF, ATIS-OPTXS,ATIS- TMOC, TMF and the XFP MSA Group. For additional information contact: The Optical Internetworking Forum, Fremont Blvd., Suite 7, Fremont, CA

3 IA OIF-OFP-0.0 Working Group: Physical and Link Layer Title: OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol (OFP) Implementation Agreement Source: Technical Editor PLL Vice-Chair Winston Mok Karl Gass PMC-Sierra Sandia National Laboratories 8555 Baxter Place PO Box 5800 MS 0874 Burnaby, BC, Canada Albuquerque, NM, USA V5A 4V Phone : Phone : Abstract :: Notice : : The OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol Implementation Agreement defines the protocol that enables the switching of Optical ata Unit (OUk/OUflex) of the Optical Transport Network (OTN) hierarchy over a packet fabric within a Network Equipment (NE). This IA provides the segmentation and re-assembly functions required for timing transfer, packet loss detection and replacement, and packet delay variation compensation for the OUk/OUflex clients. This Technical ocument has been created by the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF). This document is offered to the OIF Membership solely as a basis for agreement and is not a binding proposal on the companies listed as resources above. The OIF reserves the rights to at any time to add, amend, or withdraw statements contained herein. Nothing in this document is in any way binding on the OIF or any of its members. The user's attention is called to the possibility that implementation of the OIF implementation agreement contained herein may require the use of inventions covered by the patent rights held by third parties. By publication of this OIF implementation agreement, the OIF makes no representation or warranty whatsoever, whether expressed or implied, that implementation of the specification will not infringe any third party rights, nor does the OIF make any representation or warranty whatsoever, whether expressed or implied, with respect to any claim that has been or may be asserted by any third party, the validity of any patent rights related to any such claim, or the extent to which a license to use any such rights may or may not be available or the terms hereof. For additional information contact: The Optical Internetworking Forum, California Street, Suite 307, Fremont, CA phone 3

4 IA OIF-OFP-0.0 Notice: This Technical ocument has been created by the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF). This document is offered to the OIF Membership solely as a basis for agreement and is not a binding proposal on the companies listed as resources above. The OIF reserves the rights to at any time to add, amend, or withdraw statements contained herein. Nothing in this document is in any way binding on the OIF or any of its members. The user's attention is called to the possibility that implementation of the OIF implementation agreement contained herein may require the use of inventions covered by the patent rights held by third parties. By publication of this OIF implementation agreement, the OIF makes no representation or warranty whatsoever, whether expressed or implied, that implementation of the specification will not infringe any third party rights, nor does the OIF make any representation or warranty whatsoever, whether expressed or implied, with respect to any claim that has been or may be asserted by any third party, the validity of any patent rights related to any such claim, or the extent to which a license to use any such rights may or may not be available or the terms hereof. 0 Optical Internetworking Forum This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction other than the following, () the above copyright notice and this paragraph must be included on all such copies and derivative works, and () this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the OIF, except as needed for the purpose of developing OIF Implementation Agreements. By downloading, copying, or using this document in any manner, the user consents to the terms and conditions of this notice. Unless the terms and conditions of this notice are breached by the user, the limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the OIF or its successors or assigns. This document and the information contained herein is provided on an AS IS basis and THE OIF ISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIE, INCLUING BUT NOT LIMITE TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, TITLE OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. 4

5 IA OIF-OFP-0-0 Table of Contents Table of Contents... 5 List of Figures List of Tables ocument Revision History Introduction OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol Requirements Objectives... 6 Segmentation and Reassembly Models Introduction Ingress SAR Functions Egress SAR Functions Packet Format Ingress Noise Shaping and Egress Filtering Functions Packet Sie ecision Model Ingress Noise Shaping Egress Filtering OUflex Resiing Summary... 7 Glossary... 8 References Normative references Informative references Appendix A: List of Variables Appendix B: Noise Shaping Performance Validation Appendix C: Mapping of OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol Packets into Interlaken Appendix : Results of the PS Governing Equations in Table Appendix E: Examples of Converting Rate ecision () to a sequence of N packets of sies B nom ± Appendix F: Noise Shaping Transfer Function erivation Appendix G: List of companies belonging to OIF when document is approved

6 IA OIF-OFP-0-0 List of Figures Figure Converged Packet and OTN Network... 9 Figure Converged Optical Transport Platform Network Element... 0 Figure 3 OTN Over Packet Fabric Network Element Model... Figure 4 Ingress Functional Blocks (Regenerator)... 3 Figure 5 Ingress Functional Blocks (OUk to OUj/OUflex emultiplexing)... 4 Figure 6 Egress Functional Blocks (Regenerator)... 8 Figure 7 Egress Functional Blocks (OUj/OUflex to OUk Multiplexing)... 8 Figure 8 Packet Format... 0 Figure 9 Bit Ordering Relationship to OTN Octets... Figure 0 Packet Sie ecision Variance High Level iagram... Figure Shaping Components and Model... 3 Figure Noise Transfer Function Mask... 4 Figure 3 Egress Filter Function Mask... 5 Figure 4 Interlaken Burst Format... 3 Figure 5 Noise Shaping Model Figure 6 B+/- Noise Transfer Function

7 IA OIF-OFP List of Tables Table Global Signals... Table Segmentation Ratio (N) for Various OUk/OUflex Rates and Packet Fabric Classes... 5 Table 3 Governing Equations of PS... 6 Table 4 Supported B max Limits... 7 Table 5 Packet Fields... 0 Table 6 Parameters for Sample OUk and OUflex(CBR) streams Table 7 Parameters for Sample OUflex(GFP) Streams

8 IA OIF-OFP ocument Revision History SOURCE: Winston Mok Karl Gass Technical Editor PLL Vice Chair PMC-Sierra Sandia National Laboratories 8555 Baxter Place PO Box 5800 MS 0874 Burnaby, BC, Canada Albuquerque, NM, USA V5A 4V Phone: Phone: ATE: November 0 Issue No. Issue ate etails of Change OIF January 0 raft inherited from OIF with Editor s notes added OIF April 0 Incorporated Editor s notes Updated OUk/OUflex rates breakpoints for Segmentation from OU4.ts to Gbps. Added equations for generating nom,, T adj, T, B nom Added Section on OUflex resiing OIF July 0 Incorporated OIF0.3.0 into Section 4 Updated section on OUflex resiing from OIF to reflect decisions at the May 0 ITU meeting. Fixed typos. OIF July 0 Incorporated editorial comments provided by Ciena. OIF July 0 Incorporated editorial comments provided by Ciena. OIF July 0 Incorporated text from OIF Straw ballot revision OIF October 0 Incorporated straw ballot comment changes from OIF Fixed typos : - Word order in Figure 3 to match text OIF October 0 Incorporated comments from Beijing Plenary. 8

9 IA OIF-OFP Introduction The optical communications network is evolving from a pure TM (SONET/SH) oriented network to a converged Packet (Ethernet) and TM (OTN) network. Historically, Network Elements used separate fabrics, one for packet and another for TM traffic. A single converged fabric is expected to be simpler, and consume less power and shelf real estate. As packet traffic is expected to form a significant portion, and in some cases the majority, of the traffic, it will be economically advantageous to build Network Elements using packet oriented switching fabrics and employ circuit emulation techniques to convert OTN client streams into packet format for switching by the packet fabric. Figure shows a converged network with packet and OTN capable Optical Transport Platform (OTP) Network Elements. Figure Converged Packet and OTN Network The OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol (OFP) Implementation Agreement defines the protocols that enables the switching of OUk/OUflex streams arriving at an ingress linecard of a Network Element to an egress linecard over a packet oriented switching fabric. Protocols such as OIF SPI-S and Interlaken, already exist for connecting packet PHY devices to Packet fabric devices. This IA addresses the segmentation and re-assembly of OUk/OUflex stream such that frequency and phase of the OUk/OUflex stream is preserved. The OUk/OUflex segments can be switched over existing and future packet fabrics. Figure shows the points within an OTP NE where the OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol Implementation Agreement is applicable. 9

10 IA OIF-OFP-0-0 Figure Converged Optical Transport Platform Network Element Packet-switched platform Linecard Vendor A OUk OUk to Pkt SAR Linecard Vendor C OUk to Pkt OUk SAR OTN Ports Fabric Int fc* Packet switch fabric Fabric Int fc* OTN Ports OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol The OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol is based on the mapping of CBR clients into an OUk and the multiplexing of Low Order OUj into a High Order OUk, as defined in ITU G.709. In those definitions, a variable amount of CBR client or OUj data is mapped into each OUk frame, which has a fixed period. The variation in the amount of data encodes the rate of the CBR client or the OUj stream carried within the OUk. This technique, commonly referred to in OTN standards, is called justification and is re-used here as the technique for encoding the timing information of the OUk/OUflex switched across the packet fabric. The rate of the OUk client is encoded by varying the amount of data in each packet, where the packets are constructed over a fixed time period. 5. OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol Requirements The following are the set of requirements that must be met by the OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol in order to support the transport of OUk/OUflex clients across network elements and packet switching fabrics with a variety of implementation characteristics. The OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol shall Provide a mechanism for transferring the timing information of OUk/OUflex client signals across a packet fabric such that ITU-T Recommendation G..85 OCr and OCp timing specifications are still met without reduction in the maximum number of NEs allowed by the G.85 Hypothetical Reference Model, Provide a mechanism for transferring the timing information of OUk/OUflex client signals across a packet fabric that is agnostic to fabric latency and latency variations, o Support packet fabric implementations with a maximum fabric latency of up to 00µs and a maximum latency variation of up to 50µs. o Provides a mechanism to compensate the packet fabric latency to a configurable value (max fabric latency <= config value <= 00µs) with a resolution of better than 5ns. Provide a mechanism to signal the status of the OUk/OUflex client (Status = No efect, Signal egrade, Signal Fail), 0

11 IA OIF-OFP-0-0 Provide a mechanism to protect against a re-frame of the OUk/OUflex stream in the event of single packet loss by the packet fabric Support the use of a common reference 3.04MH clock, that is phase-locked to a common timestamp synchroniation pulse of 8kH, Support packet fabrics with a variety of internal packet sies from 8 to 5 bytes and OUk/OUflex packetiation that allows optimal use of the packet fabric bandwidth, and Support for interoperable receiver and transmitter implementations. Support of packet fabrics that deliver packets out of order is NOT required. Ordered delivery of packets across the packet fabric is the responsibility of the packet fabric itself. 5. Objectives The following are additional objectives that may be met by the OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol in order to support the transport of OUk/OUflex clients across network elements and packet switching fabrics with a variety of implementation characteristics. The OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol may Provide a mechanism to protect against a re-frame of the OUk/OUflex stream in the event of double (consecutive) packet loss by the packet fabric.

12 IA OIF-OFP Segmentation and Reassembly Models 6. Introduction In the context of the OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol, a Network Element (See Figure 3 below) consists of ingress OTN functions, ingress SAR functions, a packet fabric, egress SAR functions and egress OTN functions. A common reference clock (REFCLK) and a synchroniation pulse (SYNC) must be distributed to all ingress and egress SAR functions. REFCLK and SYNC must be derived from a common timing reference and are phase locked to each other. The ingress OTN functions consist of an OTUk framer, which terminates the OTUk overhead, performs Forward Error Correction (FEC) and outputs the corresponding High-Order OUk stream. There may also be one or more OTUjk e-multiplexer stages, which extract Low-Order OUj/OUflex clients from the High-Order OUk carrier stream. The High-Order or Low-Order streams are segmented into packets by the ingress SAR functions and forwarded to a packet fabric. The packet fabric switches the traffic, which is then reassembled by the egress SAR functions back into OU data streams that are processed by the OTN egress functions. In the OTN egress functions, High-Order OUk streams can be adapted to become an OTUk stream with the addition of OTUk overhead and FEC checksum bytes. Low-Order OUj/OUflex streams are multiplexed into a High-Order OUk streams. The entire system must preserve the timing integrity of the OU streams from ingress to egress. Figure 3 OTN Over Packet Fabric Network Element Model Table Global Signals Signal REFCLK SYNC escription 3.04MH SAR reference clock. Used by ingress SAR functions to measure the rate of the incoming OUk/OUflex. Used by egress SAR functions as reference to generate outgoing OUk/OUflex streams. The SAR reference clock may be derived from other system reference rates, such as a 55.5MH clock, which must remain phase-locked with the SYNC signal. 8kH synchroniation pulse. Used by ingress and egress SAR functions to synchronie timestamping used to compensate for packet latency variation.

13 IA OIF-OFP Ingress SAR Functions SYNC is phase-locked to REFCLK. The SAR synchroniation pulse may be derived from other system level synchroniation pulse reference rates, such as kh or 4kH signals. Figure 4 and Figure 5 below shows the functional blocks of the Ingress SAR functions in conjunction with a representative set of ingress OTN functions for cases of with and without OTU multiplexing. These are logical representations only and are not intended to limit implementation. Blocks directly related to OTN Over Packet Fabric are high-lighted in blue. Figure 4 Ingress Functional Blocks (Regenerator) REFCLK OTUk Clock & ata Recovery PLL OTUk Rx Framer OUk Clock Low-Pass Filter Filtered OUk Clock Packet Sie ecision T / N OUk ata Packet Formatter FIC To: Packet Fabric SYNC 3

14 IA OIF-OFP-0-0 Figure 5 Ingress Functional Blocks (OUk to OUj/OUflex emultiplexing) For either of the two cases shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5 above, the OTUk is recovered and processed. In the regenerator case, the OUk clock is low-pass filtered, while in the multiplexed case, the OUj/OUflex is extracted and low pass-filtered, before being forwarded to the Packet Sie ecision (PS) function. The low-pass filter represents the standard 300H bandwidth desynchronier filter specified by the OTN standards. The OUk or OUj/OUflex data is forwarded to the Packet Formatter (PF) function. The PS function makes packet sie decisions related to the rate of the filtered OUk or OUj/OUflex clock. Packet sie decisions are generated at a rate of N decisions every T cycles of the SAR reference clock, (e.g., decision every 37 cycles or 3 decisions every 943 cycles). The Packet Formatter (PF) constructs packets with sies as directed by the PS. Therefore, packets are constructed at an average rate of one packet every T/N cycles of the SAR reference clock and would have an average sie of (OUk/OUflex Rate * T) / (8 * REFCLK * N) bytes. Generating a packet sie decision every T/N cycles may be impractical for some implementations. Thus, it may be desirable to generate an aggregate packet sie decision every T cycles, and subsequently segment it into N individual packet sie decisions. Table below lists the recommended Segmentation Ratio (N) values for various OUk/OUflex (F OU ) rates. 4

15 IA OIF-OFP-0-0 Table Segmentation Ratio (N) for Various OUk/OUflex Rates and Packet Fabric Classes OUk/OUflex Rate N 8-byte fabric 56-byte fabric 5-byte fabric OU0, OU OU, OUe, OUe, OUf, OUf OU3, OU3e, OU3e 8 4 OU F OU <=.0 Gbps F OU <= 4.0 Gbps 8 4 F OU <= 05.0 Gbps F OU <= 5.0 Gbps (informative) (3) (6) (8) F OU <= 45.0 Gbps (informative) (64) (3) (6) F OU <= 00.0 Gbps (informative) (8) (64) (3) Packet sie decisions are equivalent to a common transport function known as justification. Traditional justification mechanisms can produce very low frequency phase discontinuities in the client signal timing that are difficult to filter. A well known technique for generating justification (or packet sie) decisions that minimies this problem is a Sigma-elta Modulator, which makes justification decisions very frequently in order to provide frequency shaping of the phase discontinuities. This technique shall be utilied in the PS function for generating aggregate packet sie decisions to improve timing transfer performance. The individual packet sie decisions are written into a sie decision FIFO. The Packet Formatter, under the control of the individual packet sie decisions read from the sie decision FIFO, produces data packets of the proper sie. It then adds the appropriate packet overhead required by the OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol. This overhead includes a timestamp which is determined by a counter that increments by one at each REFCLK cycle and resets to ero on the rising edge of the SYNC pulse. This counter has a modulo of The timestamp is used by the egress SAR function to compensate for packet latency variations. Other overhead includes bits assigned for error resilience, particularly packet loss, and reporting of client signal status from ingress to egress functions. The PS function is governed by the equations in Table 3 below. A list of variable with a brief description is available in Appendix A. A compliant device shall support N, T, and B generated from Table and Table 3. A device may optionally support T, and B resulting from a T adj that is higher than the value given by Eqn 8. 5

16 IA OIF-OFP-0-0 Table 3 Governing Equations of PS Equation # Eqn max = B max * N Eqn BpRC = F OU / (8 * F REF ) Eqn T max = INT( max / BpRC) Eqn 4 Tmax = Round(T max * BpRC) Equation Eqn 5 ε wc = 0.5 Eqn 6 ε ppm = max * (PPM ref + PPM OU ) * 0-6 Eqn 7 =, when N < 4 = RoundUp ( *(Ɛ wc +Ɛ ppm ) ), when N >= 4 Eqn 8 T adj = RoundUp ( [ Tmax + max ] / BpRC ), when [ Tmax + max ] > 0 T adj = 0, when [ Tmax + max ] <= 0 Eqn 9 T = T max - T adj Eqn 0 avg = T * BpRC Eqn nom = Round ( avg ) Eqn ε nom = avg - nom Eqn 3 = { nom -, nom, nom + } Eqn 4 B nom = Min [Round ( avg /N), B max -] Eqn 5 B = {B nom -, B nom, B nom +} An aggregate packet sie decision () is generated every T cycles of the 3.04MH reference clock (REFCLK). uring the period of (T/3.04MH), the incoming OUk/OUflex stream is expected to deliver an average of avg = (F OU * T) / (3.04MH*8) = nom +ε nom bytes, where nom is the nearest integer, and ε nom is a fractional offset. Note that ε nom can have a positive or a negative value. The actual epsilon (ε act ) is the sum of ε nom, the current ppm offset of the OUk/OUflex stream (ε ppm ), and jitter/wander (ε j ). ε act = ε nom + ε ppm + ε j The nominal aggregate packet sie decision ( nom ) of the OUk is the integer nearest to avg. ε act is encoded by varying the sie decision by +, 0, or -. For example, if nom =80 and ε act =0.33, the PS may generate sie decisions = 80, 8, 80, 79, 8, 8, 80, 80, 79, such that the sequence averages to Given the very high rate of decision generation, the amount of phase contribution by jitter/wander is negligibly small. Thus, ε j can be treated as being 0. An incoming OUflex stream may have a frequency offset of up to ±00ppm. When coupled with the local reference clock offset of ±0ppm, the total effective offset is ±0ppm. At higher OUflex rates, the large ε ppm can cause ε act to be larger than. The variance in must be sufficiently large to span the range of ε act. For good Sigma-elta performance, the decision variance ( ) is set to *(ε ppm + ε wc ), rounded up to the next integer for N>=4. For N<4, it is set to so that every decision can be expressed in exactly N packets with payloads of B nom ± bytes. ε wc is the worst case fractional portion of ε nom, measured from the nearest integer. Thus, ε wc =

17 IA OIF-OFP-0-0 Finally, the PS segments the aggregate packet sie decisions into N individual packet sie decisions. Each packet shall have a sie of B nom ± bytes. The sum of the individual packet sies shall encode the aggregate packet sie decision () losslessly. Packets shall be generated at an average rate of T/N cycles of the 3.04MH system reference clock. The OUk data is sent to the Packet Formatter (PF). The Packet Formatter reads individual packet sie decisions (B) from the Sie ecision FIFO and formats the OUk data into packets of the directed sie. The Packet Formatter maintains a timestamp counter which increments at every cycle of the 3.04MH reference clock (REFCLK). The counter modulo is Thus, the counter period is 5µs. The timestamp counter is initialied to 0 by the 8kH frame pulse (SYNC). In order to allow for small phase variances between the 3.04MH reference clock and the 8kH frame pulse, the counter will not re-initialie to 0 if the current count value is within ±8 of 0, at the time the frame pulse is detected. The value of the timestamp counter at the time of creation of each packet is captured in the overhead bytes of the packet. Table 4 below shows the supported range of B max for 8-byte, 56-byte and 5-byte class of packet fabrics. The range of supported B max provides a range of 0 to bytes of user specific and fabric overhead and 4 bytes of OFP overhead. Table 4 Supported B max Limits Packet Fabric Class Minimum B max Maximum B max 8-byte 4 56-byte byte The Fabric Interface Chip (FIC) takes in packets constructed by the Packet Formatter over an industry standard packet bus, such as OIF SPI-S, or Interlaken, and adds fabric specific overhead bytes. The packets are sent to the Core Fabric for switching to destination egress line cards. In the case of hybrid ingress line cards serving both OTN and packet (eg., Ethernet) clients, the FIC may segment the packet traffic into smaller segments for transfer over the fabric. 6.. Egress SAR Functions Figure 6 and Figure 7 below show the functional blocks of two kinds of egress functions, a regenerator configuration and an OUj/OUflex to OUk multiplexing configuration. They are logical representations only and are not intended to limit implementation. Blocks directly related to OTN Over Packet Fabric are high-lighted in blue. 7

18 IA OIF-OFP-0-0 Figure 6 Egress Functional Blocks (Regenerator) Packet Sie Extraction T / N Low-Pass Filter Filtered OUk Clock From: Packet Fabric FIC Packet elay Variation FIFO Packet Reassembly Read Enable OUk ata OTUk Tx Framer OTUk SYNC REFCLK Figure 7 Egress Functional Blocks (OUj/OUflex to OUk Multiplexing) Packet Sie Extraction T/ N Low-Pass Filter Filtered OUj Clock From: Packet Fabric FIC Packet elay Variation FIFO Packet Reassembly Read Enable OUj ata OTUjk MUX OTUk Tx Framer OTUk SYNC REFCLK OUk Clock OUk packets are delivered by the packet fabric. The Packet Re-assembly (PR) function removes the OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol header bytes and converts the packet stream into a contiguous serial OUk/OUflex stream. The Packet Sie Extraction (PSE) function extracts the sie of each packet. The packet sies are loaded into a FIFO and read out at an average rate of once every T/N cycles of the reference clock. The resulting clock information is low-pass filtered, removing the noise generated by the ingress noise shaper. By metering the rate of packet sie updates to the filter at a precise period, fabric packet delay variations have no impact on jitter and wander of the transmitter OUk/OUflex. 8

19 IA OIF-OFP-0-0 The egress SAR function maintains a timestamp counter which increments at every cycle of the reference clock. The timestamp counter is initialied by the SYNC pulse. The egress SAR function also provides a packet delay variation FIFO for each OUk/OUflex stream. This FIFO buffers some amount of data so that the transmit OUk/OUflex stream is not interrupted by packet delay variations in the fabric. After reset, the depth of the FIFO is initialied by suspending the read operation until the packet at the head of the FIFO is of a configured age, i.e., suspend reading until (timestamp counter packet timestamp) > configured value. The FIFO initialiation process may be used to ensure that all OUk/OUflex streams have the same latency through the Network Element regardless of the packet delay variations in the fabric. The output data stream and its filtered clock are then processed by the OTN functions. For a regenerator application this information is passed to the egress OTN framer. If OUj/OUflex multiplexing is provided, then the information is utilied by the multiplexer and then the multiplexed signal is processed by the OTN framer. 9

20 IA OIF-OFP Packet Format The packet format of the OTN Over Packet Fabric Protocol is shown in Figure 8 below. Each packet contains an optional 0 to byte User Specific and Fabric Overhead field, 4 bytes of OTN Over Packet Fabric overhead field, and an OUk/OUflex Payload field that is B nom ± byte. B nom is software configurable to best match the packet sie characteristics of the packet switching fabric. The definitions of the fields are listed in Table 5. The definition of the User Specific and Fabric Overhead field is outside the scope of this IA. Figure 8 Packet Format Table 5 Packet Fields Field Timestamp RSV SQ PPSI CSI escription Timestamp is a 6-bit count that records the time of creation of the packet relative to the system 8kH frame pulse (SYNC), in steps of 3.04MH system reference clock (REFCLK) cycles. The range of Timestamp is 0 to RSV is a 6-bit field that is reserved for future standardiation. Eg., RSV can be combined with SQ to form a larger sequence number field to support packet fabrics that may deliver packets out of order. SQ is a -bit sequence number used to detect packets dropped by the switching fabric due to, for example, congestion or bit errors. SQ is a binary counting number that increments with every packet, per OUk/OUflex. PPSI is a -bit field that records the sie of the previous packet. When the previous packet is dropped by the switching fabric, the egress linecard can use PPSI to construct a replacement packet of the indicated sie to avoid changing the frame alignment of the OUk/OUflex stream. PPSI = b00 : Previous packet sie is B nom bytes PPSI = b0 : Previous packet sie is B nom + bytes PPSI = b0 : Reserved PPSI = b : Previous packet sie is B nom - bytes PPSI is a s-complement encoding of (-, 0, +). CSI is an optional 3-bit Client Status Indication field that may be used for fast APS applications. CSI carries the status of the OUk/OUflex stream. CSI = b000 : Forces the switching fabric to select this OUk/OUflex even if the alternate stream is in the No efects state. CSI = b00 : No efects detected 0

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