Animal production food safety

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1 No P. Blandin Animal production food safety Organisation Mondiale de la Santé Animale World Organisation for Animal Health Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal

2 content editorial Access to regional and global markets for all: a new priority for the OIE forum The role of the Veterinary Services in food safety OIE news new OIE publications meetings & visits news from headquarters regional activities official acts news from colleagues epidemiology & animal disease control programmes and 57 zoonoses activities of reference laboratories & collaborating centres international news book review special events agenda ISSN FOUR ISSUES PER YEAR Chief editor: Bernard Vallat Copy editor: Bulletin Editorial Committee Printer: Jouve Design: OIE/Rialto/P. Blandin Subscriptions:

3 editorial Access to regional and global markets for all: a new priority for the OIE The creation of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) in 1924 gave the international community, well before the creation of the United Nations, a totally new tool for limiting the regional and global spread of contagious animal diseases. From the 28 founding countries, whose representatives are now hailed as visionaries, membership has since grown to 172. Though the OIE s initial objectives have been expanded, they remain just as relevant today. In 1994, the founding countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO) gave the OIE a mandate to publish standards aimed at avoiding the introduction of pathogens via international trade in animals and animal products, while at the same time preventing countries from setting up unjustified sanitary barriers. The OIE was already doing this, but WTO recognition has enhanced the reputation of OIE standards still further. In May 2005, the Delegates of Member Countries and Territories unanimously adopted the Fourth Strategic Plan, thereby confirming the broadening of the scope of the OIE s standards and guidelines to include animal welfare and animal production food safety. The OIE s Terrestrial Code and Aquatic Code contain all the standards democratically adopted by the Members of the OIE. Their companion volumes, the Terrestrial Manual and Aquatic Manual, specify reference techniques for diagnosing animal diseases and quality requirements for vaccines should they need to be used. OIE standards can be categorised as either horizontal or vertical. Horizontal standards are those dealing with generic aspects, such as ethics in international trade or the quality of national Veterinary Services, a sine qua non condition for importing countries to trust the reliability of health certificates OIE standards are now being prepared on the basis of a highly meticulous risk analysis taking into account the fact there is no such thing as zero risk accompanying consignments of animals and products in cross-border trade (these certificates must be issued exclusively by the Veterinary Services under the full responsibility of the government of the exporting country). Vertical standards are those dealing directly with recommendations on each of the animal diseases and zoonoses (currently around one hundred diseases) listed by decision of the General Assembly of OIE Members. In most cases they include the methods to be applied by national Veterinary Services to conduct surveillance for these diseases, detect them more easily and control them, before a Member Country or Territory can, if appropriate, be considered free from a given disease. In the majority of cases, chapters on a specific disease include recommendations aimed at avoiding any transboundary spread of the disease during the export of live animals or animal products such as meat, milk, hides and skins, wool, honey, etc. The risks do in fact differ according to the commodity in question and, in particular, according to the procedures they undergo to inactivate any harmful pathogens they may be carrying. All these standards, prepared by leading international experts on the diseases in question, are democratically adopted by the General Assembly of OIE Members. In the event of a trade dispute between Members over sanitary measures, the OIE is ready to act as a mediator, at the Members request, using a science-based procedure involving these same experts. It is highly likely that, even if a dispute between Members were taken to the WTO level, these experts would again be called upon to give the same opinion. OIE standards are now being prepared on the basis of a highly meticulous risk analysis taking into account the fact there is no such thing as zero risk. The wealth and range of the standards published in this way will undoubtedly enable importing countries to reduce the use of sometimes quite arbitrary risk analysis methods, and instead favour

4 editorial a more systematic use of OIE standards, in accordance with disease. Though this approach is acceptable for a few the WTO s SPS 1 Agreement. There can be no doubt whatever days while awaiting more precise information on the that this development will mark a further step towards making animal health situation in the affected country, it should world trade more open to all, thanks to better transparency rapidly be replaced by protection measures based on OIE when all are using the same standards. standards and recommendations for each of the We must nevertheless maintain our efforts to improve the commodities concerned. The decisions taken by some presentation and exhaustiveness of the OIE s Codes and Members to impose a total ban on imports of animals and Manuals, and from now on this will be one of our products without referring to the relevant provisions of the Organisation s new priorities. Codes for these commodities are wholly unacceptable. To facilitate the work of Having said this, the OIE will do governments, Veterinary Services and the various operators, a more structured presentation of standards for each disease, applicable on the one hand to live animals and on the other hand to each of the different products, will gradually be introduced. Moreover, some chapters on specific diseases do not The positive impact of animal health policies on poverty reduction and public health is in itself ample justification for financing and maintaining surveillance networks all in its power to avoid an approach based solely on the systematic inactivation of pathogens in products, which could lead Members to relax their surveillance for animal diseases and their policies on the prevention and control of potential biological disasters. The positive impact of animal currently provide sufficiently detailed information on the health policies on poverty reduction and public health is in innocuousness of certain products that have undergone itself ample justification for financing and maintaining processes to render them harmless, regardless of the animal surveillance networks and rapid response teams to deal health status of the exporting country. In this respect it is with any recognised animal health threat. important to take into account the constantly evolving To guarantee the effectiveness of surveillance at the industrial and food technologies and the advances they offer national, regional and worldwide level, an inescapable pre in inactivating pathogens potentially present in food and in requisite is for all Members to comply with OIE standards products intended for industry. on the quality and evaluation of Veterinary Services. In To this end, the OIE will bring its influence to bear on addition to their surveillance mission, the Veterinary agrifood industries and research institutions to encourage the Services are also responsible for the reliability of the development of new research programmes to address veterinary certificates they issue. These certificates unresolved issues of major importance to the development accompany every consignment of animals or animal of world trade. For instance, a better knowledge of the products transported in international trade globally. conditions under which the foot and mouth disease virus Compliance with the OIE s standards of quality for the survives or is killed during the meat maturing process might Veterinary Services ensures that these certificates are well have a major impact on the normative provisions and the issued under conditions that guarantee their reliability, so way in which OIE Members apply the standards contained in that granting access to regional and global markets for all the Terrestrial Code chapter on foot and mouth disease. will not pose a threat to the safety of international trade in This is an important issue, given that more than one hundred our globalised world. OIE Members are still infected with this disease. The OIE will also do its utmost to induce a change of attitude on the part of certain importing countries that ban all imports from a country that has declared an epizootic Bernard Vallat Director General, OIE 1- Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement (SPS) of the World Trade Organisation (WTO)

5 forum The role of the Veterinary Services in food safety The purpose of this paper, which was written by Dr Stuart Alexander Slorach, Chairman of the OIE Working Group on Animal Production Food Safety, Former Chairperson of the Codex Alimentarius Commission and former Deputy Director-General of the National Food Administration in Sweden, is to provide guidance to OIE Member Countries and Territories in regard to the role and responsibilities of Veterinary Services in food safety, to assist them in meeting the food safety objectives laid down in national legislation and the requirements of importing countries. Definitions The following definitions, from the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (the Terrestrial Code) (5), are relevant to this paper. Throughout the paper, terms that are defined in the Terrestrial Code appear in italics. Veterinarian means a person registered or licensed by the relevant veterinary statutory body to practise veterinary medicine/science in that country. Veterinary Services means the governmental and non-governmental organisations that implement animal health and welfare measures and other standards and guidelines in the Terrestrial Code in the country. The Veterinary Services are under the overall control and direction of the Veterinary Authority. Private veterinary organisations are normally accredited or approved to deliver functions by the veterinary authority. Veterinary Authority means the Governmental Authority of a Member Country or Territory, comprising veterinarians, other professionals and paraprofessionals, having the responsibility and competence for ensuring or supervising the implementation of animal health and welfare measures, international veterinary certification and other standards and guidelines in the Terrestrial Code in the whole country. The Veterinary statutory body is an autonomous authority regulating veterinarians and veterinary para professionals. Zoonosis means any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from animals to humans. Background Historically, the Veterinary Services were set up to control livestock diseases at the farm level. There was an emphasis on prevention and control of the major epizootic diseases of livestock and of diseases that could affect humans (zoonotic diseases). As countries begin to bring the serious diseases under control, the scope of official animal health services normally increases to address production diseases of livestock, where control leads to more efficient production and/or better quality animal products

6 forum The role of the Veterinary Services has traditionally extended from the farm to the slaughterhouse, where veterinarians have a dual responsibility epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases and ensuring the safety and suitability of meat. The education and training of veterinarians, which includes both animal health (including zoonoses) and food hygiene components, makes them uniquely equipped to play a central role in ensuring food safety, especially the safety of foods of animal origin. As described below, in addition to veterinarians, several other professional groups are involved in supporting integrated food safety approaches throughout the food chain. In many countries the role of the Veterinary Services has been extended to include subsequent stages of the food chain in the farm to fork continuum (1, 2). Approaches to food safety The concept of the food production continuum Food safety and quality are best assured by an integrated, multidisciplinary approach, considering the whole of the food chain. Eliminating or controlling food hazards at source, i.e. a preventive approach, is more effective in reducing or eliminating the risk of unwanted health effects than relying on control of the final product, traditionally applied via a final quality check approach. Approaches to food safety have evolved in recent decades, from traditional controls based on good practices (Good Agricultural Practice, Good Hygienic Practice, etc.), via more targeted food safety systems based on hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) to risk-based approaches using food safety risk analysis (4). Risk-based management systems The development of risk-based systems has been heavily influenced by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement). This Agreement stipulates that signatories shall ensure that their sanitary and phytosanitary measures are based on an assessment of the risks to human, animal or plant life or health, taking into account risk assessment techniques developed by relevant international organisations. Risk assessment, the scientific component of risk analysis, should be functionally separated from risk management to avoid interference from economic, political or other interests. The SPS Agreement specifically recognises as the international benchmarks the standards developed by the OIE for animal health and zoonoses and by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for food safety. In recent decades there has also been a trend towards a redefinition of responsibilities. The traditional approach, whereby food operators were primarily held responsible for food quality while regulatory agencies were charged with assuring food safety, has been replaced by more sophisticated systems that give food operators primary responsibility for both the quality and the safety of the foods they place on the market. The role of the supervisory authorities consists of analysing scientific information as a basis to develop appropriate food safety standards (both processing and end-product standards) and monitoring to ensure that the control systems used by food

7 forum operators are appropriate, validated and operated in such a way that the standards are met. In the event of non-compliance, regulatory agencies are responsible for ensuring that appropriate sanctions are applied. The Veterinary Services play an essential role in the application of the risk analysis process and the implementation of risk-based recommendations for regulatory systems, including the extent and nature of veterinary involvement in food safety activities throughout the food chain, as outlined below. Each country should establish its health protection objectives, for animal health and public health, through consultation with stakeholders (especially livestock producers, processors and consumers) in accordance with the social, economic, cultural, religious and political contexts of the country. These objectives should be put into effect through national legislation and steps should be taken to raise awareness of them both within the country and among trading partners. ensure epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases Functions of the Veterinary Services The Veterinary Services contribute to the achievement of these objectives through the direct performance of some veterinary tasks and through the auditing of animal and public health activities conducted by other government agencies, private sector veterinarians and other stakeholders. In addition to veterinarians, several other professional groups are involved in ensuring food safety throughout the food chain, including analysts, epidemiologists, food technologists, human and environmental health professionals, microbiologists and toxicologists. Irrespective of the roles assigned to the different professional groups and stakeholders by the administrative system in the country, close cooperation and effective communication between all involved is imperative to achieve the best results from the combined resources. Where veterinary or other professional tasks are delegated to individuals or enterprises outside the Veterinary Authority, clear information on regulatory requirements and a system of checks should be established to monitor and verify performance of the delegated activities. The Veterinary Authority retains the final responsibility for satisfactory performance of delegated activities. At the farm level Through their presence on farms and appropriate collaboration with farmers, the Veterinary Services play a key role in ensuring that animals are kept under hygienic conditions and in the surveillance, early detection and treatment of animal disease, including conditions of public health significance. The Veterinary Services may also provide livestock producers with information, advice and training on how to avoid, eliminate or control food safety hazards (e.g. drug and pesticide residues, mycotoxins and environmental contaminants) in primary production, including through animal feed. Producers organisations, particularly those with veterinary advisors, are in a good position to provide awareness and training as they are regularly in contact with farmers and are well-placed to understand their priorities. Technical support from the Veterinary Services is important and both private veterinarians and employees of the Veterinary Authority can assist. The Veterinary ensure the safety and suitability of meat from food-producing animal

8 forum Services play a central role in ensuring the responsible and prudent use of biological products and veterinary drugs, including antimicrobials, in animal husbandry. This helps to minimise the risk of developing antimicrobial resistance and unsafe levels of veterinary drug residues in foods of animal origin. Appendix of the Terrestrial Code contains guidelines on the use of antimicrobials. It should be remembered that safety of products derived from food producing animals begins at the farm level with good sanitary surveillance and good animal health Meat inspection Slaughterhouse inspection of live animals (ante-mortem) and the carcasses (postmortem) plays a key role in both the surveillance network for animal diseases and zoonoses and ensuring the safety and suitability of meat and by-products for their intended uses. Control and/or reduction of biological hazards of animal and public health importance by ante- and post-mortem meat inspection is a core responsibility of the Veterinary Services and they should have primary responsibility for the development of relevant inspection programmes. Wherever practicable, inspection procedures should be risk-based. Management systems should reflect international norms and address the significant hazards to both human and animal health in the livestock being slaughtered. The Codex Alimentarius Code of Hygienic Practice for Meat (CHPM) (3) constitutes the primary international standard for meat hygiene and incorporates a risk-based approach to application of sanitary measures throughout the meat production chain. Appendix of the Terrestrial Code contains guidelines for the control of biological hazards of animal health and public health importance through ante- and postmortem meat inspection, which complement the CHPM. Traditionally, the primary focus of the OIE Codes was on global animal health protection and transparency. Under its current mandate, the OIE also addresses animal production food safety risks. The Terrestrial Code includes several standards and guidelines aimed at protecting public health (such as Appendix Guidelines for the control of biological hazards of animal health and public health importance through ante- and post- mortem meat inspection) and work is underway developing new standards to prevent the contamination of animal products by Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The OIE and the Codex Alimentarius Commission collaborate closely on the development of standards to ensure seamless coverage of the entire food production continuum. The recommendations of the OIE and those of the Codex Alimentarius Commission on the production and safety of animal commodities should be read in conjunction with each other. The Veterinary Authority should provide for flexibility in the delivery of meat inspection services. Countries may adopt different administrative models, involving degrees of delegation to officially recognised competent bodies operating under the supervision and control of the Veterinary Authority. If personnel from the private sector are used to carry out ante- and post-mortem inspection activities under the overall supervision and responsibility of the Veterinary Authority, the Veterinary Authority should specify the competency requirements for all such persons and verify their performance. To ensure the effective implementation of ante- and postmortem inspection procedures, the Veterinary Authority should have in place

9 forum systems for the monitoring of these procedures and the exchange of information gained. Animal identification and animal traceability systems should be integrated in order to be able to trace slaughtered animals back to their place of origin, and products derived from them forward in the meat production chain. Certification of animal products for international trade Another important role of the Veterinary Services is to provide health certification to international trading partners attesting that exported products meet both animal health and food safety standards. Certification in relation to animal diseases, including zoonoses, and meat hygiene should be the responsibility of the Veterinary Authority. Certification may be provided by other professions (a sanitary certificate) in connection with food processing and hygiene (e.g. pasteurisation of dairy products) and conformity with product quality standards. Other roles of the Veterinary Services Most reported outbreaks of foodborne disease are due to contamination of foods with zoonotic agents, often during primary production. The Veterinary Services play a key role in the investigation of such outbreaks all the way back to the farm and in formulating and implementing remedial measures once the source of the outbreak has been identified. This work should be carried out in close collaboration with human and environmental health professionals, analysts, epidemiologists, food producers, processors and traders and others involved. In addition to the roles mentioned above, veterinarians are well-equipped to assume important roles in ensuring food safety in other parts of the food chain, for example through the application of HACCP-based controls and other quality assurance systems during food processing and distribution. The Veterinary Services also play an important role in raising the awareness of food producers, processors and other stakeholders of the measures required to assure food safety. Strengthen the contribution of the Veterinary Services to food safety In order for Veterinary Services to make the best possible contribution to food safety, it is important that the education and training of veterinarians in the roles outlined in this paper meet high standards and that there are national programmes for ongoing professional development. The Veterinary Services should comply with the OIE fundamental principles of quality given in Chapter of the Terrestrial Code. Guidelines for the evaluation of Veterinary Services are provided in Chapter of the Terrestrial Code and in the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (the OIE PVS Tool). There should be a clear and well-documented assignment of responsibilities and chain of command within the Veterinary Services. The national Competent Authority should provide an appropriate institutional environment to allow the Veterinary Services to develop and implement the necessary policies and standards and adequate resources for them to carry out their tasks in a sustainable manner

10 forum In developing and implementing policies and programmes for food safety the Veterinary Authority should collaborate with other responsible agencies to ensure that food safety risks are addressed in a coordinated manner. References 1. Bénet J.-J. & Bellemain V. (2005). Responding to consumer demands for safe food: a major role for veterinarians in the 21st Century. Paper 3. Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) (2005) Code of Hygienic Practice for Meat (CAC/RCP ). FAO/WHO, Rome, Italy. presented at the 28th World Veterinary Congress. OIE Seminar: Challenges in responding to new international and social demands on the veterinary profession. Minneapolis, USA, July. 4. McKenzie A.I. & Hathaway S.C. (2006). The role and functionality of Veterinary Services in food safety throughout the food chain. In Animal production food safety challenges in global markets (S.A. Slorach, ed.). 2. Bénet J.-J., Dufour B. & Bellemain V. (2006). The organisation and Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 25 (2), functioning of Veterinary Services: results of a 2005 survey of Member 5. World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) (2007). Terrestrial Animal Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health. In Animal Health Code, 16th Ed. OIE, Paris. production food safety challenges in global markets (S.A. Slorach, ed.). Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 25 (2),

11 OIE news new OIE publications These publications are available for purchase from the OIE e-bookshop (publications) Scientific and Technical Review Vol. 27 (1), 2008 Changing trends in managing aquatic animal disease emergencies Co-ordinator: Eva-Maria Bernoth April 2008 Trilingual ISBN Format: cm Approximately 300 pp. Price: 55 It is twelve years since the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) published Preventing the spread of aquatic animal diseases in its Scientific and Technical Review (the Review) (Vol. 15 [2], June 1996), and nearly ten years since aquatic animal disease emergencies were addressed in Management of animal health emergencies Vol. 18 (1), April Since these publications, there have been significant developments in aquatic animal disease control. A completely overhauled OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code now provides a new, more practice-orientated international framework for sanitary safety in the trade of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products. The recommendations in each of the disease chapters are designed to minimise the risk of the disease under consideration being introduced and established in the importing country, taking into account the nature and intended end-use of the traded commodity as well as the aquatic animal health status of the exporting country. Basic biosecurity conditions are defined, requiring that an early detection system is in place that must include veterinarians or aquatic animal health specialists trained in recognising and reporting suspicious disease occurrence. With the increase in culture of new aquatic animal species and the consequential discovery of new and emerging diseases, it appears timely to provide an update on the range of disease emergency management strategies. The main purpose of this volume of the Review is, therefore, to provide a stateof-the-art compilation and assessment of aquatic animal disease emergency management strategies, covering policies as well as operational tools, from international to farm levels. It aims to provide useful generic information on the different issues surrounding the management of aquatic animal disease emergencies, written by world specialists. It should be extremely valuable, providing a contemporary and truly global perspective on this topic

12 OIE news Scientific and Technical Review Vol. 27 (2), 2008 Climate change: the impact on the epidemiology and control of animal diseases Co-ordinators: Stéphane de La Rocque, Serge Morand & Guy Hendrickx August 2008 Trilingual ISBN Format: 21 29,7 cm approx. 300 pp. Price: 55 The impact of climate change on human and animal health is a highly topical issue and extensive debates and speculations often predict the worst. Following the most recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this special issue of the Scientific and Technical Review is being developed to provide an overview of the latest scientific knowledge on the impact of climate change on animal diseases and the control options currently available. This publication will, therefore, help increase the reader s understanding of what can be expected. Following the presentation of the origin of climatic change and of the latest projections for the future, the cascading effects that affect host-pathogen systems will be reviewed. To help clarify how climate change will affect the occurrence, distribution or epidemiology of certain diseases, a number of case-studies will be presented, covering different animal diseases of major importance (including those affecting marine ecosystems). The final section will examine different world regions, in terms of the diseases likely to be affected and the mitigation strategies in place or in development. OIE Quality Standard and Guidelines for Veterinary Laboratories: Infectious Diseases 2008 ISBN: Format: 21 14,8 cm approx. 90 pp. Price: 50 In order to ensure confidence in test results, at both national and international levels, test methods must be properly validated with respect to their intended application, and they must be performed under appropriate control by proficient laboratory analysts. In short, confidence requires that laboratories operate to a recognised standard of quality. Recognising the essential need for such a standard targeted specifically at laboratories conducting tests for infectious diseases of animals, the Biological Standards Commission of the OIE undertook to develop an interpretation of the generally stated requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Since the first edition of this booklet (2002) the parent standard has been updated as ISO/IEC 17025:2004 to include a harmonised approach that also complements the requirements of the ISO 9000 series, particularly ISO 9001:2000, Quality management systems. Requirements

13 This new edition of the OIE booklet brings the OIE Quality Standard into line with the 2005 version of the ISO/IEC standard. As it is an interpretation of ISO/IEC 17025, laboratories that comply with the OIE quality standard also operate in accordance with the ISO requirements for testing laboratories. This booklet also contains companion guidelines developed by the Biological Standards Commission and approved by the International Committee of the OIE. They provide, in a convenient booklet format, practical texts that complement the Terrestrial and Aquatic Manuals. The previous guidelines on test method validation, reference reagents and laboratory proficiency testing have been updated, and a new one added on validation of tests using the polymerase chain reaction. OIE news Bluetongue in northern Europe Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, viral and vectorial disease of improved breeds of sheep and some species of deer that is of major international importance. The Coordinators and Editors: infection is usually unapparent in cattle, which acts as C. Saegerman, reservoir for the virus. However, some serotypes such F. Reviriego-Gordejo & as serotype 8 (BTV-8), which recently caused a severe P.-P. Pastoret epizootic of BT in northern Europe, exhibit a more important virulence in cattle. ISBN Consequently, the redaction of a scientific booklet Format: cm. describing bluetongue outbreak is of great utility for 96 pp. veterinarians and animal health professionals in the framework of an early detection Price: 35 of bluetongue and other emerging diseases

14 meetings and visits Name and function of OIE permanent staff who participated in meetings or visits: September to December 2007 Central Bureau General Directorate Bernard Vallat Director General Jean-Luc Angot Deputy Director General (Administration, Finances and Staff Management) Gideon Brückner Deputy Director General (Animal Health and International Standards) Alex Thiermann Advisor to the Director General & President of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission Maria Zampaglione Head of the Communication Unit Glaïeul Mamaghani Deputy Head of the Communication Unit Alain Dehove Coordinator of the World Animal Health and Welfare Fund Margarita Gómez Riela Assistant to the World Fund Coordinator Willem Droppers Chargé de mission Administration and Management Systems Department Daniel Chaisemartin Head of Department Bertrand Flahault Deputy Head of Department Alejandra Balmont Bilingual Secretary & Conference Assistant Animal Health Information Department Karim Ben Jebara Head of Department Francesco Berlingieri Deputy Head of Department María Cristina Ramírez Chargée de mission International Trade Department Sarah Kahn Head of Department Leopoldo Stuardo Deputy Head of Department Yamato Atagi Chargé de mission Gillian Mylrea Chargée de mission Publications Department Paul-Pierre Pastoret Head of Department Annie Souyri Deputy Head of Department Tamara Benicasa Sales and Marketing Agent Marie Teissier Documentalist Scientific and Technical Department Gideon Brückner Head of Department Tomoko Ishibashi Deputy Head of Department Antonio Petrini Chargé de mission Christianne Bruschke Chargée de mission Keith Hamilton OFFLU Coordinator François Diaz Officer in charge of Validation of Diagnostic Assays Léa Knopf Officer in charge of the Recognition of Countries Animal Disease Status Sara Linnane Scientific Editor Regional Activities Department Dewan Sibartie Head of Department Gastón Funes Deputy Head of Department Stéphane Berlaud Chargé de mission Nathaly Monsalve Bilingual Secretary OIE Regional and Sub-Regional Representations Africa Amadou Samba Sidibé Regional Representative for Africa (Bamako, Mali) Yacouba Samake Deputy Regional Representative (Bamako, Mali) Nicolas Denormandie Chargé de mission (Bamako, Mali) Mariam Minta Secretary (Bamako, Mali) Bonaventure J. Mtei Sub-Regional Representative for the SADC 1 (Gaborone, Botswana) Patrick Bastiaensen Chargé de mission (Gaborone, Botswana) Nemsa Thekiso Secretary (Gaborone, Botswana) Americas Luis Osvaldo Barcos Regional Representative for the Americas (Buenos Aires, Argentina) Salomé Koloffón Tella Deputy Regional Representative (Buenos Aires, Argentina) François Caya Chargé de mission (Buenos Aires, Argentina) Alicia Palmas Secretary (Buenos Aires, Argentina) José Joaquín Oreamuno Toledo Sub-Regional Representative for Central America (Panama City, Panama) Asia and the Pacific Teruhide Fujita Regional Representative for Asia and the Pacific (Tokyo, Japan) Akemi Kamakawa Deputy Regional Representative (Tokyo, Japan) Yumiko Sakurai Chargée de mission (Tokyo, Japan) Wacharapon Chotiyaputta Chargée de mission (Tokyo, Japan) Kazue Akagawa Secretary (Tokyo, Japan) Shiro Yoshimura Senior Deputy Regional Representative (Bangkok, Thailand) Ronello C. Abila Sub-Regional Coordinator, SEAFMD 2 Coordination Unit (Bangkok, Thailand) Nichola Hungerford Communications Officer, SEAFMD 2 (Bangkok, Thailand) Stéphane Forman Chargé de mission (Bangkok, Thailand) Khun Chutikarn Dhebhasit Secretary (Bangkok, Thailand) Europe Nikola T. Belev President of the OIE Regional Commission for Europe & Regional Representative for Eastern Europe (Sofia, Bulgaria) Violeta G. Radkova Chargée de mission (Sofia, Bulgaria) Rina Kostova Secretary (Sofia, Bulgaria) Caroline Planté Sub-Regional Representative & Chargée de mission (Brussels, Belgium) Middle East Ghazi Yehia Regional Representative for the Middle East (Beirut, Lebanon) Pierre Primot Chargé de mission (Beirut, Lebanon) Mustafa Mestom Advisor (Beirut, Lebanon) Khodr Rjeili Assistant (Beirut, Lebanon) Rita Rizk Secretary (Beirut, Lebanon) Hani Imam Secretary (Beirut, Lebanon) 1-Southern African Development Community 2-Southeast Asia Foot and Mouth Disease Campaign

15 Name and function of experts who represented the OIE in meetings or visits OIE news Jacques Acar David Bayvel Véronique Bellemain Eva-Maria Bernoth Paolo Calistri Vincenzo Caporale Fernando Crespo León Patrick Dehaumont Steven Edwards Ricardo Enríquez Sais Elisabeth Erlacher-Vindel David Fraser Tore Håstein Member of the OIE ad hoc Group on antimicrobial resistance Chairman of the OIE Working Group on Animal Welfare Departmental Director of Veterinary Services (Pau, France) President of the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission Epidemiologist, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell Abruzzo e del Molise G. Caporale (Teramo, Italy) President of the OIE Scientific Commission for Animal Diseases OIE Technical Consultant OIE Expert President of the OIE Biological Standards Commission Secretary General of the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission OIE Expert Member of the OIE Working Group on Animal Welfare Member of the OIE Working Group on Animal Welfare Barry J. Hill Jennifer Koeman Catherine Lambert Stuart C. MacDiarmid Chairman of the OIE ad hoc Group on amphibian diseases & Vice-President of the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission Special Projects Officer (Canadian Food Inspection Agency) Head of International Affairs, AFSSA3-ANMV 4, Fougères (France) Secretary General of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission J. Gardner Murray President of the OIE Regional Commission for Asia, the Far East and Oceania Abdoulaye Bouna Niang Barry O Neil James E. Pearson Herbert Schneider Wolf-Arno Valder David Wilson Past President of the OIE International Committee & OIE Technical Consultant President of the OIE International Committee OIE Technical Consultant President of the OIE ad hoc Group on the quality of Veterinary Services Vice-President of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission OIE Technical Advisor 3- French Food Safety Agency 4- French National Agency for Veterinary Medicines meetings and visits September 2007 (cont.) Title of the event Place Date Participants Curso Joint WHO-MZCP/WHO-EMRO International Training Cairo (Egypt) 2 September 2007 Dr G. Yehia Course on Zoonotic and Foodborne Diseases Management in Emergencies 5th Meeting of the OIE ad hoc Group on terrestrial animal OIE Headquarters, 3-4 September 2007 Dr K. Ben Jebara, Dr S. Kahn & diseases/pathogenic agents notification Paris (France) Dr L. Knopf 3rd Meeting of the Global Framework for the Progressive Amman (Jordan) 4 September 2007 Dr G. Yehia & Dr P. Primot Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs) Steering Committee for the Middle East 4th OIE/FAO Roundtable Meeting on FMD Surveillance Amman (Jordan) 5-6 September 2007 Dr G. Yehia, Dr P. Primot, Ms R. Rizk and Control in the Middle East and North Africa, Ms H. Imam & Mr Kh. Rjeili Meeting of the OIE ad hoc Group on amphibian diseases OIE Headquarters, 5-7 September 2007 Dr B. Vallat, Dr F. Berlingieri, Ms S. Linnane & Prof. B.J. Hill Paris (France) 6th Meeting of the OIE Working Group on Animal Welfare OIE Headquarters, 5-7 September 2007 Dr B. Vallat, Dr S. Kahn, Dr L. Stuardo, Paris (France) Dr A. Thiermann, Dr D. Bayvel & Prof. D. Fraser Mobilizing Aid for Trade: Focus on Latin America Lima (Peru) 12 September 2007 Dr L.O. Barcos and the Caribbean, a meeting organised by the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank and the World Trade Organization Meeting of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards OIE Headquarters, September 2007 Dr B. Vallat, Dr S. Kahn, Dr Y. Atagi, Commission Paris (France) Dr W. Droppers, Dr L. Stuardo, Dr A. Thiermann, Dr W.-A. Valder & Prof. S.C. MacDiarmid

16 OIE news September 2007 (cont.) meetings and visits Title of the event Place Date Participants Meeting with the FMDProject Officers of the Andean Community Workshop for the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP): Towards the Final Eradication of Rinderpest Lima (Peru) 25 September 2007 Dr L.O. Barcos FAO Headquarters, Rome (Italy) September 2007 Dr G. Brückner & Dr L. Knopf 20th Latin American Poultry Congress Meeting of the Porto Alegre (Brazil) September 2007 Dr L.O. Barcos Steering Committee of the Latin-American Poultry Association (ALA) October 2007 Title of the event Place Date Participants Seminar on the Dialogue and Common Activities Almaty (Kazakhstan) 1-2 October 2007 Prof. Dr N.T. Belev, Dr C. Planté, between the OIE Member Countries of the European Ms R. Kostova & Dr V. Bellemain Union and the other Member Countries of the OIE Regional Commission for Europe Meeting of the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards OIE Headquarters, 1-5 October 2007 Dr B. Vallat, Dr S. Kahn, Dr T. Ishibashi, Commission Paris (France) Prof. P.-P. Pastoret, Dr G. Mylrea, Dr L. Stuardo, Dr F. Berlingieri, Ms A. Souyri, Ms S. Linnane, Dr E.-M. Bernoth, Prof. B.J. Hill & Dr R. Enríquez Sais International Diary Federation Annual Conference Dublin (Ireland) 1-5 October 2007 Dr G. Brückner Meeting of the OIE ad hoc Group on country status OIE Headquarters, 2-4 October 2007 Dr L. Knopf evaluation for rinderpest Paris (France) Advanced Workshop on the World Animal Health Panama City 2-5 October 2007 Dr K. Ben Jebara, Dr M.C. Ramírez, Information System and Database (WAHIS and WAHID) (Panama) Dr L.O. Barcos & Dr J.J. Oreamuno Toledo Reception One World, One Health organised by the Brussels (Belgium) 3 October 2007 Dr Ch. Bruschke Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE) Seminar on the Dialogue and Common Activities between Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) 4-5 October 2007 Dr C. Planté, Prof. Dr N.T. Belev, the OIE Member Countries of the European Union and Ms R. Kostova & Dr V. Bellemain the other Member Countries of the OIE Regional Commission for Europe Conference on Animal Health organised jointly by the Washington DC 7-12 October 2007 Dr B. Vallat, Dr A. Dehove, OIE and the World Bank (United States of America) Ms M. Gómez Riela, Ms A. Balmont, Dr A. Thiermann, Dr G. Yehia, Dr T. Fujita, Dr L.O. Barcos, Prof. Dr N.T. Belev & Dr A.B. Niang 15th Annual Meeting of the Mexico National Technical Mexico City (Mexico) 8 October 2007 Dr S. Koloffón Tella Consultative Council for Animal Health (CONASA) Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Animal Feed Rome (Italy) 8-12 October 2007 Dr S. Kahn Dual Use Issues in Life Sciences Research: a roundtable Bethesda (United 10 October 2007 Dr J.E. Pearson on Strategies for Fostering International Engagement States of America) 2nd Meeting of the Working Group on Gyrodactylus salaris Oslo (Norway) October 2007 Prof. T. Håstein in the North-East Atlantic Commission Area of NASCO (North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organisation) 30th Plenary Meeting of the Animal Health and Animal Parma (Italy) October 2007 Dr T. Ishibashi Welfare Panel Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) Grant WHO Headquarters, 15 October 2007 Ms M. Zampaglione & Dr A. Dehove WHO/FAO/OIE Joint Programme. Planning Meeting Geneva (Switzerland) on Communication Projects Supervisory Mission on the Activities of the OIE Sub- Gaborone (Botswana) October 2007 Dr J.-L. Angot, Dr D. Sibartie, Regional Representation Dr B. Mtei & Dr P. Bastiaensen European Commission DG SANCO Training Workshop Zagreb (Croatia) October 2007 Dr L. Stuardo on Animal Welfare concerning the stunning and killing of animals at slaughterhouses and in disease control situations WHO/OIE/FAO Consultative Meeting on proposed Geneva (Switzerland) October 2007 Dr G. Brückner rabies projects

17 OIE news October 2007 (cont.) Title of the event Place Date Participants Invitation from the European Parliament Committee Brussels (Belgium) 17 October 2007 Dr B. Vallat & Dr A. Dehove on Agriculture and Rural Development to discuss the European Commission s new animal health policy strategy Meeting of the European Livestock Association (ELA) Brussels (Belgium) October 2007 Dr W. Droppers Meeting of the VICH Steering Committee Yokohama (Japan) October 2007 Dr P. Dehaumont 40th Meeting of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Geneva (Switzerland) October 2007 Dr S. Kahn SPS Committee Invitation from the Government of Mali to take part Bamako (Mali) October 2007 Dr B. Vallat, Dr A.S. Sidibé, in the Official Inauguration of the new offices of the Dr N. Denormandie, Ms M. Minta recently renovated OIE Regional Representation for & Dr A.B. Niang Africa and the new OIE/FAO/IBAR Regional Animal Health Centre (RAHC) OIE/AusAID Project to strengthen Veterinary Services Bangkok (Thailand) October 2007 Dr A. Dehove, Dr R.C. Abila & to combat avian influenza and other priority diseases Dr J.G. Murray in South East Asia Technical Advice on the control of African swine fever Mauritius October 2007 Dr G. Funes 6th CAPSERSA Steering Committee Meeting Bern (Switzerland) 22 October 2007 Dr G. Brückner 4th International Workshop on Antimicrobial Resistance Seoul (Republic 22 October 2007 Dr P. Dehaumont & Dr E. Erlacher-Vindel of Korea) OIE/FAO-APHCA Regional Workshop on Food Safety Chiang Mai October 2007 Dr W. Droppers, Dr T. Fujita & (Animal Origin) (Thailand) Dr A. Kamakawa Conference on the General Guidelines of the World Animal Valencia (Spain) October 2007 Dr F. Crespo León Health Organisation concerning Emerging Diseases and their Application to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza 3rd European Workshop on the vaccinate-to-live Tervuren (Belgium) October 2007 Dr L. Knopf & Dr C. Planté strategy of applying emergency vaccination following an FMD outbreak,, and including discussions on the implementation of NSP tests for surveillance 1st Session of the ad hoc Codex Intergovernmental Seoul (Republic of October 2007 Dr P. Dehaumont & Dr E. Erlacher-Vindel Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance (TFAMR) Korea) European Commission DG SANCO Stakeholder Workshop Luxembourg 24 October 2007 Prof. V. Caporale on Health Effects of Climate Change (Luxembourg) 6th Meeting of the Lower Mekong Working Group on Phnom Penh October 2007 Dr R.C. Abila FMD Zoning and Animal Movement Management (Cambodia) Discussion with SAARC (South Asian Association Kathmandu (Nepal) October 2007 Dr T. Fujita for Regional Cooperation) Secretariat on GF-TADs and the forthcoming meeting on its implementation in the Sub-Region Masterclass on International Biosafety Regulations Beijing (People s October 2007 Dr J.E. Pearson and Guidelines Republic of China) Workshop on Building Cooperative and Regional Bucharest (Romania) October 2007 Dr C. Planté Approaches to Preparedness and Defense against Bio-Terrorism 9th Conference of the OIE Regional Commission Damascus (Syria) 28 October Dr B. O Neil, Dr B. Vallat, Dr D. Sibartie, for the Middle East 2 November 2007 Dr K. Ben Jebara, Ms N. Monsalve, Dr G. Yehia, Dr P. Primot & Ms R. Rizk Masterclass on International Biosafety Facilities Beijing (People s October 2007 Dr J.E. Pearson Republic of China) 31st Session of APHCA (Animal Production and Health Chiang Mai (Thailand) 29 October Dr T. Fujita Commission for Asia and the Pacific) and the Regional 1 November 2007 Workshop Livestock Management in Emergencies 9th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis Tsukuba Science 29 October Dr T. Ishibashi City (Japan) 2 November th Meeting of the ASEAN (Association of South East Bangkok (Thailand) 29 October Dr T. Fujita Asian Nations) Ministers on Agriculture and Forestry 3 November 2007 (AMAF) Visit from Mr Ahmad Khalid Elmi, Second Secretary OIE Headquarters, 30 October 2007 Dr J.-L. Angot at the Afghanistan Embassy Paris (France)

18 OIE news Dr J. Koeman managing the OIE booth at the 4th Pan-Commonwealth Veterinary Conference in Bridgetown (Barbados) November 2007 Title of the event Place Date Participants 4th Pan-Commonwealth Veterinary Conference Bridgetown (Barbados) 3-8 November 2007 Dr J. Koeman & Dr D. Bayvel FAO sponsored International Conference Poultry Bangkok (Thailand) 5-7 November 2007 Dr Ch. Bruschke in the 21st Century Avian Influenza and Beyond Meeting of the OIE ad hoc Group on atypical scrapie OIE Headquarters, 5-7 November 2007 Dr G. Brückner, Dr T. Ishibashi and BSE Paris (France) & Dr L. Knopf Meeting of the OIE Working Group on Animal Production OIE Headquarters, 6-8 November 2007 Dr S. Kahn, Dr F. Berlingieri Food Safety Paris (France) & Dr W. Droppers WHO Regional Meeting on Zoonotic Diseases WHO Jakarta (Indonesia) 6-9 November 2007 Dr T. Fujita Regional Consultation Meeting on Avian Influenza OIE visit to Cairo, Egypt, in preparation for the Global Cairo (Egypt) 7-8 November 2007 Dr D. Chaisemartin & Ms A. Balmont Conference in October th Conference of the World Association of Veterinary Melbourne (Australia) November 2007 Dr G. Brückner, Dr F. Diaz & Laboratory Diagnosticians (WAVLD) and Pre-Symposium Prof. S. Edwards Workshop 1st OIE Regional Seminar on Communication for the Buenos Aires November 2007 Dr B. Vallat, Ms M. Zampaglione, Countries of the Americas (Argentina) Ms G. Mamaghani, Dr L.O. Barcos, Dr S. Koloffón Tella, Ms A. Palmas & Dr J.J. Oreamuno Toledo Regional Workshop on Epidemiology of Animal Infectious Ankara (Turkey) 14 November 2007 Dr C. Planté Diseases Conference on Food Safety and Hygiene in the Livestock Vitoria-Gasteiz 15 November 2007 Dr S. Kahn Production Sector (Spain) Global Animal Health Conference London November 2007 Dr Ch. Bruschke & Dr C. Lambert (United Kingdom) Consultative Workshop: Investment in Laboratories for WHO Headquarters, November 2007 Dr A. Dehove & Dr T. Ishibashi Food Safety and Agricultural Health Geneva (Switzerland) 1st Meeting of the Asia-Pacific Working Group on Beijing (People s November 2007 Dr T. Fujita Migratory Waterbirds and Avian Influenza Republic of China) 34th FAO Conference Rome (Italy) November 2007 Dr J.-L. Angot Seminar on Information Feedback from Performance, ENSV Headquarters, November 2007 Dr B. Vallat, Dr S. Kahn, Dr Y. Atagi, Vision and Strategy (PVS) Experts accredited by the OIE Lyons (France) Dr A. Dehove, Dr A. Thiermann, Dr G. Funes, Mr S. Berlaud, Ms A. Balmont, Dr H. Schneider & Dr V. Bellemain Meeting of the OIE ad hoc Group on vector-borne disease OIE Headquarters, November 2007 Dr T. Ishibashi & Dr Ch. Bruschke surveillance/climate change Paris (France) European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Scientific Forum Brussels (Belgium) November 2007 Dr L. Stuardo and the European Food Summit as part of the 5th EFSA Anniversary Intergovernmental Meeting on sharing of influenza Geneva (Switzerland) November 2007 Dr Ch. Bruschke viruses and access to vaccines and other benefits 25th Conference of the OIE Regional Commission for Queenstown (New 24 November Dr B. Vallat, Dr D. Sibartie, Asia and the Pacific Workshop on Avian Influenza Zealand) 2 December 2007 Dr A. Thiermann, Ms N. Monsalve, organised by OIE Tokyo Dr T. Fujita, Dr A. Kamakawa, Dr Y. Sakurai, Dr W. Chotiyaputta, Dr R.C. Abila & Dr S. Forman High Level International Food Safety Forum Beijing (People s November 2007 Dr W. Droppers Republic of China) TAFs/OIE/FAO Workshop on paratuberculosis Unterageri November 2007 Dr G. Brückner & Dr E. Erlacher-Vindel (Switzerland) 2nd Workshop on an African Network on bovine tuberculosis Arusha (Tanzania) November 2007 Dr L. Knopf United Nations (UN) Meeting of Specialised Experts to Update the Technical Guidelines and Procedures to Investigate Alleged Use of Biological and Toxin Weapons New York (United November 2007 Dr S. Kahn States of America)

19 OIE news November 2007 (cont.) Title of the event Place Date Participants 16th Session of the Codex Committee on Food Import Surfers Paradise November 2007 Dr D. Wilson and Export Inspection and Certification Systems (CCFICS) (Australia) Joint OIE/FAO/WHO Meeting on Critical Antimicrobials Rome (Italy) November 2007 Dr T. Ishibashi, Dr C. Lambert, Dr H. Schneider & Prof. J. Acar Meeting of the OIE ad hoc Group on biotechnology OIE Headquarters, November 2007 Prof. P.-P. Pastoret, Dr G. Brückner, Paris (France) Dr F. Diaz & Ms S. Linnane 75th Session of the Executive Committee of the FAO London (United November 2007 Dr G. Brückner European Commission for the Control of Foot and Kingdom) Mouth Disease (EUFMD) December 2007 Title of the event Place Date Participants International Conference on Avian Influenza Participation New Delhi (India) in the Meeting of the Advisory Board of the Avian and Human Influenza (AHI) Facility administered by the World Bank 3-7 December 2007 Dr B. Vallat, Dr Ch. Bruschke, Dr A. Dehove, Dr A. Thiermann, Dr D. Sibartie, Ms M. Zampaglione & Dr J.G. Murray International Workshop to Identify and Discuss Research IAEA Headquarters, 4-7 December 2007 Dr L. Knopf Gaps to Better Control FMD Vienna (Austria) 31st Plenary Meeting, Animal Health and Animal Parma (Italy) 5-7 December 2007 Dr A. Petrini & Dr T. Ishibashi Welfare Panel Meeting of the OIE ad hoc Group on identification and OIE Headquarters, 5-7 December 2007 Dr S. Kahn, Dr F. Berlingieri & traceability of live animals Paris (France) Dr W. Droppers Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) Bangkok (Thailand) 6-7 December 2007 Dr T. Fujita International Workshop on Emerging Fish Diseases in Asia Preparatory Meeting with NACA (Network of Aquaculture Bangkok (Thailand) 10 December 2007 Dr T. Fujita Centres in Asia-Pacific) for the Workshop on Aquatic Animal Health WTO Regional Workshop on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Lusaka (Zambia) December 2007 Dr G. Mylrea & Dr P. Bastiaensen Measures for English Speaking African Countries Meeting of Representatives of States Parties to the Geneva (Switzerland) December 2007 Dr B. Vallat & Dr T. Ishibashi Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Preparatory Meeting for the OIE Regional Workshop Pakchong (Thailand) 11 December 2007 Dr T. Fujita on Veterinary Vaccines 17th Session of the Joint Co-ordinating Committee Athens (Greece) 12 December 2007 Dr J.-L. Angot of the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Programme (MZCP) of the World Health Organization (WHO) Meeting of the OIE Regional and Sub-Regional OIE Headquarters, December 2007 Dr B. Vallat, Dr D. Sibartie, Dr G. Funes, Representations Paris (France) Dr A.S. Sidibé, Dr N. Denormandie, Dr L.O. Barcos, Dr J.J. Oreamuno Toledo, Dr T. Fujita, Dr A. Kamakawa, Prof. Dr N.T. Belev, Dr C. Planté, Dr G. Yehia & Dr P. Primot WHO/OIE/FAO Workshop on Shipment of Specimens: WHO Headquarters, December 2007 Dr K. Hamilton & Dr J.E. Pearson Ensuring the efficient transport of infectious Geneva (Switzerland) substances 6th Meeting of the NACA Advisory Group on Aquatic Bangkok (Thailand) December 2007 Dr K. Ben Jebara, Dr T. Fujita, Animal Health Management Dr Y. Sakurai & Dr E.-M. Bernoth Annual Meeting of the MedReoNet Project Palma de Majorca, December 2007 Dr P. Calistri Balearic Islands (Spain) Meeting of the EFSA Working Group on Fish Welfare, INRA Headquarters, December 2007 Prof. T. Håstein Welfare Aspects of Husbandry Systems for Paris (France) Farmed Fish 2nd Meeting of the GF-TADs Regional Steering OIE Headquarters, 18 December 2007 Dr B. Vallat, Dr D. Sibartie, Dr G. Funes & Committee for Europe Paris (France) Prof. Dr N.T. Belev

20 news from headquarters Staff changes Scientific and Technical Department Dr Gideon Brückner, Head of the Scientific and Technical Department, was appointed Deputy Director General (Animal Health and International Standards) on 1 October 2007, taking responsibility for the coordination of the International Trade Department, Animal Health Information Department and Scientific and Technical Department. Dr Keith Hamilton joined the Scientific and Technical Department on 1 October Dr Hamilton will be responsible for matters relating to OFFLU network on avian influenza, as well as laboratory twinning programmes. Dr Tomoko Ishibashi left her position as Deputy Head of the International Trade Department to become the new Deputy Head of the Scientific and Technical Department on 1 September

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