INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES: EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING

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1 Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto Motori with the collaboration of: the MANCHESTER METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY PROCEEDINGS 4 th International Conference on INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES: EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING UNIVERSITATS3IBLIOTHEK HANNOVER TECHNISCHE INFORMATION 55i 3LIOTHEK September, 12 th - 16 th, 1999 Capri - Naples

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS PLENARY LECTURES Advances In Internal Combustion Engine Research C. Arcoumanis Thermofluids Section, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK Pag. 23 Future Engine Technologies R. Rinolfi*. A.Piccone** *Fiat Research Centre - Orbassano, ITALY **Fiat Auto - Torino, ITALY " 33 Recent Advances on Multidimensional Modeling of Combustion in Engines P. Pinchon Institut Fracais du Petrole, FRANCE " 41 Estimation Problems in Engine Control and Diagnosis G. Rizzoni*. Yong-Wha Kim** * Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA ** Scientific Research Laboratory, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI, USA " 61 FLUID DYNAMICS, REACTIVE FLOWS AND COMBUSTION Numerical Simulation of a Lean Direct Injection Combustor Using a Reynolds Stress Closure Model S.L Yang*, B.D. Peschke*. R. Tacina** * Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI ** NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH " 73 Application of Fractal Geometry Concepts in Experiments on Soot Particulates and Fuel Sprays S. di Stasio Istituto Motori, CNR, Napoli, ITALY " 81 Detailed kinetic Modeling of Particulate Formation in High Pressure Conditions A. Violi*, A. D'Anna*, D'Alessio*, M. Astarita**, B.M. Vaglieco** * Universita di Napoli, Federico II, DIC, Napoli, ITALY ** Istituto Motori, CNR, Napoli, ITALY " 89 Flow Field Characterization of the Intake Flow In a Diesel Engine by LDA and PIV M. Auriemma, F.K Corcione, R. Macchioni, G. Valentino Istituto Motori, CNR, Napoli, ITALY " 95 11

3 An Integrated 1D-2D Fluid Dynamic Model for the Simulation of Wave Action in I.C. Engine Manifolds G. D'Errico, A. Onorati, G. Ferrari Department of Energetics - Politecnico di Milano, ITALY Pag- 103 Analysis of Intake Flow Fields in IC Engines Using Steady and Dynamic Water Flow Visualisation under Reynolds Similarity Conditions G. Carpegna* M.G. Usbona*, C. Di Benedetto**, G. Pisani**, V. Rocco** * Centra Ricerche Fiat - Orbassano, ITALY * Universita di Tor Vergata - Roma, ITALY " 111 Polarized Light Scattering Techniques for Fractal Like Soot Characterisation 5. di Stasio*. F. Cignoli**, S. De luliis**, G. Zizak** * Istituto Motori C.N.R., Napoli, ITALY ** Istituto Tecnologia Materiali e Processi Energetici TeMPE - C.N.R, Milano, ITALY " 119 Characterization of Oxygenated Species Formed in the Early Phase of Ignition Process M. de Joannon*, A. Cavaliere*, R. Ragucci** * Dip. Ingegneria Chimica, University di Napoli, ITALY ** Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, C.N.R, ITALY " 125 Spectroscopic Properties of Unburned Species in Combustion Processes B. Apicella*. M. Astarita***, R. Barbella**, A Ciajolo**, A Tregrossi**, B. M. Vaglieco*** * Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica - Universita "Federico II", Napoli, ITALY ** Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, Napoli, ITALY *** Istituto Motori - CNR, Napoli, ITALY " 133 The Effect of Octane-Enhancing Additives on the Autoignition Characteristics of Hydrocarbons A. Ciajolo*, R. Barbella*, A. Tregrossi*, A. D'Anna**, T. Faravelli***, E. Ranzi*** * Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, Napoli, ITALY ** Dip. di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli "Federico H", ITALY *** CIIC Dipartimento di Chimica Industrial e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, ITALY " 139 Preliminary Results of Detailed Kinetics Embedding in a CFD Code: the Case of Supersonic Hydrogen Combustion S. Borrelli*. F.P. DiMaio**, P. Suriano**, P.G. Lignola*** * C.I.R.A. - Centra Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali, ITALY ** Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e dei Materiali, Universita della Calabria, ITALY *** Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, Seconda Universita' di Napoli, ITALY " 147 On the Thermal Behavior of Pyrolysis Oil Droplets J. D'Alessio, M. Lazzaro, P. Massoli, V. Moccia Istituto Motori - CNR, Napoli, ITALY "

4 SI ENGINES: MODELING AND EXPERIMENTS Analyses of the Flow Field and the Combustion Process in a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine J.M. Kech, J. Reissing, J. Gindele, U. Spicher Institut fur Kolbenmaschinen, Universitat Karlsruhe, GERMANY. Pag. 163 Comparison of Measured and Predicted Combustion Characteristics Using an Improved Quasi-Dimensional Model M. Mugele, R. Worret, U. Spicher Institut fur Kolbenmaschinen, Universitat Karlsruhe, GERMANY. " 173 Effects of Instantaneous Flow Field Near the Spark Plug on the Flame Kernel Behavior in a S.I. Engine O. Pajot, C. Mounaim-Rousselle Laboratoire de Mecanique et d'energ&ique - Universal d'orleans, Orleans Cedex 2, FRANCE " 183 APIR: A Novel ICE Combustion Concept P. Higelin, C. Robinet, B. Moreau, O. Pajot Laboratoire de Mecanique et Energ6tique - Universit6 d'orleans, Orleans Cedex 2, FRANCE " 193 Hierarchical Approach to Describe Flow-Spray Interaction in the Transients of S.I. Engines M. E. Biancolini, S. Cordiner, V. Rocco Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'Tor Vergata", ITALY " 201 Numerical Analysis of the Influence of the Stroke-to-Bore Ratio on Tumble Breakdown G.M. Bianchi*. G. Canton**, D. Nicolini**,, L. Sassi***, L Fraboni*** * D.I.E.M. - Universita di Bologna, ITALY ** Dipartimento di Scienze delltngegneria, Universita di Modena, ITALY *** Ferrari Gestione Sportiva, ITALY " 209 Internal Combustion Engines Computational Tools: Use and Development L Andreassi*. A De Maio*. G. Bella**, M. Bernaschi*** * Numidia s.r.1., ITALY ** Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Univ. Di Roma 'Tor Vergata", ITALY *** I.A.C. - C.N.R., ITALY "

5 UQUID FUELS, CNG, AND LPG A Stratified-Charge Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency R. L Evans, Z Gete Dep. of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., CANADA Pag. 231 CFD Modelling of Natural Gas Combustion in the SI Engine A. S. Palipana, W. Malalasekera, E. H. James Department of Mechanical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK " 237 Effect of Injector Pressure on the Combustion and Emissions of a Methanol/DME Fuelled Compression Ignition Engine D. Cipolat University ofthewitwatersrand, School of Mechanical Engineering, Johannesburg, SOUTH AFRICA " 245 Pyrolysis and Oxidation of Toluene behind Reflected Shock Waves F. Douce*, N. Djebaili-Chaumeix*, C. Paillard*, C. Clinard**, J. N. Rouzaud** * Laboratoire de Combustion et Systemes Reactifs C.N.R.S. et University d'orl6ans ** Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, C.N.R.S - " 257 European Transient Cycle and Natural Gas Engines: Results and Comments from the First Tests 7? Pidello*. M. Gambino**, S. Iannaccone**, G. Migliaccio*** * IVECO Engine Business Unit - Piattaforma Metano ** Istituto Motori, CNR, Napoli - ITALY *** Centra Ricerche FIAT, Orbassano, ITALY " 259 Flow and Combustion Characteristics hi a Four-Valve Spark-Ignition Engine Fuelled by CNG C. Arcoumanis, J. W. Kim Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK " 267 Cycle by Cycle Variation hi HD Natural Gas Fuelled Engine S. Cordiner*, M. Feola*, V. Rocco*. M. Gambino**, S. Iannaccone**, * Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Roma 'Tor Vergata", ITALY * Istituto Motori, CNR, Napoli, ITALY " 277 Performance of a Spark Ignited Engine Using Natural Gas and Hydrogen Supplemented Natural Gas A. V. Sita Rama Raju, At. Krishna, A Ramesh, B. Nagalingam Internal combustion Engines Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, INDIA " 285 Advanced Electronic Controlled LPG Liquid Injection System for Automotive Applications A. Gerini*. M. Ferrera*, C. Casacci** * Centra Ricerche Fiat, Orbassano, ITALY ** Metatron, ITALY " 297 Evaluation of Ignition Quality of DME at Diesel Engine Conditions V.I. Golovitchev*, N. Nordin* J. Chomiak* K. Nishida**, K. Wakai** * Chalmers University of Technology, SWEDEN ** University of Hiroshima, JAPAN "

6 DIESEL ENGINES: MODELING AND EXPERIMENTS Modeling of Auto-Ignition in Diesel Sprays Using PDF Approach P. Durand*, M. Gowkhovski*, R. Borghi** * CORIA/LTH-UMR 6614, CNRS-Universit6 de Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan Cedex, FRANCE ** UMR CNRS, IRPHE-IMT-Universit6 Aix Marseille, Marseille Cedex, FRANCE Pag. 309 Numerical Simulation of Transient Behaviour of an EGR-Operated Turbocharged Engine Bozza, M. C. Cameretti, R. Tuccillo Dip. di Ingegneria Meccanica per l'energetica (D.I.M.E.), Universita di Napoli "Federico D", Napoli, ITALY " 313 Modelling of a New Fuel Injection System with a Direct Injection Diesel Engine V. Moisescu*, M. Dinca*, A. Manea** * SC MASTER SA, Bucharest, ROMANIA ** Politehnica University, Bucharest, ROMANIA " 527 Performances of a DI Diesel Engine with CR Injection System, Burning Fuels of Different Quality C. Beatrice, N. Del Giacomo, M.na Migliaccio, C. Bertoli Istituto Motori CNR Napoli, ITALY " 327 Soot Oxidation Model 5. Pischinger, H. Backer, M. Hopp, A. Pungs Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA), Aachen University of Technology, GERMANY " 333 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Ignition in a Diesel Engine M. Astarita*, F. E. Corcione*. M. Costa*, B. M. Vaglieco*, A. De Maio** * Istituto Motori - CNR - Napoli, ITALY ** IAC - CNR - Roma, ITALY " 339 Numerical Simulation of Common Rail D.I. Diesel Engine C. Beatrice, P. Belardini, C. Bertoli, N. Del Giacomo, M.na Migliaccio Istituto Motori del C.N.R. Napoli, ITALY " 347 Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Mono and Multi Components Fuels on Soot Formation in a Diesel Engine M. Astarita, F. E. Corcione, B. M. Vaglieco Istituto Motori - CNR, Napoli, ITALY " 355 A Theoretical Investigation on the Effects of Combustion Chamber Geometry and Engine Speed on Soot and NOx Emissions A. De Risi, D. F. Manieri, D. Laforgia Universita degli Studi di Lecce, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'innovazione, Lecce, ITALY "

7 VEHICLE REAL USE: EMISSIONS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION Road Engine Dynamic Identification of Using Moment Answer Given for the Dynamics Accelerator Signal B. Szautner Transportation Engineering Faculty of Technical University of Budapest, HUNGARY Pag. 375 Statistical Identification of Random Vibrating Processes for Road Vehicle Engines N. Horvath*, B. Szautner** * Budapest University of Technology - Department of Vehicle Chassis and Light Heavy Structures ** Transportation Engineering Faculty of Technical University of Budapest, HUNGARY " 379 Combining Macroscopic Traffic Data, Average Speed Emissions and Instantaneous Emission Factors: the Kinematics Correction Factor as an Innovative Tool for Traffic Policies Assessment E. Negrenti*. G. Zanini** * ENEA-Energy Dept, Roma, ITALY ** ENEA Environment Dept, Bologna, ITALY " 385 Measuring Real Driving Cycles and Evaluating Relative Emissions for Vehicles in Urban Traffic G.A Danieli S. d'elia Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita della Calabria, ITALY " 393 Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Performance and Emissions of a Motorbike GA. Danieli * D. Mundo *, F. Mundo *, M.na Migliaccio ** * Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita della Calabria, ITALY ** Istituto Motori del CNR, Napoli, ITALY " 401 Road Traffic Average Emissions of a 2-Liter Gasoline Car in Urban Expressway L. Della Ragione, M. V. Prati, M. Rapone Istituto Motori CNR, Napoli, ITALY " 409 Comparison of Real Traffic Emissions of a Conventional Diesel Van and a Series Hybrid Van L. Pelkmans, P. Coenen, P. Debal Vito - Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Mol, BELGIUM "

8 EMISSIONS MEASUREMENT AND AFTER-TREATMENT Exhaust emission and fuel consumption from Otto engine fuels and some petrol components A. Laveskog, H. Lu MTC AB, Armaturv. 1, Haninge, SWEDEN Pag. 425 Study of Emission Characteristics of Air Pollutants from 4-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine with Emulsified Fuel at both Shop and On-board Tests Y. Nakajima*, Y. Takasugi*. M. Kikuchi*. M. Kuwabara*, S. Nishio*, E. Ishimura*. J. Zhang*, S. Yamamoto** * Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport, Tokyo - JAPAN ** Institute for Sea Training, Ministry of Transport, Kanagawa - JAPAN " 433 Optimisation Development of Advanced Exhaust Gas After-Treatment Systems for Automotive Applications M. Presti, R. Briick, P. Hirth, W. Maus Emitec GmbH - Lohmar, GERMANY " 443 Variation in Concentration of Gaseous and Particulate Compounds in the Atmosphere of Different Traffic Intensity A. Milukaite, V. Morkunas, P. Jurgutis Institute of Physics, Vilnius, LITHUANIA " 457 Hydrocarbon Trapping on Zeolite Based Adsorbents at Automotive Exhaust During Cold Start P. Corbo*, F. Migliardini*. P. Ciambelli**, M.C. Gaudino** * Istituto Motori CNR, Napoli, ITALY ** Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare, Universita di Salerno, ITALY " 455 Catalytic Filter for Diesel Soot Low Temperature Oxidation P. Ciambelli*, V. Palma*. P. Russo*, S. Vaccaro** * Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare, Universita di Salerno - Fisciano (SA), ITALY ** Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Napoli Federico II - Napoli, ITALY " 463 Diesel Particulate Filter Based on Ceramic Foams G. Boretto*, M. Debenedetti*. D. Marzorati*, B. M. Vaglieco** * Centra Ricerche Fiat, Orbassano, ITALY * C.N.R. Istituto Motori, Napoli, ITALY " 469 Development Strategies for Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Systems to Meet EU IV Emission Levels with GDI Vehicles G. Holy, W. F. Piock, E. Unger AVL List GmbH ; Graz, AUSTRIA " 477 Emission Control Technologies on Small Cars A. Caraceni*, V. Cioffi*. A. Senatore**, G.Vaudo** * Elasis S.C.p.A., ITALY ** Universita di Napoli "Federico U", ITALY "

9 FUEL INJECTION & SPRAY Temporal Structure of Dense Diesel Sprays 6. L. Gulden G. J. Smallwood National Research Council Canada, ICPET, Combustion Research Group, M-9, Ottawa, CANADA Pag. 497 Numerical Modeling of Auto-Ignition, Combustion, and Soot Formation for n-heptane Sprays hi a High Pressure Constant-Volume Chamber F. Too, V.I. Golovitchev, J. Chomiak Department of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, SWEDEN " 505 Spatial Distribution Measurement of D.I. Gasoline Spray via Holographic Patternator M. Yamakawa*, T. Yoshizaki*, K. Nishida*, M. Kamikawa**, H. Hiroyasu*** * Univ. of Hiroshima, JAPAN ** Niigata Engineering, JAPAN *** Kinki Univ., JAPAN " 575 Modelling of Sprays from Asymmetric Single-Hole Sac-Type Nozzles C Arcoumanis*. M. Gavaises*. G. Bergeles**, T. Callitsis** * Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Thermofluids Section, UK ** National Technical University of Athens, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Fluids Section, Lab. of Aerodynamics, UK " 523 Modeling Atomization and Drop Breakup of High-Pressure Diesel Sprays L Allocca*, F.E. Corcione*, P. Pelloni**, G.M. Bianchi**, F. Luppino Bertoni***, D. Ivaldi *** * CNR - Istituto Motori - Napoli, ITALY ** D.I.E.M. -Universita di Bologna, ITALY *** VM - Motori Cento- Ferrara, ITALY " 533 Image Diagnostics of Common Rail Diesel Sprays Evolving hi Nitrogen Ambient at Different Densities S. Alfuso, L. Allocca, F.E. Corcione, S. di Stasio Istituto Motori C.N.R., Napoli, ITALY " 547 Experimental and Computational Analysis of a Diesel Spray G. Bella*, R. Rotondi *, F.E. Corcione**, G. Valentino** * Universita di Roma, 'Tor Vergata", Roma, ITALY ** Istituto Motori, CNR, Napoli, ITALY " 553 Modeling and Research of the Two-Stages Fuel Injection Pump 7. Iliescu Institute for Thermal Machines, Bucharest, ROMANIA "

10 ENGINE SIMULATION AND CONTROL Observation of Idle Regulation Strategies Using Stepper Motors Idle Valves V.Mahieu, B.Leduc Brussels University - Ulb, BELGIUM Pag. 567 Design, Modeling and Optimization of Hybrid-Electric Powertrains G. Rizzoni*. T. Miller*, B. Glenn*, A. Brahma* Y. Guezennec*, G. Washington*, L Guzzella** * Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA ** Institut fur Energietechnik, Laboratorium fur Motorsysteme, ETH-Z, Zurich, SWITZERLAND " 573 Cylinder Thermal State Detection from Pressure Cycle in SI Engine 7. Arsie - G. Flauti - C. Pianese - G. Rizzo Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica - Universita di Salerno - Fisciano (Sa), ITALY " 587 Enhanced use of 3-D CFD and Combustion Simulation to Optimize the Development of ECU-Control Algorithms for GDI Spark Ignited Engines M. Pontoppidan*. G. Bella**, A. DeMaio**, V. Rocco** * Engine Control Division - Magneti Marelli, FRANCE ** Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica - Universita TorVergata, Roma, ITALY " 589 Experimental Investigation of Noise Reduction Methods in Camshaft Drive System of Diesel Engines O. Nitulescu Institute for Thermal Machines, Bucharest, ROMANIA " 597 Role of Mass Transport and Chemical Kinetics hi the Dynamics of Monolith Catalytic Reactors V. Faraoni*. S. Santini**, L Glielmo**, G. Continillo*** * Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita Federico U, Napoli, ITALY ** Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica, Universita Federico U, Naples, ITALY *** Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita del Sannio, Benevento, ITALY " 605 TWO STROKE ENGINES What is the Future of the Two-Stroke S.I. Engine? R. Gentili, S. Frigo Dipartimento di Energetica - Universita di Pisa, ITALY " 675 A Physically Based Scavenging Model Applied to a Small Size Two-Stroke Engine F. Bozza, A. Gimelli, A. Unich, R. Cozzolino Dip. di Ingegneria Meccanca per renergetica (DIME), Universita di Napoli "Federico II", ITALY " 623 Gasoline Direct Injection for Two-Stroke Scooter-Engines Concept, Modeling and Performances C. Stan*, J.-L Lefebvre**, M. Lebrun***, L Martorano**** * West Saxon University of Zwickau, GERMANY ** Peugeot-Motocycles, Beaulieu-Mandeure, FRANCE *** Imagine SA, Roanne, FRANCE * ** University of Pisa, ITALY " 633 AUTHORS INDEX "

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