Open University of Mauritius - Essentials of Occupational Safety & Health

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1 2 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

2 Essentias of Occupationa Safety and Heath OUbe / OUbe i 3 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Author : Mr Khindev Gunputh Chief Occupationa Heath & Safety Officer Reviewer : Mr Succaram V. R. Programme Manager : Mr Bee L.J. Copyright : Open University of Mauritius, 2014 A rights reserved. No part of this course may be reproduced in any form by any means without prior permission in writing from: Open University of Mauritius Réduit, Repubic of Mauritius Fax: (230) Te: (230) Emai : 4 ii Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

4 MODULE OBJECTIVE The word of work and even our home and the environment we ive in is no more the same as it used to be decades ago. We are nowadays surrounded with technoogy which operates with more energy obtained from different sources. Such an environment definitey increases the incidence of accidents be it at the workpace, on road or at home. We are witnessing same daiy by the number of road traffic accidents, occupationa accidents and domestic accidents (e.g. the number of persons who have ost their ives whie in the bathroom where a gas heater was instaed). Furthermore with the fast changes occurring in the fied of information and communication technoogy, the word has become a goba viage, instructions from a cient from one part of the word is transmitted to a suppier to another part of the word within seconds thereby increasing the rapidity with which the suppier shoud respond to the cient. In fact the reduction in communication response time is putting enterprises and in turn empoyees under pressure thereby creating stress. Goba competition makes the situation even worse. It is therefore imperative that governments and organizations shoud take appropriate measures to ensure that order prevais and the safety and heath of empoyees at work is not jeopardized in this new context. The Internationa Labour Organization has recognized occupationa safety and heath as a fundamenta right of empoyees and advocates that decent work shoud be safe work. To ensure that existing workers and the new generation of workers are fuy conversant with the hazards at the workpace training and information has been found to pay a critica roe in changing their behavior and deveoping a safety and heath cuture. In this context it is important that educationa institutions incude modues of occupationa safety and heath in their curricua so as to ensure the transmission of the knowedge on occupationa safety and heath to these students. The spiover effect of such a strategy wi be mutifod as we wi be having a workforce aready conversant with basic occupationa safety and heath concepts even before they join the abour market and furthermore the safety cuture instied in them wi make them be more cautious be it on road or at home. The course deveoper is a Chief Occupationa Safety and Heath Officer with 25 years of experience in the fied of occupationa safety and heath. He has been invoved in conducting inspections at workpaces in different sectors of the economy, and conducting enquiries into compaints and accidents. He has aso been acting as Prosecutor before the Industria Court. Since about 12 years he is invoved in the deveopment of training programs on occupationa safety and heath for industry and acting as resource person for these training programs. He is aso invoved in the organization of nationa workshops on occupationa safety and heath hed in coaboration with the ILO. He is invoved in the drafting of egisation on occupationa safety and heath. He has put in his vast experience gained during his career to deveop this modue. It is evident that ony the main hazards that can be found in a workpace have been covered in this modue. It wi enabe the students to have an overview of occupationa safety and heath, the types of hazards commony encountered in workpaces and the precautions that need to be taken to eiminate or contro such hazards. It aso gives an overview of some techniques of first aid. To faciitate understanding of certain issues/topics, appropriate video inks have been incuded. It is hoped that the knowedge gained through this modue wi change the students perception of occupationa safety and heath and insti a habit of safety in them. iii 5 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

5 Tabe of Contents UNITS TITLE PAGES Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Introduction To The Concept Of Occupationa Safety And Heath 1 Lega Requirements On Occupationa Safety And Heath (Part 1) 9 Lega Requirements On Occupationa Safety And Heath (Part 2) 15 The Occupationa Safety And Heath Management System 21 Unit 5 Risk Assessment (Part 1) 31 Unit 6 Risk Assessment (Part 2) 39 Unit 7 Understanding The Essentias Of Safety and Heathat Work 45 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 Unit 14 Unit 15 Understanding The Essentias Of Safety and Heathat Work Mechanica Hazards 55 Understanding The Essentias Of Safety and Heathat Work-Physica Hazards 65 Understanding The Essentias Of Heath And Safety At Work-Chemica Hazards 79 Understanding The Essentias Of Heath And Safety At Work-Bioogica Hazards 89 Understanding The Essentias Of Heath And Safety At Work-Ergonomic Hazards 95 Understanding The Essentias Of Heath And Safety At Work-Psychosocia Hazards 107 Understanding The Essentias Of Heath And Safety At Work- Fire Prevention 117 Understanding The Essentias Of Heath And Safety At Work- First Aid 125 Appendix Appendix iv Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

6 UNIT 1 Introduction to the Concept of Occupationa Safety and Heath 1.1 INTRODUCTION In this unit, we sha expore the concept of occupationa safety and heath; understand its importance in everyday ife of empoyees. Focus wi aso be aid on why occupationa safety and heath is attracting the attention of a stakehoders in the word of work. A workpace may have a mutitude of hazards. However, we shoud pay a specia attention to the fact that the workpace can, besides empoyees, have customers, visitors e.g. students. Students and young peope are generay young, inexperienced, vunerabe, and often not aware and conscious of the safety and heath hazards present in their environment. 1.2 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you wi be abe to: define the term occupationa safety and heath; expain the importance of occupationa safety and heath; and understand the costs and causes of occupationa accidents and diseases. 1.3 CONCEPT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupationa safety and heath refers to conditions and factors that affect, or coud affect, the heath and safety of empoyees or other workers, visitors, or any other person in the workpace. It is a cross-discipinary area concerned with protecting the safety, heath and wefare of peope engaged in work. It invoves the interreationship between peope and work; materias, equipment and machinery; the environment; and economic considerations such as productivity. Ideay, work shoud be heathfu, not harmfu and not unreasonaby difficut. For economic reasons, a high eve of productivity must be achieved. With gobaization and remova of trade barriers the eve of competition is even higher demanding for even more efficiency at work. Everyone is expected to deiver more with esser input. In such an environment occupationa safety and heath becomes even more important. Poor occupationa safety and heath management eads to increased cases of occupationa 1 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

7 accidents, which incude fata and serious accidents (eading to permanent disabiity), and occupationa diseases. Accidents and i-heath at work impact not ony on the ives of individua workers but aso their famiies and productivity and profitabiity of their enterprise and utimatey the wefare of the society in which they ive. In a schoo environment the concept wi cover a the personne of the schoo and empoyees of any contractor working in the schoo. 1.4 IMPORTANCE OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH There are three fundamenta reasons for managing safety and heath. These are humanitarian, economic and ega. The humanitarian reason is based on the notion that it is the duty of any man to ensure the genera we-being of his feow coeague. Accidents cost money and decrease productivity thereby being the economic reason for managing safety and heath. Finay it is a ega duty for empoyers to ensure the safety and heath of their empoyees as any breach of the statutory duties can resut in the empoyer being prosecuted. Besides the possibe penaties, the oss of the company image may have predominanty economic disadvantages. According to the Internationa Labour Organization (ILO) estimates of 2001 around 2.2 miion workers die annuay due to occupationa accidents and diseases. In addition, workers suffer 270 miion occupationa accidents and 160 miion occupationa diseases each year. One cannot therefore ignore the consequences of occupationa accidents and diseases. Definition of accident: An unpanned and uncontroed event which has ed to or coud have caused injury to persons, damage to pant or other oss (Roya Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA). An unexpected, unpanned event in a sequence of events that occurs through a combination of causes. It resuts in physica harm (injury or disease) to an individua, damage to property, a near miss, a oss, business interruption or any combination of these effects (Heath and Safety Unit, University of Aston, Birmingham). Occupationa accidents ead to injury to persons. The severity of an injury is cassified as: Fataity Permanent tota or partia disabement Temporary disabement First aid ony. 2 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

8 1.4.1 COSTS OF ACCIDENTS Evidence suggests that the main causes of accidents in schoo environments are sips, trips and fas, manua handing and contact with machinery and equipment. Whie the eve of reported injury is ow, it is worth noting that the effect of such accidents, as indicated by time absent from work, is significanty higher in the education sector than any other. Accidents represent a socia oss of great magnitude in the form of pain, oss of ife, oss of earning capacity and costs due to disturbance to economic efficiency. The pain and suffering of the injured as we as the emotiona oss to the victims of fataities and accidents causing permanent disfigurements or disabiities are impossibe to be summed up or evauated. To the empoyer it is the direct costs for meeting medica expenses, compensation or disabement benefits to the injured or their famiies and aso the various other indirect costs due to the interference caused by accidents which are generay taken roughy as four times the direct costs. To the society the economic costs are in terms of oss of productive capacity and the cost of the maintenance of the injured and their famiies through socia security schemes or through pubic or private charities. The costs that are usuay associated with an accident are: Direct costs (Insured Costs) These costs invove the empoyer s iabiities both as an occupier of the premises and as an empoyer of empoyees. The premiums paid by empoyers to insurance companies to cover caims made by injured empoyees. Medica cost of treatment provided to the injured or i worker (sometimes covered by medica insurance scheme) Compensation costs payment of workers compensation insurance premiums. Hidden costs (Uninsured Costs) Buiding Damage cost associated with repairs of buiding foowing accident Too and equipment damage Product and materia damage Production deays and interruptions Lega expenses Expenditure on emergency suppies Interim equipment renta Investigation time for accident 3 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

9 Wages paid for ost time Cost of hiring and/or training repacements Overtime paid to other empoyees to cater for time ost as a resut of accident or disease Extra supervisory time Cerica time ost on investigation or in the processing of compensation appication forms Decreased output of injured worker upon return Loss of business and goodwi In some workpaces e.g. a schoo environment, besides considering the costs associated with the injured or diseased empoyees, management shoud aso consider the costs associated with cases of injured students which might incude medica costs ega costs and cost reating to damages if any for civi iabiity CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS Accidents usuay have mutipe causes and deveop through reativey engthy sequences of changes and errors. There are direct and basic causes which ead to accident occurrence. The direct causes of accidents are cassified into two broad categories namey: Unsafe conditions Poor housekeeping, disordery workpace Inadequate guards or barriers (in a schoo environment students might fa from eevated paces not provided with barriers and sustain injuries) Inadequate or improper protective equipment Defective toos, equipment or materias Fire and exposion hazards Hazardous environmenta conditions: gases, dusts (e.g. from chak), smokes, fumes, vapours Noise exposure High or ow temperature Inadequate or excessive iumination (gare might be a probem in cassrooms if appropriate actions are not taken) Inadequate ventiation (especiay in hot and humid environments) 4 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

10 Unsafe Acts Leaving toos and materias around Servicing equipment sti in operation Making safety devices inoperabe Removing safety devices Faiing to use persona protective equipment propery Using defective equipment Using equipment impropery Operating at improper speed Improper oading Improper ifting Faiure to warn Horsepay Working under the infuence of acoho and/or other drugs Unsafe acts and unsafe conditions are considered to be direct causes of accidents. In-depth investigations into accidents ead to the basic causes or rea causes for which the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions existed. The basic causes are aso referred to as root causes, rea causes, indirect causes or underying causes. Three major categories of basic causes have been identified namey: Job factors Inadequate eadership and/or supervision Inadequate design (of an equipment eading to hazardous situations) Inadequate engineering Inadequate purchasing (quaity of materias/goods purchase may pose a safety and heath hazard) Inadequate maintenance (damaged window supports/doors due to absence of a reguar maintenance program of schoo infrastructure may expose schoo staff and students as we to risks of accidents) Inadequate work standards Persona factors Inadequate abiity 5 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

11 n n Physica/physioogica Menta/psychoogica Lack of knowedge Lack of ski Stress n n Physica/physioogica Menta/psychoogica Improper motivation Safety cuture factors Socia cimate Morae Group norms Leadership atmosphere 1.5 SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. Briefy define the term "Occupationa Safety and Heath"? 2. (a) Give a definition of accident. (b) List 5 hidden costs of accidents. 1.6 END OF UNIT SUMMARY In this unit we have introduced the concept of occupationa safety and heath and the importance of occupationa safety and heath in preventing accidents. The definition of accident has been eaborated, indicating the costs of accidents direct and hidden costs. The direct causes of accidents are unsafe acts and unsafe conditions and the basic causes are job factors, persona factors and safety cuture factors. 1.7 ANSWER TO SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. Occupationa safety and heath refers to conditions and factors that affect, or coud affect, the heath and safety of empoyees or other workers, visitors, or any other person in the workpace. It is a cross-discipinary area concerned with protecting the safety, heath and wefare of peope engaged in work. It invoves the interreationship between peope and work; materias, equipment and machinery; the environment; and economic considerations such as productivity. 6 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

12 2. (a) An unexpected, unpanned event in a sequence of events that occurs through a combination of causes. It resuts in physica harm (injury or disease) to an individua, damage to property, a near miss, a oss, business interruption or any combination of these effects. (b) Any five of the foowing: Buiding Damage cost associated with repairs of buiding foowing accident Too and equipment damage Product and materia damage Production deays and interruptions Lega expenses Expenditure on emergency suppies Interim equipment renta Investigation time for accident Wages paid for ost time Cost of hiring and/or training repacements Overtime paid to other empoyees to cater for time ost as a resut of accident or disease Extra supervisory time Cerica time ost on investigation or in the processing of compensation appication forms Decreased output of injured worker upon return Loss of business and goodwi Watch video (Source: en/press/photos/napo) 7 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

13 REFERENCES Asfah Ray C. & Rieske David W. (2010), Industria Safety and Heath Management, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education Inc., U.S.A. ILO, (2008), Encycopedia on Occupationa Safety and Heath, Internationa Labour Office Kaia H.L., (2010), Industria Safety and Human behavior, First Edition, A.I.T.B.S Pubishers, Dehi. Laitinen, H. &Vahapassi, A. (1992), Safety Management. INTERNET [accessed October 2013] ] October 2013] October 2013] 8 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

14 UNIT 2 Lega Requirements on Occupationa Safety and Heath ( Part 1 ) 2.1 INTRODUCTION This unit wi give an overview of the egisative framework reguating occupationa safety and heath. The main provisions of the aw, the Occupationa Safety Heath and Wefare Act 2005, wi be expained incuding the appication of the egisation, genera duties of empoyers, roes and functions of safety and heath committees. 2.2 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you wi be abe to understand: The iabiities a person may be subject to for breach of occupationa safety and heath egisation; The main egisation reguating occupationa safety and heath; The duties and responsibiities of empoyers; 2.3 CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LIABILITY Any person making a breach of occupationa safety and heath aw can incur both crimina and civi iabiity. Crimina iabiity refers to the duties and responsibiities under the aw i.e. the Occupationa Safety and Heath Act 2005 and subsidiary reguations, and the penaties that can be imposed by the Industria Court, mainy fines and imprisonment. The empoyer of an educationa institution may be prosecuted for breach of the safety and heath egisation. A civi action generay invoves negigence and/or breach of a statutory duty. In such cases a caimant sues a defendant for a remedy that is beneficia to him. In most cases the caim takes the form of damages which can be a financia compensation, for injury, disease, and/or death. Very often parents of students caim damages to owners of schoos for injuries sustained by their wards. 9 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

15 2.4 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH LEGISLATION The aw on occupationa safety and heath in Mauritius has deveoped in a fragmented way over the years. Appendix1 gives a ist of occupationa safety and heath egisation in force THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT 2005 (ACT NO. 28 OF 2005) The main egisation covering heath and safety at work is the Occupationa Safety and Heath Act The empoyer is responsibe for safety and heath, though tasks may be deegated to staff. Empoyees too have a duty to ook after their own and others safety and heath. Empoyers, schoo staff and others aso have a duty under the common aw to take care of pupis in the same way that a prudent parent woud do so. Most caims for negigence are fied against the empoyer and not the individua members of staff. APPLICATION OF THE ACT The Act appies at any pace where work is performed under a contract of empoyment, by a sef-empoyed person or by an outworker. This impies that any schoo empoying a person attracts the attention of the aw. The empoyers shoud ensure that they are aware of the provisions of the egisation that are appicabe for their pace of work and compy with these provisions. Furthermore, the particuarity of this Act is that it aso binds the State meaning that a paces of work of the government are reguated by the provisions of this aw incuding government educationa institutions. DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS The duties of any person under the Occupationa Safety and Heath Act may be of an absoute nature, or quaified by the terms so far as is practicabe or so far as is reasonaby practicabe. It is important to consider these quaifications of duties when interpreting duties of empoyers and other stakehoders under the Act. Absoute or strict duty: where there is a high risk of death or serious injury if safety precautions are not taken, e.g. working at height on the roof of a schoo, the duty of the empoyer is of an absoute nature. When duties are absoute there is ceary no room for interpretation, the duties must be fufied. So far as is practicabe: means more than physicay possibe. The safety measures to be impemented to contro or eiminate risks must be abe to be carried out in the ight of current knowedge and invention. Practicabe impies a higher standard of care than the term so far as is reasonaby practicabe. So far as is reasonaby practicabe: means a comparison must be made between, on the one hand, the extent of the risk and, on the other, the sacrifice (whether in money, time or effort) in taking the measures necessary to avert the risk. If it can be shown that there is a disparity between the degree of risk and sacrifice invoved, then the defendant has discharged the burden of proof. 10 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

16 The main duties of an empoyer under the Occupationa Safety and Heath Act incude: Section 5 (1) which requires every empoyer to, so far as is reasonaby practicabe, ensure the safety, heath and wefare at work of a his empoyees. Section 5 (2) gives in detais what are the impications of section 5 (1) namey: The empoyer sha, so far as is reasonaby practicabe, in particuar (a) (i) provide and maintain a working environment that is safe and without risks to heath; (b) (c) (d) (ii) (Working environment refers to the physica conditions such as ighting, temperature, humidity, space and it can aso incude socia reations and psychoogica factors at work). Provide and maintain any pant or system of work that is safe and without risks to heath; (-pant covers any machinery, equipment or appiances incuding portabe power toos and hand toos. In a schoo this covers a toos and equipment used in the schoo e.g. photocopy machine, computer, knife etc. - A safe system of work is defined as a forma procedure which resuts from systematic examination of a task in order to identify a the hazards. It defines safe methods to ensure that hazards are eiminated or risk minimized). (iii) Maintain any pace of work under his contro, incuding the means of access to, or egress from it, that is safe and without risks to heath. (pace of work means a pace where work is carried out by any person under a contract of empoyment. This means that in a schoo this wi cover any pace where an empoyee has to work within the schoo premises i.e. casses, yards, paygrounds etc.) ensure that use, handing, storage or transport of artices or substances is safe and without risks to heath; (The empoyer shoud ensure that empoyees are not exposed to risks of accidents whie manipuating artices (any soid, iquid or gas or combination thereof e.g. tabe, chairs, computer etc.) and substances (usuay referred to as any natura or artificia substance e.g. chemicas, wastes etc.). provide and maintain adequate faciities and arrangements for the wefare at work of his empoyees;(wefare faciities incude sanitary conveniences, drinking water, washing faciities, accommodation for cothing, faciities for taking of meas, first aid etc.) provide information, instruction, training and supervision as is necessary to ensure the safety and heath at work of his empoyees; 11 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

17 (e) ensure that any person not in his empoyment is not exposed to any risk to his safety or heath(this covers empoyees of contractors and visitors). Section 6 of the Act requires every empoyer of 50 or more empoyees to make a written statement of his poicy with respect to the safety and heath of his empoyees and take appropriate measures to impement the poicy. (A statement of safety and heath poicy shoud be in writing and signed and dated by the empoyer, owner, occupier or the person having contro of the business). Section 10 of the Act requires every empoyer to make a suitabe and sufficient assessment of any risk to the safety and heath to which any empoyee is exposed whist he is at work, and any risk to the safety and heath of any person not in his empoyment arising out of or in connection with the conduct by him of his undertaking for the purpose of identifying the measures he needs to impement in order to compy with the requirements imposed upon him by the Act, and any other enactment. (It is important to understand the term suitabe and sufficient so as to know the extent of the risk assessment process. A suitabe and sufficient risk assessment shoud identify the significant risks arising out of work. This impies focusing on those risks arising from the work activity that are not considered trivia. Trivia risks are risks arising from routine activities associated with ife in genera). The risk assessment sha be reviewed by the empoyer not ater than 2 years after any assessment, or earier where the empoyer is informed by the Permanent Secretary that it is no onger vaid, or where there has been a significant change in the matters to which it reates. Additionay, if the assessment carried out reveas that the safety and heath measures are inadequate to meet the requirements of the Act, the empoyer sha impement measures required within the shortest possibe deay. Every empoyer is required, so far as is practicabe, to ensure that any empoyee is provided with adequate safety and heath information, instruction and training on being recruited into the empoyer s undertaking; or on being exposed to new or increased risks as a resut of a transfer or change of responsibiities; or on the introduction of new pant or a change reating to any process aready in use within the pace of work. Section 11 requires an empoyer who empoys more than 5 persons to record in a register the significant findings of any assessment carried out and any group of empoyees identified as being especiay at risk. (These sections of the aw impy that a schoos having one or more empoyees shoud conduct a risk assessment of his activities so as to identify risks and take the necessary measures to eiminate or contro these risks. Records of risk assessments shoud be kept by empoyers having more than 5 empoyees. Occupationa Safety and Heath Officers of the Ministry of Labour in the course of their inspection usuay check the register and may even ask for a copy of it). 12 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

18 Section 30 of the Act requires every empoyer of 100 or more, but ess than 500 empoyees, at one or more paces of work to empoy a Safety and Heath Officer on either fu-time or part-time empoyment. Furthermore an empoyer having 500 or more, but not more than 2000, empoyees at one or more paces of work shoud empoy at east one Safety and Heath Officer on fu-time empoyment to perform soey the duties of Safety and Heath Officer. An empoyer is required to empoy one additiona Safety and Heath Officer on futime or part-time empoyment as may be directed by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Labour, for every additiona 2000 empoyees or fraction thereof. An empoyer is aso required to forthwith notify by the quickest practicabe means and within 7 days send a report thereof to the Director, Occupationa Safety and Heath (as per the Thirteenth Schedue of the Act) of any case where an empoyee, as a resut of an accident arising out of or in connection with his work, dies or suffers any of the injuries or conditions (specified in the Eeventh Schedue of the Act), or where there happens a dangerous occurrence (specified in the Twefth Schedue of the Act). 2.5 SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. What are the provisions of the Occupationa Safety and Heath Act in reation to empoyment of Safety and Heath Officers? 2. What duties the empoyer has under the Occupationa Safety and Heath Act in reation to training? 2.6 END OF UNIT SUMMARY In this unit we have been introduced to the Occupationa Safety and Heath Act, where the Act appies. The main duties of the empoyer incudes provision and maintenance a working environment, pants and equipment, the pace of work and use, handing, storage or transport of artices or substances is safe and without risk to heath. The empoyer shoud aso make a written statement of his safety and heath poicy and conduct risk assessments. Based on the number of empoyees some empoyers are required to empoy Safety and Heath Officers on either fu time or part time empoyment. Certain categories of occupationa accidents shoud be notified and reported to the Director, Occupationa Safety and Heath. 2.7 ANSWERS TO SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. Section 30 of the Act requires every empoyer of 100 or more, but ess than 500 empoyees, at one or more paces of work to empoy a Safety and Heath Officer on either fu-time or part-time empoyment. Furthermore an empoyer having 500 or more, but not more than 2000, empoyees 13 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

19 at one or more paces of work shoud empoy at east one Safety and Heath Officer on fu-time empoyment to perform soey the duties of Safety and Heath Officer. An empoyer is required to empoy one additiona Safety and Heath Officer on futime or part-time empoyment as may be directed by the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Labour, for every additiona 2000 empoyees or fraction thereof. 2. Every empoyer shoud provide training as is necessary to ensure the safety and heath at work of his empoyees. Every empoyer is aso required, so far as is practicabe, to ensure that any empoyee is provided with adequate safety and heath training on being recruited into the empoyer s undertaking; or on being exposed to new or increased risks as a resut of a transfer or change of responsibiities; or on the introduction of new pant or a change reating to any process aready in use within the pace of work. Watch video (Source: en/press/photos/napo) REFERENCES Barrett, B. & Howes, R., (1995), Occupationa Heath and Safety Law, Second Edition, Pitman Pubishing, London. Fife, I. & Machin, E. A., (1982), Redgraves Heath and Safety in Factories, Second Edition, Butterworths Shaw & Sons, London. Stranks, J., (2010), Heath & Safety at Work, Revised Eighth Edition, Kogan Page India Private Limited, New Dehi. The Occupationa Safety and Heath Act INTERNET abour.gov.mu/engish/legisations/pages/osha-2005-and-reguations.aspx [accessed October 2013] 14 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

20 UNIT 3 Lega Requirements on Occupationa Safety and Heath ( Part 2 ) 3.1 INTRODUCTION This unit wi continue with the main ega provisions reguating occupationa safety and heath. Emphasis wi be aid on specific duties of empoyers, sef-empoyed persons and empoyees and heath and wefare provisions. 3.2 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you wi be abe to understand: The genera provisions of the Act; The duties of empoyees; The roes and functions of safety and heath committees. 3.3 THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT 2005 DUTIES OF EMPLOYEES Empoyees have specific duties under the act to ensure their own safety and that of their workmates namey: take reasonabe care for the safety and heath of himsef and of other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work; cooperate with his empoyer in the discharge of any duty or requirement paced upon the empoyer under this Act; wear or use any protective equipment or cothing provided by the empoyer in pursuance of this Act at a times when there is a risk of bodiy injury against which the equipment or cothing affords protection; report forthwith to his empoyer the oss or destruction of, or defect in, the protective equipment or cothing entrusted to him; not smoke at the pace of work, except in an area demarcated for that purpose; 15 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

21 use correcty safety devices provided under this Act; not wifuy or reckessy make inoperative any guard provided on any machinery; report forthwith to the empoyer or his representative any situation which, he has reason to beieve, coud present a risk to his safety and heath; and report forthwith to the empoyer any bodiy injury sustained by him, as a resut of an accident arising out of, or in connection with, his work. Not damage, interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interest of safety, heath or wefare in pursuance of the Act. SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE Section 21 imposes the duty on every empoyer of 50 or more empoyees to estabish a safety and heath committee. The committee sha consist of: a Chairperson, who sha be the empoyer or a senior member of management who is responsibe for safety, heath and wefare of empoyees at the pace of work; A Vice-Chairperson, designated by the empoyees in such manner as may be required by the empoyer; A secretary who sha be the registered Safety and Heath Officer, where one is empoyed, or an empoyee appointed by the empoyer. Section 22 gives the main functions of the committee which are amongst others to: promote co-operation between the empoyer and the empoyees in achieving and maintaining safe and heathy working conditions; make proposas to the empoyer on matters regarding the safety, heath and wefare of empoyees; seek speciaist advice from any person, whether empoyed by the empoyer or not, on any matter reated to safety, heath and wefare of empoyees; make recommendations to the empoyer on training requirements and education programmes for particuar empoyees or group of empoyees; discuss occupationa accidents, dangerous occurrences and occupationa diseases and make recommendations to the empoyer; do anything incidenta or conducive to the performance of the functions of the committee. The empoyer is aso required to provide the committee with such faciities and assistance, as are reasonaby required for the purpose of carrying out its functions; give representatives of empoyees on the committee reevant 16 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

22 information to enabe them examine factors affecting safety and heath. The meetings shoud be hed during norma working hours at east once every 2 months. (The safety and heath committee is a good method for securing cooperation, coordination and exchange of ideas. It is the appropriate patform to: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) monitor the safety and heath standard and performance of the enterprise, make recommendations on safety and heath matters to management, Investigate accidents and dangerous occurrences and make recommendations to prevent recurrences, Anayse accident trends from statistics and propose action pans, Promote cooperation between empoyer and empoyees on occupationa safety and heath, Participate in deveopment of safety rues and safe systems of work, Carry out safety inspections and consider requests for improvement, Liaise with private experts or governmenta organisations on occupationa safety and heath issues, Identify training needs and check effectiveness of training programs, Promote occupationa safety and heath at a eves within the organization (sensitisation campaigns, etc.) GENERAL PROVISIONS The buiding where empoyees have to work or pass shoud be of sound construction, kept in a good state of repair, protect empoyees from weather and be free from any significant amount of dampness. The pace of work shoud be kept cean and free from any drain or sanitary convenience. Adequate ventiation and ighting sha be provided in every workroom. (Ventiation and ighting can be either natura or artificia). The aw aso requires provision of sanitary conveniences to empoyees, separate for each sex. An adequate suppy of whoesome drinking water shoud be provided to the empoyees. Adequate faciities for taking of meas, away from the habitua pace of work needs to be provided. 17 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

23 Equipment and faciities sha be provided to enabe first-aid to be rendered to empoyees who are injured or become i at work. Safe means of access to every pace of work need to be provided and maintained (empoyers need to ensure that stairs, adders, ramps etc. are safe for use by empoyees). Any pace from where a person can fa a distance of more than 2 meters shoud be provided with adequate protection by fencing or otherwise (here specia consideration shoud be paid to the risk to which pupis might be exposed). A foors, steps, stairs, passages and gangways sha be of sound construction and propery maintained and sha be kept free from any obstruction and from any substance ikey to cause persons to sip. For every staircase in a buiding, a substantia handrai sha be provided and maintained which, if the staircase has an open side, sha be on that side, and if the staircase has two open sides, sha be on both sides. Any open side of a staircase sha aso be fenced by the provision and maintenance of a ower rai or other effective means. Every empoyee who may during the course of his work hande or use any substance hazardous to heath sha be fuy informed and instructed as to the risks associated with the substance and the necessary precautionary measures to be observed for protection against such risks. A eectrica apparatuses and conductors, incuding machines, equipment and fittings, sha be sufficient in size and power for the work for which they are used, and sha be so constructed, instaed, protected, worked and maintained as to prevent danger. The buiding sha be provided with adequate and accessibe means of extinguishing fire as required by the Fire Services and a sufficient number of empoyees shoud be trained in their use. A fire certificate issued by the Fire Services is required in respect of any pace of work where more than 20 persons are expected to be present at any one time, or 10 persons are expected to be present at any one time esewhere than on the ground foor. (it shoud be noted that reference is made to persons, not ony empoyees, which impies that consideration shoud be given to pupis aso). Where an empoyee may suffer from bodiy injury as a resut of his work and such injury cannot be prevented by other means, the empoyee shoud be provided appropriate persona protective equipment and cothing to protect him from risk of injury. The empoyer sha, so far as is reasonaby practicabe, avoid the need for his empoyees to undertake manua handing operations which invove risk of bodiy injury. 18 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

24 3.5 SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. List 5 duties the empoyee has to do under the Act? 2. Expain the roes and functions of the safety and heath committee? 3.6 END OF UNIT SUMMARY This unit has given an overview of the duties of empoyees under the Act, and the estabishment and functions of the safety and heath committee. It aso depicts the genera duties of the empoyer regarding buidings, sanitary conveniences, ighting and ventiation, suppy of drinking water, faciities for taking of meas, first aid, fire safety, manua handing and persona protective equipment, amongst others. 3.7 ANSWER TO SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. Any five of the under-mentioned duties: take reasonabe care for the safety and heath of himsef and of other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work; cooperate with his empoyer in the discharge of any duty or requirement paced upon the empoyer under this Act; wear or use any protective equipment or cothing provided by the empoyer in pursuance of this Act at a times when there is a risk of bodiy injury against which the equipment or cothing affords protection; report forthwith to his empoyer the oss or destruction of, or defect in, the protective equipment or cothing entrusted to him; not smoke at the pace of work, except in an area demarcated for that purpose; use correcty safety devices provided under this Act; not wifuy or reckessy make inoperative any guard provided on any machinery; report forthwith to the empoyer or his representative any situation which, he has reason to beieve, coud present a risk to his safety and heath; and report forthwith to the empoyer any bodiy injury sustained by him, as a resut of an accident arising out of, or in connection with, his work. Not damage, interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interest of safety, heath or wefare in pursuance of the Act. 2. The main functions of a safety and heath committee incudes: The promotion of co-operation between the empoyer and the empoyees in achieving and maintaining safe and heathy working conditions; 19 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

25 making proposas to the empoyer on matters regarding the safety, heath and wefare of empoyees; seeking speciaist advice from any person, whether empoyed by the empoyer or not, on any matter reated to safety, heath and wefare of empoyees; making recommendations to the empoyer on training requirements and education programmes for particuar empoyees or group of empoyees; discussing occupationa accidents, dangerous occurrences and occupationa diseases and make recommendations to the empoyer; doing anything incidenta or conducive to the performance of the functions of the committee. Watch video (Source: en/press/photos/napo) REFERENCES Barrett, B. & Howes, R., (1995), Occupationa Heath and Safety Law, Second Edition, Pitman Pubishing, London. Fife, I. & Machin, E. A., (1982), Redgraves Heath and Safety in Factories, Second Edition, Butterworths Shaw & Sons, London. Stranks, J., (2010), Heath & Safety at Work, Revised Eighth Edition, Kogan Page India Private Limited, New Dehi. The Occupationa Safety and Heath Act INTERNET abour.gov.mu/engish/legisations/pages/osha-2005-and-reguations.aspx 20 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

26 UNIT 4 The Occupationa Safety And Heath Management System 4.1 INTRODUCTION Occupationa safety and heath management system refers to that part of the overa management system of the organization that incudes the organizationa structure, panning activities, responsibiities, practices, procedures and resources for deveoping, impementing, reviewing and maintaining the organization s safety and heath poicy and managing the occupationa safety and heath risks. 4.2 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you wi be abe to understand: The concept of safety and heath management; The concept of hazard, risk and risk assessment; 4.3 WHY MANAGE SAFETY AND HEALTH? There are mora, ega and economic reasons for managing safety and heath at work. Hazards and risks are present in any organization; however the magnitude of the risks at every workpace wi depend on the nature of activity being carried out at the workpace. Workpace accidents and incidents cause pain and suffering to the individua and his/ her famiy. They affect peope s abiity to work and their enjoyment of ife outside work. Many accidents and cases of occupationa i- heath at work are due to a faiure to manage safety propery. A proactive safety and heath management system promotes a safer working environment and resuts in the avoidance of accidents and incidents. In addition to reducing costs, an effective safety and heath management system ensures that: good safety and heath arrangements are in pace for staff, visitors and anyone affected by the work activities of the workpace; empoyees are confident that we-panned safety and heath systems are in pace when carrying out their responsibiities; 21 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

27 resources are not wasted - financia priorities can be reated to carefu risk assessments; empoyees absences due to injuries or occupationa i-heath are reduced; the number of accidents and associated costs are reduced; empoyee s morae is improved; the number and cost of compensation caims are reduced. 4.4 FIVE STEPS TO SUCCESSFUL SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT An Occupationa Safety and Heath Management System (OSHMS) in a workpace invove an on-going process which aims to promote continuous improvement in the way the empoyer manages safety and heath. It fits into the overa management of the organization and incudes the organizationa structure, panning activities, practices, procedures, and resources for deveoping, impementing, reviewing and maintaining safety, heath and wefare. When impementing an occupationa safety and heath management system, empoyers shoud ensure that the foowing steps are foowed: Fig 4.1: key eements of a safety and heath management system 22 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

28 1. Safety and Heath Poicy A safety and heath poicy gives the overa intentions and direction of the organization reated to its safety and heath performance (it is worth to note that a safety and heath poicy is required under OSHA 2005 by any empoyer having 50 or more empoyees). Every safety and heath poicy statement begins with a decaration, signed at senior management eve on the empoyer s behaf. This is known as the safety and heath poicy. The decaration gives a commitment to ensuring that a workpace is as safe and heathy as reasonaby practicabe and that a statutory requirements wi be compied with. The poicy shoud provide a framework for managing safety and heath and ist reevant objectives. The safety poicy statement is centra to the management of safety, heath and wefare in the workpace and aims to safeguard: the safety, heath and wefare at work of empoyees; the safety and heath of other peope who might be at the workpace, incuding pupis, visitors, contractors and members of the pubic. A copy of the safety and heath poicy can be dispayed in a pubic area of the schoo where it is visibe to a. A safety and Heath Poicy may incude commitments from empoyer to: manage and conduct schoo activities so as to ensure the safety, heath and wefare of staff; prevent improper conduct or behaviour ikey to at risk1; provide safe means of access and egress; put staff and others safety and heath provide safe pant and equipment; provide safe systems of work; prevent risk to safety and heath from any artice or substance; provide appropriate information, instruction, training and supervision; provide appropriate persona protective equipment (PPE) and cothing where hazards cannot be eiminated; prepare, review and revise emergency pans; designate staff for emergency duties; provide and maintain wefare faciities; appoint a competent person to advise and assist in securing the safety, heath and wefare of staff. Fig. 4.2: exampe of commitments contained in a safety and heath poicy 23 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

29 24 2. Panning Panning is an important part of the safety and heath management system. Some actions may be routine and predictabe, (e.g. annua risk assessments, safety and heath committee meetings, panned wak-through inspections, training and education sessions). Other actions may occur in response to particuar events or risk assessments. This heps to determine what the hazards are, the risk invoved and the contros to be put in pace to minimise the risk. It aso enabes the empoyer to define priorities and set objectives for eiminating hazards and reducing risks within time scaes. Many of these can be agreed and impemented fairy quicky, (e.g. repairs to equipment, new safety and heath reguations, and a change in work practice foowing the outcome of an accident). Finay some actions need to be panned to be impemented over a onger period of time or in phases, and may have major resource impications (e.g. repacing substandard infrastructure, introducing new equipment). The organization must pan, therefore, for short, medium and ong term objectives in its efforts to maintain and improve safety and heath across the whoe workpace. It must take account both of the physica infrastructure of the organization and of how peope operate and interact within it. Safety and heath panning invoves that: hazards are identified, risk assessment is conducted, and contro measures to eiminate or reduce risks are taken,(measurabe objectives sha be set and a program to achieve those objectives), Hazard refers to a source of energy, situation, substance or act having the potentia for human injury or i-heath or a combination of these e.g. water accumuation on a foor, Hazard identification refers to the process of recognizing that a hazard exists and defining its characteristics, Risk refers to a combination of the ikeihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or exposure (e.g. exposure to a toxic chemica) and the severity of the injury or i-heath that can be caused by the event or exposure. 3. Impementation For effective impementation of the OSHMS, the organization shoud depoy the safety and heath structures e.g. the safety and heath committee, Safety and Heath Officer, where required, as support mechanisms to achieve the commitments contained in its safety and heath poicy and any objectives and targets. Resources need to be made avaiabe to impement the occupationa safety and heath management system, (resources incude human, financia, technoogy etc. and shoud incude procedures to dea with emergencies). Every person in the organization shoud have specified roes and responsibiities to ensure safety and heath at work. Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

30 Exampe of roes and responsibiities of Teaching/Non-teaching staff of a schoo compy with a statutory obigations on empoyees as designated under the Act; co-operate with schoo management in the impementation of the OSHMS; inform pupis of the safety procedures associated with individua subjects, e.g. Physica Education (PE); ensure that pupis foow safe procedures and practices; conduct risk assessments of their immediate work environment; formay check cassroom/immediate work environment to ensure it is safe and free from faut or defect; check that equipment is safe before use; ensure that risk assessments are conducted to identify new hazards, e.g. use of new machine or chemica product; co-operate with the schoo safety committee (if it exists); report accidents, near misses, and dangerous occurrences to reevant persons as per estabished procedures. Fig 4.3: Exampe of roes and responsibiities of teaching/non-teaching staff The whoe aim of the OSHMS is to minimize risks. To evauate risks, the empoyer must make written risk assessments. This heps to identify the hazards, evauate the risk invoved and the contros to be put in pace to eiminate or minimize the risks. It aso enabes the empoyer to define priorities and set objectives for eiminating hazards and reducing risks within time scaes. Risks are usuay eiminated by the carefu seection and design of faciities, equipment and processes or minimized by the use of physica contro measures. Wherever possibe, risks shoud be eiminated. Where risks cannot be eiminated the genera principes of prevention must be used as part of the risk assessment process. Emergency procedures must be deveoped in advance, ceary communicated and understood, and practiced on a panned basis.the foowing issues shoud be addressed: The organization shoud have a forma procedure in pace to dea with emergency situations, e.g. fire, food, cycone, etc. the procedure shoud set out ceary what is to be done, who is to do it, who wi iaise 25 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

31 26 with famiies (for schoos), who wi co-ordinate actions on the day (set out a persons roes), foow-up care (where necessary), emergency service detais etc. Points to be considered In reation to accidents and dangerous occurrences: Existence of an accident poicy addressing procedures to be foowed in the event of an accident or dangerous occurrence (i.e. first-aid, doctor caed, parents/guardians caed, ambuance caed) Existence of interna reporting and recording procedures for a types of accidents. Ensure reporting of accidents to the Occupationa Safety and Heath Inspectorate, Investigation into a accidents, taking prompt corrective action where required and keeping of records of a incidents, accidents and dangerous occurrences. The impementation of the safety and heath management pan invoves conducting a training needs anaysis in order to identify and address any deficiencies. Based on the training needs identified, an annua training pan is prepared and reviewed reguary to ensure a training needs are met. A visitors to the organization shoud aso have access to the safety poicy statement. Communication is integra to the organization and operation of the safety and heath poicy statement. A staff must be aware of the content of the, safety poicies and procedures, risk assessments, minutes of safety committee meetings, resuts of audits and resuts of performance reviews. The communications process must aow for and encourage empoyees to bring safety, heath and wefare matters to the attention of management. A written communications poicy shoud be deveoped and impemented. In a schoo, for exampe, it is important to invove caretakers, ceaners and non-teaching staff in the communication framework, as they are often invoved in the highest risk work activity in schoos. It is good practice to ensure names and photographs of first-aiders, fire wardens and responsibe persons are posted in various ocations around the schoo on safety and heath notice boards ocated in centra positions. Information pertaining to nearest emergency first-aid kits, fire evacuation points and genera emergency procedures can aso be posted on safety and heath notice boards. The names of a persons with responsibiities for safety and heath and those of safety and heath committee members shoud be communicated to empoyees. Emergency procedures and specific hazards and contro measures shoud aso be communicated to empoyees incuding substitute, temporary, and new empoyees and those returning from eave of absence. 4. Measuring performance Safety and heath performance in organizations that manage safety and heath successfuy is measured against pre-determined standards, for exampe, performance can be measured against: egisative requirements; the safety and heath poicy and the written risk assessments contained in the safety statement; safety and heath objectives. Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

32 This is usuay achieved through active sef-monitoring and reactive monitoring. Active sef-monitoring invoves examination of premises, pant and substances, peope, procedures and systems, incuding individua behavior. Faiures of contro are assessed through reactive monitoring through investigations into accidents, i-heath or incidents with the potentia to cause harm or oss. The objectives of active and reactive monitoring is to determine the immediate and underying causes of poor performance and the impications for the design and operation of the heath and safety management system. Monitoring can be achieved in a number of ways, e.g. periodic review meetings (safety committee, top management review), to ensure the OSHMS is in operation and the safety statement incorporating risk assessments are in pace. The safety committee may conduct forma inspections and checks of a workpace areas at pre-defined timeframes to estabish items arising. Monitoring can be competed by carrying out inspections and equipment checks on items such as fire detection instaations, firefighting system etc. The safety committee wi aso check that the safety statement is being impemented and wi note any issues arising. 5. Audit and review Learning from a reevant experience and appying the essons earnt are important eements in effective safety and heath management. Auditing and reguar reviewing the OSHMS are the important steps in the management cyce. The step enabes the organization to maintain and deveop its abiity to reduce risks and ensure the effectiveness of the system. The organization shoud evauate the impact of the safety and heath pan at a predetermined time, (e.g. annuay), taking into account feedback from the significant incidents and/or accidents, dangerous occurrences, new egisative requirements and other reevant deveopments in the fied of occupationa safety and heath. Information produced from ongoing monitoring can be used to review current poicies and procedures and so hep improve performance. An annua safety and heath audit shoud be carried out. This is a comprehensive review and report on a aspects of safety and heath management in the organization. Resuts from audits can be combined with information from measuring performance to improve the organization s overa approach to safety and heath management. The safety and heath poicy statement shoud be revised as necessary, in ight of the review and evauation process. A members of the organization and reevant stakehoders shoud be informed of the fu contents of the revised safety poicy statement. 4.5 SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. What is an occupationa safety and heath management system and what are the main steps of such a system? 2. Give the advantages derived by an organization impementing an occupationa safety and heath management system? 27 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

33 4.6 END OF UNIT SUMMARY This unit has introduced the concept of occupationa safety and heath management system and the benefits organizations can reap by proactivey impementing the system. The OSHMS basicay consists of five steps namey: A safety and heath poicy gives the overa intentions and direction of the organization reated to its safety and heath performance, panning invoves that hazards are identified, risk assessment is conducted, and contro measures to eiminate or reduce risks are taken; Impementation, which invoves setting the safety and heath structures providing required resources needed and defining roes and responsibiities; Measuring performance against pre-determined standards; Auditing and review to enabe management to determine the effectiveness of the pan impemented and improve the organization s overa approach to safety and heath management. 4.8 ANSWERS TO SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. An Occupationa Safety and Heath Management System (OSHMS) in a workpace invove an on-going process which aims to promote continuous improvement in the way the empoyer manages safety and heath. It fits into the overa management of the organization and incudes the organizationa structure, panning activities, practices, procedures, and resources for deveoping, impementing, reviewing and maintaining safety, heath and wefare. The steps of an OSHMS are safety and heath poicy, panning, impementation, measuring performance and auditing and review. 2. The main advantages derived by an organization impementing an occupationa safety and heath management system are the promotion of a safer working environment which in turn resuts in the avoidance of accidents and incidents and cost reduction. It aso ensures that good safety and heath arrangements are in pace for staff, visitors and anyone affected by the work activities of the workpace; empoyees are confident that we-panned safety and heath systems are in pace when carrying out their responsibiities. It eiminates the wastage of resources, reducesempoyees absences due to injuries or occupationa i-heath. Empoyees morae is improved and the number and cost of compensation caims are reduced. 28 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

34 Watch video (Source: en/press/photos/napo) REFERENCES Heath and Safety Executive, (2006), Essentias of heath and safety at work Heath and Safety Executive, (1992), Successfu heath and safety management ILO (2001), Guideines on Occupationa Safety and Heath Management Systems ILO- OSH 2001 Stranks, J., (2010), Heath & Safety at Work, Revised Eighth Edition, Kogan Page India Private Limited, New Dehi. INTERNET on_managing_safety_and_heath_in_post_primary_schoos.pdf [accessed in October 2013] [accessed in October 2013] 29 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

35 30 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

36 UNIT 5 Risk Assessment ( Part 1 ) 5.1 INTRODUCTION One of the key steps in the proper management of occupationa safety and heath is the management of risks. In this unit we wi try to understand the how to go aong panning for a risk assessment, identifying hazards at workpaces, evauating the risks and impementing contro measures so that the risks are brought to a toerabe eve (toerabe risk means that the risk has been reduced to the owest eve that is reasonaby practicabe); and monitoring and review. 5.2 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you wi be abe to understand: The concept risk assessment; The cassification of hazards; The steps invoved in risk assessment (first two steps introduced in this unit and remaining three steps in unit 6); 5.3 RISK ASSESSMENT Risk assessment is an important too in the creation of safe working environments. It is a mandatory duty paced on empoyers under sections 10 and 11 of the Occupationa Safety and Heath Act 2005 (refer to paragraph of Unit 2). The purpose of the empoyer s risk assessment is to identify any measures necessary to keep his empoyees safe. This duty aso extends to temporary workers and any person ikey to be affected by the empoyer s undertaking. Risk assessment is a carefu identification of hazards at the workpace with a view to determine the degree of risk that the hazards present to the heath and safety of empoyees and others who may be affected whist taking into consideration existing contros and impement appropriate contro measures so as to bring the risks to an acceptabe eve. This wi enabe the empoyer to compy with his ega requirements and aso ensure the safety and heath of empoyees as it wi enabe empoyers to identify and contro any activities, processes, machinery or substance that coud potentiay cause injury or i heath e.g. carrying out unsafe manua handing activities, operating poory maintained workpace equipment. 31 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

37 Risk refers to a combination of the ikeihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event and the severity of injury or damage to the heath of peope caused by this event. Risk assessment refers to an organized process used to evauate the risks to safety and heath arising from hazards at work. Hazard refers to something with the potentia to cause harm (this can incude substances or machines, toos and equipment, methods of work and other aspects of the way work is organized) THE TYPES OF HAZARDS Before understanding the risk assessment process it is important to be conversant with hazards one may find in a pace of work. Definitey the hazards found in a pace of work wi depend on the activity carried out by the undertaking, the machines used, the materias used, and the processes adopted (hazards in an office wi be competey different to hazards on a construction site). The ist of sources and effects of hazards to man are given to emphasize some of the main causes and consequences. Hazards are broady cassified into the foowing as categories indicated in tabe Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

38 Tabe 5.1: Common ist of hazards HAZARDS SOURCES EFFECTS Mechanica Hazards Physica hazards Noise and vibration Eectricity Radiation Cimatic conditions Iumination Chemica hazards Bioogica hazard - Machines and machine parts - Transport and transport ways - Foors, working stands and patforms - adders and other means of access - poor housekeeping - vibrating objects - fow of air, iquids or gases - eectric current, eectric arc - nonionizing radiation: sun, some asers, microwave, - ionizing radiation: x-rays, - temperatures, humidity, radiation, air veocity, air ceaniness. - Natura ighting and artificia ighting - chemicas, toxic materias and wastes, fires and exposion. - bacteria, viruses, fungus. - wounds, cuts, bruises, sprains, fractures, death temporary hearing oss, hearing impairment, permanent hearing oss, vibration disease, psychosocia harm and disabiity - burns, eectric shock, death. - gare, and eye irritation, skin and other tissue injuries, genetic disorders. - heat cramps, exhaustion and stroke (dehydration), cod. - fatigue, accidents (indirecty). - irritation and infammation, aergies, burns, acute and chronic poisoning, genetic disorders, cancer. - occupationa diseases. Ergonomic hazards Psychosocia hazards -heavy workoad, monotonous work,, repetitive work, unsuitabe toos and contros, wrong working methods -quaity of work (monotonous, continuous aertness, working aone, etc.), human reations. - fatigue, strain injuries, back disease. - discomfort, irritation, psychosomatic diseases, menta diseases. 33 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

39 5.4 THE RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS There can be severa ways to conduct risk assessment but the genera principes and objectives are the same. Depending on the nature of activity carried out by the enterprise, it is important to keep the process of risk assessment practica. Before conducting a risk assessment a person or team of persons shoud be identified to carry out the risk assessment. In sma workpaces, such as offices, a risk assessment is ikey to be a reativey straightforward process and it may be possibe for staff who are famiiar with the work processes and the risks invoved to carry it out themseves. However, for arge workpaces with compex processes, e.g. chemica pants, speciaist advice might be required to conduct the assessment. The risk assessment process consists of five steps (fig. 5.1) to be foowed in a chronoogica order, however, the process is very fexibe and the team conducting the risk assessment can aways move back to a previous step to ensure that the assessment is thorough and compete. 34 Fig 5.1: the risk assessment process Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

40 STEP1:PLANNING It is important to have a competent team of assessors if the risk assessment is to achieve its objectives. The risk assessment team shoud preferaby incude management, supervisors and empoyees who coud be exposed to the hazards. The team shoud aso incude safety and heath personne, safety and heath representatives and, whenever required, persons with speciaist expertise. Before starting the exercise it is important to obtain reevant and crucia information on the pace being assessed so as to enabe the assessors take decisions on the hazards they find in the workpace and aso on the information they aready have on the workpace e.g. ega requirements, accident statistics, data on i heath, compaints etc. The team shoud have access to and examine a reevant information, incuding: Legisative requirements; existing Codes of Practice/Guideines etc.; accident and i heath statistics incuding investigation reports; The empoyer s risk criteria; Safe working procedures; Materia Safety Data Sheets of chemicas used; pan of workpace; reports and recommendations of enforcement authorities; Inspection reports and audit reports. After having gone through a avaiabe information the team shoud then decide upon an acceptabe eve of risk (risk criteria) which shoud be in accordance with existing egisation. The objective is to eiminate the risk; however it is not aways possibe to do so. The criteria aow the team to determine what action needs to be taken to contro the risk. The team wi need to make some judgment on the potentia ikeihood and consequences of the exposure to each hazard, such as, fata injury, serious injury, and have an understanding of the means and cost of controing the associated risk. STEP 2:HAZARD IDENTIFICATION Identifying hazards basicay invoves thinking about the work that is done and what materias, equipment, and chemicas are used. To understand exacty how work is done the team of assessors shoud wak round the workpace and examine the fu range of work activities that are carried out. It is important aso to check non-routine operations (even if carried out once in a year), e.g. maintenance of equipment. The team shoud aso review the reevant information gathered under step 1 and conduct an inspection of the workpace to observe actua practice, (not procedures or job instructions) and pay attention to changes and interruptions. 35 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

41 The team shoud prepare a comprehensive ist of hazards or events that might affect the work activity. This may be easier if the workpace is divided into sections and inspected individuay. A checkist can be usefu to ensure a hazards are identified and documented. During the inspection, the team shoud observe the actua tasks and tak to the empoyees working in the area to obtain their views on the nature of the risks invoved. A hazards may not be apparent during the inspection period and it may be necessary to return when specific tasks are being carried out (non-routine, workers working on sites). Additionay, contractors or sef-empoyed workers may be at risk from workpace hazards because they are unfamiiar with the site, its hazards and its way of working. They may aso bring new risks with them onto the site, which have not necessariy been considered. Specia attention might need to be given to vunerabe empoyees, e.g. workers with incapacity, young workers, od workers, one workers, and pregnant women. In a schoo environment, for exampe, attention must be paid to the fact that pupis and visitors may aso be harmed by the same hazards that threaten staff. Harm can occur from: Vioence from pupis and parents to staff; Poor design of cassroom furniture and equipment causing muscuoskeeta disorders; Hot surfaces in schoo kitchen; and Construction hazards during buiding works. 5.5 SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. Define Risk assessment? 2. List the different categories of hazards indicating some sources of such hazards? 5.6 END OF UNIT SUMMARY In this unit we have introduced the concept of risk assessment, whist defining hazards, risk and risk assessment. There are basicay six categories of hazards namey: mechanica hazards, physica hazards, chemica hazards, bioogica hazards, ergonomic hazards and psychosocia hazards. The risk assessment process consists of ogica and sequentia steps of a process that enabes controing or eiminating risks in organizations. There are five steps in the risk assessment process namey: panning, hazard anaysis, evauation,contro, monitoring and review. 5.7 ANSWERS TO SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY Risk assessment refers to an organized process used to evauate the risks to safety and heath arising from hazards at work. It is a carefu examination of hazards at the workpace that aims to determine the degree of risk that the hazards present to the heath and safety of empoyees and others who may be affected. Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

42 2. There are categories of hazards at workpaces namey: Mechanica hazards which can exist due to machines and machine parts, transport and transport ways, foors, working stands and patforms, adders and other means of access, and poor housekeeping. Physica hazards which is subdivided into the foowing subcategories Noise and vibration, e.g. vibrating objects,-fow of air, iquids or gases Eectricity, e.g. eectric current, eectric arc Radiation, e.g. nonionizing radiation such as sun, some asers, microwave, and ionizing radiation such as x-rays, Cimatic conditions, e.g. temperatures, humidity, radiation, air veocity, air ceaniness. Iumination, e.g. Natura ighting and artificia ighting Chemica hazards which are caused by factors such as chemicas, toxic materias and wastes, fires and exposion, Bioogica hazards which are caused factors such as bacteria, viruses, fungus, Ergonomic hazards which are caused factors such as heavy workoad, monotonous work, repetitive work, unsuitabe toos and contros, wrong working methods, Psychosocia hazards which are caused factors such as quaity of work (monotonous, continuous aertness, working aone, etc.) and human reations. Watch video (Source: en/press/photos/napo) 37 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

43 REFERENCES Heath and Safety Executive, (2006), Essentias of heath and safety at work Heath and Safety Executive, (1992), Successfu heath and safety management Internationa Labour Organization, (1991), Factory Inspection, Seected Technica Papers. Internationa Labour Organization, (2001), Guideines on Occupationa Safety and Heath Management Systems ILO-OSH Kaia H.L., (2010), Industria Safety and Human behavior, First Edition, A.I.T.B.S Pubishers, Dehi. Ministry of abour, Industria reations and Empoyment, (2011), Risk Assessment Guideines Occupationa Safety and Heath. Stranks, J., (2010), Heath & Safety at Work, Revised Eighth Edition, Kogan Page India Private Limited, New Dehi. INTERNET on_managing_safety_and_heath_in_post_primary_schoos.pdf [accessed October 2013] SafetyAndHeathRiskManagement.pdf[accessed inoctober 2013] [accessed October 2013] Assessment%20Guideines.pdf[accessed October 2013] 38 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

44 UNIT 6 Risk Assessment ( Part 2 ) 6.1 INTRODUCTION In unit 5 the concept of risk assessment was introduced and you were expained the first two steps of the risk assessment process. In this unit we wi ook into the remaining three steps which are evauationof the risks, contro measures so that the risks are brought to a toerabe eve (Toerabe risk means that the risk has been reduced to the owest eve that is reasonaby practicabe); and monitoring and review. 6.2 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you wi be abe to understand: The concept risk assessment; The steps invoved in risk assessment (first two steps introduced in unit 5 and remaining three steps wi be introduced in this unit ); The hierarchy of contro measures. 6.3 THE RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS In unit 5 the first two steps of risk assessment, panning and hazard identification were introduced. In this unit we continue with the remaining three steps, evauation of risks, impementation of contro measures and monitoring and review thus competing the risk assessment process. STEP 3 : EVALUATION Once the hazards have been identified there is a need to evauate the risk these hazards represent to empoyees and others. Each hazard shoud be evauated by identifying possibe consequences and the ikeihood of them occurring. This wi hep to assess the ikeihood of an event occurring and the potentia exposure. There is a need to adopt a right methodoogy in evauating the risks so as to ensure that if 39 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

45 the same methodoogy is appied at a times, and the assessment team incudes empoyees who are coser to the operation than anyone ese, their opinion about the risks and the measures to combat them is probaby the best there is. It is common for risk assessment teams to adopt a 5x5 method of risk assessment but the 4x4 or 3x3 methods can aso be used. In this course the 4x4 method of risk assessment wi be considered. Each risk identified is measured against the two constituents of risk the hazard severity (seriousness) and the probabiity (ikeihood of occurrence), giving a vaue to each on a scae of 1-4 and mutipying the two answers together (fig. 6.1) Fig. 6.1 risk matrix It is important to define the two eements of the risk matrix to ensure that everyone understands the terms used. Severity of harm can be rated as: Fataity injury: fata or muti-fata outcome, Serious injury: fractures, disocations, poisoning, spina injuries, eye injuries, interna beeding, head injury, any injury or iness resuting in 3 days or more ost workdays, Significant injury: major cuts, bruises, sprains, iness or injury resuting in ess than 3 days ost workdays, Minor injuries: minor cuts and bruises. Likeihood can be rated as: 40 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

46 Very ikey: coud happen frequenty (e.g. daiy), Likey: coud happen occasionay (e.g. once a month), Possibe: possibiity to occur exists(e.g. once every three months), Unikey: coud happen but rarey (e.g. once a year). The severity of each risk is then mutipied by its ikeihood which gives the highest possibe score of 16 (fig. 6.1). The risk assessment team shoud then determine categorizing the scores which wi hep in prioritizing action for reduction of risks, e.g.: High (8-6): requires urgent actions Medium (3 6): action to be taken within 3 months, Low (1-2): keep monitoring to maintain risk at ow eve. STEP 4: CONTROL Risk contro invoves identifying and impementing measures to dea with those risks that fai to meet the agreed risk criteria. Risks shoud be made as ow as reasonaby practicabe. It is important to take into consideration technoogica advances when controing risks. It is aways better to avoid a risk atogether. Risk shoud be eiminated at the source rather than adopting secondary measures, and whenever possibe, work shoud be adapted to the individua rather than the individua adapting to the work. The high eve of risks shoud be given priority. Low eve risks may be acceptabe with minima further treatment but shoud be monitored and periodicay reviewed to ensure they remain acceptabe. Risk contro and reduction are commony impemented based on a hierarchy of contro. Often more than one method of contro wi be necessary to meet the risk criteria. The hierarchy of contro measures incudes: Eimination: the hazard is removed atogether, Substitution: the hazardous system or process is repaced with one that presents a ower risk, Engineering Contros: invoves making structura changes to the working environment or work process so that an additiona protective barrier exists between the hazard and the empoyee, Administrative Contros: invoves reducing the eve of exposure to the hazards through systems of works, procedures, information, instructions, training etc., Persona Protective Equipment: in case other contros are ineffective or inadequate, persona protective equipment protects the worker who wears or uses it. However, it 41 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

47 is important to note that very often workers compain of discomfort when wearing persona protective equipment and the eve of protection wi depend on correct seection, proper fit, reguar maintenance and proper use. The effectiveness of the contro measures reduce as we go down the hierarchy of contro. STEP 5:MONITORING AND REVIEW After impementation of the contro measures it is important to determine whether the required resuts are being achieved. Monitoring can be done through reguar inspections, auditing, and consutation with empoyees and safety representatives. Furthermore, in accordance with section 10 of the Occupationa Safety and Heath Act 2005, the risk assessment shoud be reviewed every 2 years or earier. The review might be necessary because new equipment or substances, or changes to working procedures may bring new hazards into the workpace. It might aso be necessary to review the risk assessment foowing an accident, changes in aw or changes in the contro measures avaiabe to contro the risk (e.g. new information and technoogy). Section 11 of the Occupationa Safety and Heath Act requires empoyers of more than 5 persons to record in a register the significant findings of the assessment carried out and any group of empoyees identified as being especiay at risk. 6.4 SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. Expain the hierarchy of contro measures? 2. Expain the importance of monitoring and review in the risk assessment process? 6.5 END OF UNIT SUMMARY This unit continues the expanation of the remaining three steps of the risk assessment process: evauation, contro and monitoring and review (the first two steps were introduced in unit 5). Evauation is a step that hep to assess the ikeihood of an event occurring and the potentia exposure. Risk contro invoves identifying and impementing measures to dea with those risks that fai to meet the agreed risk criteria. The hierarchy of contro measures was introduced. Risks shoud be made as ow as reasonaby practicabe. Monitoring and review heps to determine whether the required resuts are being achieved 6.6 ANSWERS TO SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. The hierarchy of contro measures refers to measure that are adopted in an order of priority so as to eiminate or contro risks at workpaces namey: 42 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

48 Eimination: the hazard is removed atogether, e.g. doing away with a process or materia, Substitution: the hazardous system or process is repaced with one that presents a ower risk, e.g. repacing a hazardous materia by a ess hazardous one which gives the same resuts, Engineering Contros: invoves making structura changes to the working environment or work process so that an additiona protective barrier exists between the hazard and the empoyee, e.g. providing guards on machines, Administrative Contros: invoves reducing the eve of exposure to the hazards through systems of works, procedures, information, instructions, training etc., Persona Protective Equipment: in case other contros are ineffective or inadequate, persona protective equipment protects the worker who wears or uses it. However, it is important to note that very often workers compain of discomfort when wearing persona protective equipment and the eve of protection wi depend on correct seection, proper fit, reguar maintenance and proper use. 2. Monitoring and review heps to determine whether the required resuts are being achieved. Monitoring can be done through reguar inspections, auditing, and consutation with empoyees and safety representatives. The review might be necessary because new equipment or substances, or changes to working procedures may bring new hazards into the workpace. It might aso be necessary to review the risk assessment foowing an accident, changes in aw or changes in the contro measures avaiabe to contro the risk (e.g. new information and technoogy). Watch video (Source: en/press/photos/napo) 43 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

49 REFERENCES Internationa Labour Organization, (1991), Factory Inspection, Seected Technica Papers. Kaia H.L., (2010), Industria Safety and Human behavior, First Edition, A.I.T.B.S Pubishers, Dehi. Ministry of abour, Industria reations and Empoyment, (2011), Risk Assessment Guideines Occupationa Safety and Heath. Stranks, J., (2010), Heath & Safety at Work, Revised Eighth Edition, Kogan Page India Private Limited, New Dehi. INTERNET on_managing_safety_and_heath_in_post_primary_schoos.pdf [accessed in October 2013] SafetyAndHeathRiskManagement.pdf[accessed October 2013] [accessed in October 2013] 44 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

50 UNIT 7 Understanding the Essentias of Safety and Heath at Work 7.1 INTRODUCTION In this unit and the foowing units we wi try to understand the types of hazards that may exist in a workpace/activity and the measures that need to be taken to ensure the safety and heath of empoyees and other persons. 7.2 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you wi be abe to understand: The hazards and principes of managing safety and heath in a workpace; How to manage safety and heath in an office and a catering faciity. 7.3 THE WORKPLACE The buiding where empoyees are required to work or pass through during their work shoud be of sound construction and kept in a good state of repair. Any eakage of water inside the buiding shoud be repaired prompty, especiay if found near eectrica instaations. Buiding incudes a the fixtures and fittings are and thus empoyers shoud ensure that doors and windows are propery maintained to eiminate risks of injury. Very often empoyees or students might get seriousy injured by samming of doors. A work areas shoud have adequate ventiation and ighting (natura or artificia) and shoud be kept cean. Dirt and trade wastes shoud be removed reguary and kept in containers. Whenever vehices have access to the premises of the undertaking there shoud be cear routing and where possibe segregation of pedestrian from vehices. It is aso important that foor surfaces are we maintained and kept cean (without hoes, obstructions, uneven or sippery surface) so as to prevent sips, trips and fas. Spiages shoud be ceared immediatey. If foors are wet after ceaning, pace appropriate signage to prevent anyone waking thereon. Avoid cabes or pipes traiing in the wakways. Sometimes it is important to have the adequate amount of ighting at the workpace to prevent trip or sip (gare or poor ighting might increase incidence of sip and trip). It is aso important that empoyees wear the suitabe footwear to avoid sips and trips. Precautions shoud aso be taken to prevent peope or materias faing from open edges e.g. 45 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

51 baconies, stairs etc. Specia precautions need to be taken with transparent doors so as to prevent persons waking into them (e.g. protected by warning signs). Serious injuries can resut from gass breakage in doors and windows, therefore it is important to provide safe gazing (e.g. protected, toughened or thick). 7.4 THE OFFICE An office environment is considered to be a reasonaby safe workpace as compared to a chemica pant or a construction site. However, minor accidents are very common in offices e.g. sips, trips and fas, eectric shock etc.). It is therefore important to manage safety and heath in an office ike in any other workpace. Poor housekeeping is considered to be one of the most important causes of accidents in offices and aso a cause of fire. Housekeeping put in simpe terms means everything in the correct pace and a pace for everything. The foowing rues can be foowed to observe a good standard of housekeeping in an office: 46 Aways keep the work area tidy; Store waste in waste containers; Heavy items not to be paced on top of cabinets or cupboards, Broken items such as broken crockery, ight bubs, bottes shoud be separatey stored and disposed of; Passageways, stairways, entrances and exits (particuary emergency exits) shoud be kept cear; Spiages to be ceared up immediatey; Damaged foor coverings, such as carpets, shoud be repaced immediatey; It is aso important to consider proper siting of furniture and fittings to avoid accidents. The foowing points might be considered: Furniture ayout shoud aow free movement of empoyees; Doors and drawers of fiing cabinets shoud be kept cosed when not in use; Fiing cabinets shoud not be overoaded, heavy items shoud be stored in the bottom drawer; Damaged and broken items of furniture shoud be repaired or repaced immediatey. Improper use of eectricity and eectrica appiances may very often resut in office fires (e.g. eectrica overoading). To manage eectrica safety in an office it is important that: Machines are switched off when eft unattended for ong periods; Cabe covers shoud be used to avoid tripping hazards (fig. 7.1); Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

52 Eectrica cabes shoud be reguary inspected and maintained and repaced when damaged; Muti-point adaptors are prohibited (fig. 7.2); Eectrica appiances are examined at reguar intervas. Fig. 7.1: tripping hazard from traiing eectrica cabe Fig. 7.2: using muti-point adaptors 47 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

53 Severa substances used in offices coud be potentiay dangerous e.g. ceaning fuids, adhesives, quick drying inks, and may be highy fammabe. Some precautions need to be observed when deaing with chemicas: A containers of dangerous chemicas shoud be abeed with their warning symbos; Aways read manufacturer s instructions before using a potentiay dangerous chemica (storage, handing, use and disposa); Wear appropriate persona protective equipment; Any i-effects sustained by empoyees shoud be reported, investigated into and appropriate corrective actions taken. Fire hazard is another issue to be considered when managing safety and heath in an office. Most fires usuay occur outside norma working hours. Certain basic principes need to be observed to reduce fire risk in an office environment: Smoking in the workpace shoud be prohibited (except in speciay demarcated areas); Fammabe substances shoud be stored in a specia meta storage cupboard and fammabe items in the office shoud be kept to a minimum; Fammabe wastes shoud be propery stored and disposed of; A eectrica appiances shoud be disconnected from the socket when not in use for ong periods; It is good practice for an inspection to be undertaken by a competent person prior to cosing the office; A staff shoud be aware of the nearest fire aarm point, the nearest fire extinguisher, the emergency evacuation pan and the assemby point; Fire dris shoud be practiced at reguar intervas. Using computers might aso present safety and heath hazards. The foowing need to be considered to ensure safety and heath of users: Workstation and seat shoud be ergonomicay designed so as to fit the worker and the work; (ergonomics is the science concerned with the fit between peope and their work); The workstation shoud be such that gare is avoided on the monitor (fig. 7.3); 48 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

54 Fig. 7.3: gare on the aptop screen Provide adjustabe seats with adjustabe backrest and provide footrest; Access to contros of equipment shoud be easy; Pan work so that empoyees get breaks or change activity. 7.5 SAFETY IN THE KITCHEN Severa workpaces incuding schoos might have a kitchen and a ot of risks are associated with activities in a kitchen. Injuries common in catering activities incude scads through contact with boiing water, hot fats and iquids; cuts to hands (from knives, broken gass), burns to hands and forearms from ovens, hotpates, bruising, abrasions and fracture due to sips, trips and fas on wet and greasy foors and back injuries due to poor manua handing. It is therefore important to manage safety and heath in the kitchen if we want to avoid accidents. Some measures that can be taken incude: Foors shoud be adequatey drained, and spiages of fats and iquids shoud be ceared up immediatey. Additionay, kitchen staff shoud wear ow-heeed shoes with non-sip soes. 49 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

55 FIG. 7.4: knives can cause serious injuries Provision of adequate and suitabe persona protective equipment; Staff shoud be trained in - the correct use of knives and sharpening procedures; deaing with sma fires and the procedures to foow in case of fire; proper manua handing techniques; proper use of persona protective equipment; A dangerous parts of machines (e.g. sicing machine)shoud be securey fenced so as to prevent hands from coming into contact with the dangerous parts; No hande of any equipment shoud be aowed to protrude outside any tabe. Provide adequate ventiation and ighting, incuding exhaust ventiation over cooking ovens; Training and supervision of staff in the safe use of hazardous substances (e.g. detergents). PRACTICAL STEPS TO PREVENT SLIPS AND TRIPS ACCIDENTS There are many simpe ways to contro sips and trips risks and prevent accidents in your workpace. Here are a few exampes. Stop foors becoming contaminated Use entrance matting. 50 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

56 Fix eaks from machinery or buidings. Make sure pant and equipment are maintained. Design tasks to minimise spiages. Pan pedestrian and vehice routes to avoid contaminated areas. Use the right ceaning methods Make sure that your ceaning method is effective for the type of foor you have. Don t introduce more sip or trip risks whie ceaning is being done. Leave smooth foors dry after ceaning or excude pedestrians unti the foor is dry. Remove spiages prompty. Have effective arrangements for both routine ceaning and deaing with spis. Use the appropriate detergent mixed at the correct concentration. Consider the fooring and work environment Check for oose, damaged and worn fooring and repace as needed. Foors ikey to get wet or have spiages on them shoud be of a type that does not become unduy sippery. Make sure ighting is sufficient and that sopes or steps are ceary visibe. Keep wakways and work areas cear of obstructions. Get the right footwear Where foors cannot be kept cean and dry, sip-resistant footwear can hep prevent sip accidents. Tria footwear first to make sure it is suitabe for the environment and for those who wi be wearing it, i.e. comfort and fit. If footwear is suppied as persona protective equipment (PPE), it must be suppied free of charge to empoyees. Think about peope and organisationa factors Consider how work is organised and managed, e.g. to avoid rushing, overcrowding, traiing cabes. Make sure empoyees are invoved in the decisions that affect them, e.g. choice of PPE footwear or a change in ceaning methods. 51 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

57 7.6 SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. Give some precautionary measures that might be taken to ensure the safety and heath of empoyees working in it? 2. What steps can be foowed to keep a good standard of housekeeping in an office? 7.7 END OF UNIT SUMMARY In this unit we have expained the measures that need to be taken to ensure safety and heath in buidings, an office environment and a catering faciity. We have aso given the main steps that need to be taken to prevent sips, trips and fas which is a common cause of accidents in buidings, offices and kitchens. 7.8 ANSWERS TO SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY The buiding shoud be of sound construction and kept in a good state of repair. Any eakage of water inside the buiding shoud be repaired immediatey, especiay if found near eectrica instaations. Empoyers shoud ensure that doors and windows are propery maintained to eiminate risks of injury. A work areas shoud have adequate ventiation and ighting (natura or artificia) and shoud be kept cean. Dirt and trade wastes shoud be removed reguary and kept in containers. There shoud be ceary indicated routes and where possibe segregation of pedestrian from vehices. It is aso important that foor surfaces are we maintained and kept cean (without hoes, obstructions, uneven or sippery surface) so as to prevent sips, trips and fas. Spiages shoud be ceared immediatey. If foors are wet after ceaning, pace appropriate signage to prevent anyone waking thereon. Avoid cabes or pipes traiing in the wakways. It is important to have the adequate amount of ighting at the workpace and ensure that empoyees wear the suitabe footwear to avoid sips and trips. Precautions shoud aso be taken to prevent peope or materias faing from open edges e.g. baconies, stairs etc. Specia precautions need to be taken with transparent doors so as to prevent persons waking into them. Serious injuries can resut from gass breakage in doors and windows, therefore it is important to provide safe gazing (e.g. protected, toughened or thick). 2. The foowing rues can be foowed to observe a good standard of housekeeping in an office: Aways keep the work area tidy; Store waste in waste containers; Heavy items not to be paced on top of cabinets or cupboards, Broken items such as broken crockery, ight bubs, bottes shoud be separatey stored and disposed of; Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

58 Passageways, stairways, entrances and exits (particuary emergency exits) shoud be kept cear; Spiages to be ceared up immediatey; Damaged foor coverings, such as carpets, shoud be repaced immediatey. Watch video (Source: en/press/photos/napo) REFERENCES Heath and Safety Executive, (2006), Essentias of Heath and Safety at Work, Fourth Edition. Internationa Labour Organization, (1991), Factory Inspection, Seected Technica Papers. Kaia H.L., (2010), Industria Safety and Human behavior, First Edition, A.I.T.B.S Pubishers, Dehi. Stranks, J., (2010), Heath & Safety at Work, Revised Eighth Edition, Kogan Page India Private Limited, New Dehi. INTERNET SafetyAndHeathRiskManagement.pdf [accessed October 2013][accessed in October 2013] [accessed in October 2013] 53 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

59 54 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

60 UNIT 8 Understanding the Essentias of Safety and Heath at Work-Mechanica Hazards 8.1 INTRODUCTION In this unit you wi be given an overview of mechanica hazards that may exist in a workpace and the measures that need to be taken to ensure the safety and heath of empoyees and other persons. Mechanica hazards can arise from dangerous parts of machines, wakways and traffic ways, adders, etc. Severa serious and fata accidents occur every year due to poory controed mechanica hazards, thus it is very important to consider this type of hazard in the workpace. 8.2 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you wi be abe to understand: The types of mechanica hazards commony found in workpaces; The principes of managing safety and heath in reation to mechanica hazards. 8.3 MECHANICAL HAZARDS Mechanica hazards may arise from dangerous parts of machines, toos, transport and transport ways, foors, working stands and patforms, adders and other means of access and poor housekeeping. They are a very common cause of accidents at workpaces and necessary measures need to be taken to eiminate or contro risks associated with mechanica hazards MACHINERY HAZARDS Machines are used every day in workpaces and have payed a key roe in improving productivity and the comfort and ifestye of mankind. However, if appropriate precautions are not taken serious injuries may resut. Injuries from machines usuay occur from a faiure to understand the hazards and aso from poor safety design which does not reduce the potentia hazards caused by the machinery parts to an acceptabe eve. The common factor in machines is that they use a form of energy to generate certain types of motion to give the desired resuts. Motion, therefore, can be considered as a fundamenta property couped with human contact, as the underying reason for machine accidents. There are three genera forms of motion from which different types of hazards may occur: 55 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

61 Rotary motion The rotary motion can create different types of dangerous points on machines such as: in-running nips (e.g. between gears, roers, conveyors, fig. 8.1), entangement (e.g. high veocity revoving parts), cutting acti on (e.g. saws, sicers), projecties (e.g. from abrasive whees, swarf from driing machines), and friction (e.g. smooth high speed revoving surface coming into contact with skin). 56 Figure 8.1: exampes of in running nips Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

62 Reciprocating motion The main danger from this form of motion occurs when the forward stroke competes its trave, forming a trap between the moving part and the stationary part of the machine. They can create two genera type of hazards namey: cutting action (e.g. guiotines and presses), and pressing action (e.g. drop forges, injection mouding machines,)fig Figure 8.2: exampes of hazardous reciprocating motions Reative motion This hazard occurs when a person is in motion and the machine is stationary and injury can occur when the person is cut by the sharp edges on the machine toos, machine structures, or workpieces, or the person trips over or waks into projections from a machine. The actions the above-mentioned motions produce are cutting, punching, shearing and bending MACHINERY SAFETY Section 47 of the Occupationa Safety and Heath Act requires that every dangerous part of every machinery sha be securey fenced uness it is in such a position or of such construction as to be as safe to every empoyee or person working on the premises as it woud be if securey fenced. A hazards on machines can be reduced by the appication of appropriate safeguards. 57 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

63 Machine safeguarding is to minimize the risk of accidents of machine-operator contact. The contact can be: An individua making contact with the moving parts of the machine because of inattention caused by fatigue, distraction, curiosity, or deiberate chance taking; From the machine via fying meta chips, chemica and hot meta spashes, and circuar saw kickbacks, etc.; Caused by the direct resut of a machine mafunction, incuding mechanica and eectrica faiure. Safeguards can be broady categorized as point-of-operation guards, point-of-operation devices, and feeding/ejection methods. Safeguards shoud meet certain requirements namey: Prevent contact: the safeguards shoud prevent human contact with any potentiay harmfu machine part. Be secure and durabe: safeguards shoud be attached so that they are secure and workers cannot render them ineffective by tampering with or disabing them. Protect against faing objects: objects faing onto moving machine mechanisms increase the risk of accidents, property damage, and injury. Create no new hazards: safeguards shoud overcome the hazards in question without creating new ones. Create no interference: safeguards shoud be so designed that they do not interfere with the progress of work. Aow safe maintenance: safeguards shoud be designed to aow the more frequenty performed maintenance tasks (e.g. ubrication) to be accompished without the remova of guards. (A) POINT-OF-OPERATION GUARDS Guards are most effective when used at point of operation where the hazards are created. Point-of-operation hazards are those that are created by the shearing, cutting, or bending motions of machines. These guards usuay protect against ony one hazard and are permanenty fixed and non-adjustabe. Three types of point-of-operation guards exist namey: Fixed guards which provide a permanent barrier the worker and the hazard(fig.8.3). 58 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

64 Figure 8.3: fixed guard Interocked guards which shut down the machine when the guard is not securey in pace or is disengaged. Adjustabe guards provide a barrier against a variety of different hazards associated with different production operations (fig. 8.4). Figure 8.4: adjustabe guard 59 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

65 (B) POINT-OF-OPERATION DEVICES A number of point-of-operation devices can be used to protect workers against machinery hazards, some commony used ones are: Photoeectric devices that shut down the machine whenever the ight fied is broken, thus denying access to dangerous parts (e.g. on certain types of guiotines) Eectromechanica devices are contact bars that aow ony a specified amount of movement between the worker and the hazard. If the worker moves the contact bar beyond a certain point, the machine wi not operate. Puback devices pu the operator s hands out of the danger zone. Restraint devices hod the operator back from the danger zone. Safety trip devices incude trip wires, trip rods, and body bars and they stop the machine when tripped. Two-hand contros require the operator to use both hands concurrenty to activate the machine. Gates provide a barrier between the danger zone and the workers. (C) FEEDING AND EJECTION MECHANISMS Feeding and ejection mechanisms can be effective safeguards if propery designed and used. They incude the foowing types; Automatic feed systems feed stock to the machine from ros thus eiminating the need for operators to enter the danger zone. Automatic ejection systems eject the work pneumaticay or mechanicay and operators do not have to reach the danger zone to retrieve workpieces. (D) CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS ENERGY (LOCKOUT/TAGOUT SYSTEMS) Very often accidents occur on machines whie it is being serviced or repaired. The ockout/ tagout system aims to protect peope in the workpace from hazardous energy whie they are performing service or maintenance on machines, toos, and equipment. This system requires that before servicing or maintenance is performed, the machines or equipment in question must be disconnected from their energy source, and the energy source must either be ocked out or tagged out to prevent accidenta or inadvertent activation TOOLS Makeshifts make accidents is a safety jinge which rings very true when appied to the use of hand toos. Some common hand toos used in everyday work ife incude: 60 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

66 Screwdrivers: use the correct size of screwdriver and check that the bade of the screwdriver is square and not damaged. Before removing a screw aways cean out the recess in the screw head. Do not use screwdrivers as chises. Chises: do not strike the hande of a woodworking chise with a hammer except if it is designed to be struck by a wooden maet. The cutting edge shoud aways be kept sharp. Do not use chises with mushroomed head. Hammers: the main hazard occurs when the head fies off and becomes a projectie. A hammer shoud not be used if the head is oose, the hande beow the head is damaged or worn, the face of the hammer head is not fat and square. Knives: can cause serious injuries. Aways keep the bade sharp and aways direct the cut away from the body. If the knife has to be drawn towards the body the workpiece shoud be so paced that if the bade sips it wi pass to one side of the body. Whenever possibe a knife bades shoud be covered when not in use. Spanners: aways use the correct size of spanners to prevent sip and serious injury. Do not over tighten bots as this coud ead to an immediate fracture of the bot with injury to the arms and hands. Eectric dris: remove chuck key after tightening chuck and check that the workpiece is secured before driing. Use proper eectrica connections to eiminate eectrica hazards TRANSPORT AND TRANSPORT WAYS, FLOORS, WORKING STANDS AND PLATFORMS Doors and aises shoud provide enough space to carry safey any materias by hand or ifting equipment so as to prevent accidents due to inadequate space. The dimensions of the materias and equipment shoud be considered when designing wakways and gangways. The workpace shoud be so organized that pedestrians and vehices can circuate in a safe manner. A traffic routes must be we indicated. The surface materia of foors shoud be non-sippery and even, free of unnecessary objects ike toos and waste materias. Spiing of oi and other sippery fuids on foors shoud be avoided and if this happens they shoud be removed before starting or continuing work. Any damaged foor shoud be repaired prompty. Measures shoud aso be taken to prevent peope from faing from eevated work patforms or being struck by a faing object ikey to cause persona injury. Any patform or workpace which is 2 meters or more above the foor shoud be provided with suitabe guardrais to prevent fas of persons from height. When persons have to work at height appropriate work equipment (adders, scaffods)or other measures to prevent fas shoud be used. (refer to the occupationa safety and heath (work at height) reguations 2013 for ega provisions;( Engish/Documents/Legisations/osha%202005/osh-workatheiht.pdf) 61 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

67 The means of access or egress from the workpace shoud be safe and without risks to heath. Staircases shoud be provided with substantia handrais which shoud be reguary maintained. Windows, transparent doors, gates and was must be of sound construction, be appropriatey marked, or be appropriatey indicated to make them easiy apparent. They shoud aso be reguary maintained HOUSEKEEPING Housekeeping generay invoves the principe of a proper pace for everything and everything in its proper pace. It invoves the maintenance of an ordery environment and working procedure. Housekeeping considerations wi generay incude dust and fume-remova systems, iumination requirements, storage and handing of materias, painting, and proper storage of toos and equipment. 8.4 SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. Expain how a worker can come into contact with the dangerous parts of a machine? 2. Give the safety precautions to be observed when using screwdrivers, hammers and knives? 8.5 END OF UNIT SUMMARY In this unit we have had an overview of mechanica hazards. The main types of mechanica hazards arise from dangerous parts of machinery coming into contact with workers. The different types of hazards created by motions of machines (rotary, reciprocating and reative notions) and the different types of measures that can be taken to protect workers are expained (pointof-operation guards, point-of-operation devices, feeding and ejection mechanisms and contro of hazardous energy (ockout/tagout systems)). Toos and equipment aso may be a source of mechanica hazard if the necessary precautions are not taken. An overview is aso given of the precautions that need to be taken with transport and transport ways, foors, working stands and patforms and housekeeping in ensuring safety and heath. 8.6 ANSWERSTO SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. A worker can come into contact with dangerous parts of machine in any of the foowing ways: an individua making contact with the moving parts of the machine because of inattention caused by fatigue, distraction, curiosity, or deiberate chance taking; from the machine via fying meta chips, chemica and hot meta spashes, and circuar saw kickbacks, etc.; 62 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

68 by the direct resut of a machine mafunction, incuding mechanica and eectrica faiure. 2. The foowing precautions need to be taken in reation to the use of screwdrivers, hammers and knives: Screwdrivers: use the correct size of screwdriver and check that the bade of the screwdriver is square and not damaged. Before removing a screw aways cean out the recess in the screw head. Do not use screwdrivers as chises. Hammers: the main hazard occurs when the head fies off and becomes a projectie. A hammer shoud not be used if the head is oose, the hande beow the head is damaged or worn, and the face of the hammer head is not fat and square. Knives: aways keep the bade sharp and aways direct the cut away from the body. If the knife has to be drawn towards the body the workpiece shoud be so paced that if the bade sips it wi pass to one side of the body. Whenever possibe a knife bades shoud be covered when not in use. Watch video 1 (Source: en/press/photos/napo) Watch video 2 (Source: en/press/photos/napo) 63 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

69 REFERENCES Goetsch, D. L., (2011), Occupationa Safety and Heath for technoogists, Engineers, and Managers, Seventh Edition, Prentice Ha. USA. Hackett, W. J. & Robbins, G.P., (1979), Safety Science for Technicians, first edition, Longman Group td, U.K. Heath and Safety Executive, (2006), Essentias of Heath and Safety at Work, Fourth Edition. Internationa Labour Organization, (1991), Factory Inspection, Seected Technica Papers. Stranks, J., (2010), Heath & Safety at Work, Revised Eighth Edition, Kogan Page India Private Limited, New Dehi. INTERNET [accessed November 2013] 64 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

70 UNIT 9 Understanding the Essentias of Safety and Heath at Work-Physica Hazards 9.1 INTRODUCTION In this unit you wi be given an overview of physica hazards that may exist in a workpace and the measures that need to be taken to ensure the safety and heath of empoyees and other persons. Physica hazards may consist of noise and vibration, eectricity, ighting, cimate, radiation, pressure etc. 9.2 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you wi be abe to understand: The physica hazards commony found in workpaces; The principes of managing safety and heath in reation to physica hazards. 9.3 PHYSICAL HAZARDS Physica hazards generay incude hazards that arise from noise, vibration, eectricity, radiation, cimate (extremes of temperature and humidity), iumination (inadequate or gare) and pressure and can cause conditions such as heat stroke, heat cataract, noise-induced hearing oss, vibration-induced white finger, decompression sickness and radiation sickness. It is therefore important to manage these types of hazards to prevent occupationa injuries, occupationa and work-reated diseases NOISE Noise is often described as unwanted sound. Modern workpaces can be noisy due to the presence of machines operating at high speed. Noise can distract workers and disrupt their concentration, which can ead to accidents. It can aso be irritating and cause a probem of hearing oss. The hearing damage is usuay gradua due to continuous exposure to a high eve of noise. It can aso occur immediatey due to a sudden extremey oud noise e.g. bomb bast. Sound originates from vibrating structures or by turbuence in air streams which cause pressure waves to trave through the atmosphere. When they reach the ear the pressure changes 65 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

71 are converted back to vibrations and transported to the cochea where they are changed into nerve impuses, passed to the brain and are perceived as sound. It is the cochea in the ear that is damaged by excessive exposure to noise and the damage is permanent. 66 Figure 9.1: structure of the ear Exposure to high eves of noise can cause permanent hearing oss. Short term exposure to oud noise can aso cause a temporary change in hearing (your ears may fee stuffed up) or a ringing in your ears (tinnitus). These short-term probems may go away within a few minutes or hours after eaving the noisy area. However, repeated exposures to oud noise can ead to permanent tinnitus and/or hearing oss. Loud noise can aso create physica and psychoogica stress, reduce productivity, interfere with communication and concentration, and contribute to workpace accidents and injuries by making it difficut to hear warning signas. Noise-induced hearing oss imits your abiity to hear high frequency sounds, understand speech, and seriousy impairs your abiity to communicate. Noise is measured in units of sound pressure eves caed decibes, using A-weighted sound eves (db(a)). The A-weighted sound eves cosey match the perception of oudness by the human ear. Decibes are measured on a ogarithmic scae which means that a sma change in the number of decibes resuts in a huge change in the amount of noise and the potentia damage to a person's hearing. The occupationa safety and heath (noise at work) reguations 2012 specifies the standards Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

72 of noise exposure and measures that empoyers need to take to protect their hearing (accessibe at Work% pdf). Empoyers are required to conduct a risk assessment if an empoyee is exposed to a noise eve at or above 80 db(a) over an 8 hour period. He shoud impement a Hearing Conservation Program where workers are exposed to a noise eve at or above 85 db(a) over an 8 hour work shift. Hearing Conservation Programs require empoyers to conduct risk assessment, measure noise eves, reduce noise eves to beow 85 db(a), provide free annua hearing examinations (audiometric testing) and free hearing protection, provide training and information, and conduct evauations of the adequacy of the hearing protectors in use uness changes to toos, equipment and schedues are made so that they are ess noisy and worker exposure to noise is ess than the 85 db(a). Noise contros are the first ine of defense against excessive noise exposure. With the reduction of even a few decibes, the hazard to hearing is reduced, communication is improved, and noise-reated annoyance is reduced. There are severa ways to contro and reduce worker exposure to noise in a workpace: Engineering contros are the first measure that needs to be adopted to reduce sound exposure eves and are avaiabe and technoogicay feasibe for most noise sources. Engineering contros invove modifying or repacing equipment, or making reated physica changes at the noise source or aong the transmission path to reduce the noise eve at the worker's ear. Exampes of inexpensive, effective engineering contros incude some of the foowing: Choose ow-noise toos Maintain and ubricate machinery and equipment Pace a barrier between the noise source and empoyee (e.g., sound was or curtains). Encose or isoate the noise source. Administrative contros are changes in the workpace that reduce or eiminate the worker exposure to noise. Exampes incude: Operating noisy machines during shifts when fewer peope are exposed. imiting the amount of time a person spends at a noise source. Providing quiet areas where workers can gain reief from hazardous noise sources. Restricting worker presence to a suitabe distance away from noisy equipment. Hearing protection devices (HPDs), such as earmuffs and pugs, are considered an acceptabe but ess desirabe option to contro exposures to noise and are generay used during the time necessary to impement engineering or administrative contros, when such contros are not feasibe, or when worker's hearing tests indicate significant hearing damage. 67 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

73 9.3.2 VIBRATION Severa workers work daiy with machines that produce vibrations. Such exposures of the hand-arm from hand-hed power toos such as chipping hammers, grinders, can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). This is a painfu and disabing condition that affects the musces, joints, bood vesses and nerves of the hands and arms. It is characterized by tinging and numbness in the fingers, reducing the sense of touch and affects bood circuation (vibration white finger). Figure 9.2: vibration white finger Whoe-body vibration mainy affects drivers of vehices used off-road e.g. dumpers, excavators, tractors etc. it usuay causes ow back pain. 68 Empoyers shoud take appropriate measures to reduce empoyees exposure to vibration e.g.: Identifying machines causing vibration, Doing the job another way without using high-vibration toos if possibe, Buying ow-vibration toos, Ensuring that workers use the right toos for the job and are trained to use it correcty, Reguar maintenance of toos to prevent increase in vibration, Expore the possibiity of atering the job to reduce the grip or pressure needed, For whoe-body vibration: Choose vehices suited for site work, Keep site roads propery maintained and eveed, Train drivers to drive safey so as to reduce whoe-body vibrations, Reguar maintenance and repairs of vehice suspension systems, tyre pressure and suspension seats. Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

74 9.3.3 ELECTRICITY Eectricity is the fow of negativey charged partices caed eectrons through an eectricay conductive materia. The three main hazards from eectricity are contact with ive parts, fire and exposion. When a person comes into contact with a ive conductor he can sustain an eectric shock, burns, and other injury from non-etha shocks. Fires can aso be caused by poor eectrica instaations and fauty eectrica equipment (and may cause severa deaths). Exposions are usuay caused by eectrica apparatus or static eectricity igniting fammabe gases, vapours or dust. The risk of accidents is much greater when using portabe motors or instruments e.g. eectric dris, grinders etc. in harsh and wet conditions. The insuation materias may be subject to wear, wires and cabes are easiy damaged, which can ead to short circuiting. The major causes of eectrica shock are: Contact with bare wire carrying current (due to damaged insuation), Eectrica equipment that has not been propery earthed, Working with eectrica equipment on damp foors, Static eectricity discharges, Using meta adders to work on eectrica equipment or near overhead power ines, Working on eectrica equipment without ensuring that the power has been switched off. Figure 9.3: overoading of a circuit 69 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

75 The main protective measures that can be taken against eectrica hazards are: Prevent direct contact by providing appropriate insuation for those parts of equipment iabe to be eectricay charged; Provide protection against indirect contact e.g. by the provision of effective earthing for metaic encosures which are iabe to be charged with eectricity if the basic insuation fais for any reason; Use reduced votage for portabe toos e.g. 110 vots, Provide enough socket outets, and avoid overoading sockets by using adaptors which can cause a fire, Fuses, circuit-breakers and other devices must be correcty rated for the circuit they protect, Insta a switch or isoator near each fixed machine to cut off power in an emergency, Main switches shoud not be obstructed and shoud be readiy accessibe, A eectrica instaations must be done by competent persons and tested safey with regard to existing standards, Fexibe eads shoud be protected from mechanica damage, The outer covering of a fexibe ead shoud be firmy camped at its end terminations to reieve strain on the inner conductors, Apparatus shoud never be pued or suspended from its ead, Portabe eectrica equipment shoud be inspected and tested reguary by a competent person, Repace frayed and damaged cabes competey. Join engths in good conditions ony by using proper connectors or cabe coupers, A residua current device can act as a safety trip when there is a faut, but is not a substitute for a fauty instaation, Use specia precautions when eectrica equipment is used in fammabe or dusty environment, In jobs where there is the risk of deveopment of static eectricity, ensure that the work and anyone in the area are adequatey earthed, Prevent access to isoator or fuse box by keeping covers cosed and ocked (if possibe), with the key kept by a responsibe person, Anyone carrying out repairs to eectrica equipment or instaation shoud ensure that the equipment or instaation is dead and has been suitaby isoated, Check that residua current circuit-breakers work by operating the test button reguary, 70 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

76 The occupationa safety and heath (eectricity at work) reguations 2009 may be accessed at: at%20work.pdf CLIMATIC CONDITIONS The cimate is the condition of the atmosphere surrounding us. It can mean the genera conditions in a geographica area or, in a narrow sense the oca atmospheric conditions in a specific workpace. The working cimate can have serious safety and heath consequences on empoyees if they are not managed propery. Factors such as temperature (cod or hot environments), ventiation, humidity etc. pay an important roe in the comfort of workers. If inappropriate or excessive these factors can strongy infuence how a task is done and affect productivity HEAT Hot and humid conditions add to fatigue and cause potentia heath risks. In factories and outdoor works, however, empoyees are often exposed to intoerabe heat and therefore need to take measures to reduce the harmfu effects of heat. Physica work produces heat in our bodies and the body must get rid of excess heat to maintain the body heat baance. Body heat baance is simpy a baance between the body s heat gain and heat oss. There are three main sources of heat: Air temperature, wind and humidity, Radiation from the sun, machines and processes, Muscuar work. The body oses heat in three ways namey: Convection(conveying heat from our skin to the air), Radiation (when the skin radiates heat to cooer surfaces around us), Evaporation (when perspiration, namey water, evaporates from the skin, it takes away heat from us). In order to maintain body heat baance these factors shoud be within a imited range and this range varies from person to person, with season, cothing, job stress and cuture. However, the comfort zone accepted by most peope ranges from 20 to 25 оc, with reative humidity of about 30 to 70 percent. As the physica workoad increases, cooer air temperature is needed to maintain comfort. Increased wind speed is a positive comfort factor when the air temperature is at or above the upper imit of the comfort zone. If the oca cimate does not permit the oss of heat we experience rea discomfort and in extreme cases may ead to compete exhaustion or even i-heath. The heat stress is usuay measured by measuring the state of the hot zone, or by measuring 71 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

77 the body state of someone in that zone. Four main variabes infuence the degree of heat stress, namey: Air temperature, Reative humidity, Gobe thermometer temperature (measures radiant temperature), Wind speed. The above variabes are measured using a thermometer, a wet-bub thermometer, a gobe thermometer, and an anemometer. Heat strain is the overa physioogica response resuting from heat stress. The physioogica adjustments are dedicated to dissipating excess heat from the body. When a worker is under heat stress, body temperature wi rise. The skin temperature wi rise, heart beat wi increase, breathing wi be deeper, and the worker wi perspire. The body temperature shoud not increase by more than about 1оC, workers shoud be recommended to drink pure water, or fruit juices. Adding sat to food and eating food that contain natura sat wi aso be hepfu. The two heath effects of heat are heat exhaustion and heat stroke. A worker suffering from heat exhaustion wi fee dizzy and faint. Aow the worker to ie down in a coo pace so that bood can fow to the brain. Heat stroke occurs when the workers skin is very hot and dry. The body temperature rise rapidy. This is a medica emergency and medica assistance must be sought immediatey. Ways to keep the workpace cooer: 72 Retain the evening coo as much as possibe, Open the windows and doors to increase natura ventiation, Avoid foors which retain heat e.g. soid wood, carpet, Design the roof to et heat escape, Make eaves or other overhangs so that was are in the shade for onger periods, Use ight coours for inside was, Make ceiings high, Insta ventiation devices, Circuate air by eectric fans, Locate hot machines and processes outside or at east near the outside, Insuate hot surfaces, Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

78 Pace barriers between heat source and workers, Use heat-protective cothing or aprons, Use air-conditioning wherever possibe. Severa measures can be adopted by workers aso to keep the body coo: Avoid unnecessary quick movements, Keep out of direct sunight, Stand or sit in a pace where there is a breeze, Avoid cosed positions with ow air circuations, Keep away from sources of heat, Avoid wearing cothing that prevent evaporation and perspiration, Take coo drinks reguary, Organize a cooer pace for rest pauses COLD Peope working in cod environments (cod rooms) may suffer heath effects when moving from the cod environment to outside cimate which may be hot. Exposure to cod for short periods of time produces serious effects, especiay when exposed to temperatures beow 10 оc. Long exposures to extreme cod endanger surviva due to a drop in body temperature and can ead to hypothermia, which can be fata. Work in cod environments gives rise to severa probems such as: The worker wi show a ack of co-ordination which reduces the speed and quaity of work as we as safety. Buky cothing can aso be dangerous as it interferes with movements and can get easiy caught in the working parts of machines. Handing metas or iquids causes the hands to become cod more quicky. Exposure to cod, especiay beow 0 оc may resut in frostbite of the fingers, toes, nose and earobes. Some precautions that can be taken when working in cod environments are: Choose the right cothing that protects from cod, wet, wind and aows the escape of moisture from perspiration. Provide appropriate protective cothings. Buky cothes shoud be avoided as they hamper movement. 73 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

79 Take specia precautions for hands and feet as they are particuary susceptibe to cod. Empoyees shoud be under continuous supervision or make use of the buddy system. Organize work in cod environments to minimize ong periods of sitting or standing sti. Train empoyees in safety and heath procedures before aowing them to work in a cod environment. Oder peope need more protection than young peope. Machinery and tasks must be carefuy designed to make them ess hazardous and easier to perform (e.g. size and spacing of knobs, insuation of meta parts, eimination of sharp protrusions etc. Provide comfortabe and heated rest faciities LIGHTING Lighting pays an important roe in ensuring heath and safety at work. Inadequate ighting makes it difficut to work, contributes to accidents and can aso cause eye probems. If one cannot see we he may suffer from tiredness, overexertion and headache. Adequate ighting is important to be abe to our focus on objects at different distances easiy and aso to cater for changes in eyesight as peope get oder. Lighting at workpaces shoud make good use of natura ighting but shoud aso avoid disturbances by sunight or other ight sources. Adequate ighting shoud reach the work area without being shadowed by the worker or machines. If dayight is not adequate natura ighting shoud be used to increase the amount of ighting to the required eve. Windows providing ighting shoud not be bocked by stored items and they shoud be kept cean. Was inside buiding shoud be painted in ight coours so as to make the most of natura and artificia ighting. Necessary precautions shoud aso be taken against gare. Gare occurs when the ight is brighter than that which the eye can adapt to. Indirect gare can occur when ight is refected off shiny surfaces. This can be avoided by using and propery positioning the correct type of amp. The amount of ight required wi depend on the nature of work (more ight for precision work), the abiity of surrounding surfaces to refect ight, the size, form and ight-refecting properties of the materia or object, the eyesight of the worker. To ensure adequate ighting at a workstation one can make use of both genera and oca ighting. Furthermore it is aso important to repace burn out amps prompty, or if they do not provide adequate ighting and to reguary cean ight bubs. 74 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

80 9.4 SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. What are the measures an empoyer can take to prevent or reduce empoyees exposure to noise? 2. List five precautions to protect someone from eectrica hazards? 9.5 END OF UNIT SUMMARY This unit has introduced common physica hazards found in the workpace namey: noise and vibration, eectricity, cimatic conditions (heat and cod), and ighting. It aso gives the precautionary measures that need to be taken to protect empoyees against the hazards. 9.6 ANSWERSTO SELF-ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY 1. The measures that an empoyer can take to prevent or reduce the exposure of his empoyees to noise are: (a) Engineering contros are the first measure that he needs to adopt to reduce sound exposure eves and are avaiabe and technoogicay feasibe for most noise sources. Engineering contros invove modifying or repacing equipment, or making reated physica changes at the noise source or aong the transmission path to reduce the noise eve at the worker's ear. Exampes of inexpensive, effective engineering contros incude some of the foowing: Choose ow-noise toos, Maintain and ubricate machinery and equipment, (b) Pace a barrier between the noise source and empoyee (e.g., sound was or curtains), Encose or isoate the noise source. Administrative contros are changes in the workpace that reduce or eiminate the worker exposure to noise. Exampes incude: Operating noisy machines during shifts when fewer peope are exposed, imiting the amount of time a person spends at a noise source, Providing quiet areas where workers can gain reief from hazardous noise sources, Restricting worker presence to a suitabe distance away from noisy equipment. 75 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

81 Hearing protection devices (HPDs), such as earmuffs and pugs, are considered an acceptabe but ess desirabe option to contro exposures to noise and are generay used during the time necessary to impement engineering or administrative contros, when such contros are not feasibe, or when worker's hearing tests indicate significant hearing damage Any five of the undermentioned measures: Prevent direct contact by providing appropriate insuation for those parts of equipment iabe to be eectricay charged; Provide protection against indirect contact e.g. by the provision of effective earthing for metaic encosures which are iabe to be charged with eectricity if the basic insuation fais for any reason; Use reduced votage for portabe toos e.g. 110 vots, Provide enough socket outets, and avoid overoading sockets by using adaptors which can cause a fire, Fuses, circuit-breakers and other devices must be correcty rated for the circuit they protect, Insta a switch or isoator near each fixed machine to cut off power in an emergency, Main switches shoud not be obstructed and shoud be readiy accessibe, A eectrica instaations must be done by competent persons and tested safey with regard to existing standards, Fexibe eads shoud be protected from mechanica damage, The outer covering of a fexibe ead shoud be firmy camped at its end terminations to reieve strain on the inner conductors, Apparatus shoud never be pued or suspended from its ead, Portabe eectrica equipment shoud be inspected and tested reguary by a competent person, Repace frayed and damaged cabes competey. Join engths in good conditions ony by using proper connectors or cabe coupers, A residua current device can act as a safety trip when there is a faut, but is not a substitute for a fauty instaation, Use specia precautions when eectrica equipment is used in fammabe or dusty environment, In jobs where there is the risk of deveopment of static eectricity, ensure that the work and anyone in the area are adequatey earthed, Prevent access to isoator or fuse box by keeping covers cosed and ocked (if possibe), with the key kept by a responsibe person, Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

82 Anyone carrying out repairs to eectrica equipment or instaation shoud ensure that the equipment or instaation is dead and has been suitaby isoated, Check that residua current circuit-breakers work by operating the test button reguary. Watch video (Source: en/press/photos/napo) REFERENCES Goetsch, D. L., (2011), Occupationa Safety and Heath for technoogists, Engineers, and Managers, Seventh Edition, Prentice Ha. USA. Hackett, W. J. & Robbins, G.P., (1979), Safety Science for Technicians, first edition, Longman Group td, U.K. Heath and Safety Executive, (2006), Essentias of Heath and Safety at Work, Fourth Edition. Internationa Labour Organization, (1991), Factory Inspection, Seected Technica Papers. Stranks, J., (2010), Heath & Safety at Work, Revised Eighth Edition, Kogan Page India Private Limited, New Dehi. INTERNET [accessed November 2013] November 2013] human-being/sense-organs/hearing/structure-ear.jpg&imgrefur= =92&tbnid=aI45o_wY0n1-SM:&tbnh=91&tbnw=130&zoom=1&usg= UE-dztERm1te 57MV3q7DbrSDOQ=&docid=gVHv6qwu2UIa1M&sa=X&ei=9YaQUq6kAon9rAfa64 HoBQ&ved=0CC4Q9QEwAA[accessed November 2013] gif&imgrefur= /&h=127&w=216&sz=22&tbnid=on8beeinnsffhm:&tbnh=90&tbnw=153&zoom=1&u sg= KmB2EkXZ7bwp3_TX12w1Nj5BA8=&docid=kxvc2626tjK4M&sa=X&ei=mou QUtOJB479rAfnyYC4Dw&ved=0CFcQ9QEwBw[accessed November 2013] 77 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

83 78 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

84 UNIT 10 Understanding the Essentias of Safety and Heath at Work-Chemicas Hazards 10.1 INTRODUCTION Today, in virtuay every pace of work workers are exposed to chemicas. Chemicas have consideraby the quaity of ife; however certain chemica substances can both harm and ki workers. Many chemicas which were once considered as safe have now been found to be associated with diseases ranging from mid skin rashes to chronic impairment and fata cancers. In this unit you wi be given an overview of chemica hazards that may exist in a workpace and the measures that need to be taken to ensure the safety and heath of empoyees and other persons in reation to chemicas OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you wi be abe to understand: The hazards of chemicas commony used in workpaces; The routes of entry of chemicas into the body; The consequences and effects of chemicas on humans; The chemica symbos used to identify hazardous chemicas; and The management of chemica hazards in the workpace CHEMICAL HAZARDS A chemica is considered as a chemica eement or compound or mixtures of them whether they are natura or synthetic. Chemica substances are substances that can cause harmfu effects to heath. They may be in the form of soids (dusts, powders), gases, fumes, vapours, mists and iquids. Chemica hazards generay occur in factories and heavy engineering pants where chemicas are used in arge quantities and the risk of exposure may be high. In the reativey ow risk office environment we can aso come into contact with chemicas and other substances which can damage one s heath if not handed propery. Workers if reguary exposed to hazardous substances can contract occupationa diseases e.g. occupationa dermatitis, chemica poisoning, occupationa cancers, and pneumoconiosis (disease of ungs caused by inhaation of dust). 79 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

85 10.4 CATEGORIES OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS Before deciding on the precautions that needs to be taken one shoud know the types of hazard it represents. There are three main categories of dangerous chemicas, namey: 1. Substances or preparations which are dangerous because of their physica or chemica propertiesa. Exposives b. Oxidizing c. Extremey fammabe d. Highy fammabe e. Fammabe 2. Substances and preparations which are dangerous because of their heath effectsa. Irritant b. Harmfu c. Toxic d. Very toxic e. Toxic for reproduction (substances which cause harm to the unborn) f. Sensitizing g. Corrosive h. Carcinogenic i. Mutagenic (substances which cause inherited changes) 3. Substances dangerous for the environment Many factors can infuence the intensity of hazards associated with chemicas in the workpace which incude: toxicity, physica properties of the substance, work practices, routes of entry, and the susceptibiity of workers ROUTES OF ENTRY OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS INTO THE BODY 80 Hazardous substances can enter the body in any of the foowing ways: 1. Inhaation Inhaation of toxic substances in the form of a dust, gas, mist, fog, fume or vapour account for approximatey 90 percent of a i heath associated with toxic substances. The resuts may be acute (immediate e.g. inhaation of a toxic gas) or chronic (proonged, cumuative, e.g. exposure Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

86 to benzene). Inhaation is therefore the most vunerabe way through which chemicas can enter the body. 2. Absorption Certain substances can pass through the intact skin into underying tissue, or even into the boodstream, without apparenty causing any changes in the skin. The resistance of the skin to externa irritants varies with age, sex, race, coour and, to a certain extent, diet. Fortunatey, the outer ayers of the skin are not permeabe and provide considerabe protection. However, this protection is very much reduced if there is any break in the outer skin. This is an important factor to take into consideration when working with chemicas as there are very rare occasions when the hands, arms, face or egs do not have some break in their surface. Absorption, is the second most common route of entry, and is normay associated with occupationa dermatitis, the causes of which may be broady divided into two groups: Primary irritants these are substances that cause dermatitis at the site of contact if permitted to act for a sufficient ength of time and in sufficient concentrations (strong acids and akais); Secondary cutaneous sensitizers these are substances that do not necessariy cause skin changes on first contact, but produce a specific sensitization of the skin. Further contacts with the substance after an interva, may resut in the deveopment of dermatitis at the site of second contact (e.g. rubber, nicke etc.). It is worth pointing out that certain peope get dermatitis due to a manifestation of psychoogica stress, and has no reationship whatsoever with exposure to substances. 3. Ingestion Some substances can be carried into the gut (e.g. eating food with contaminated hands), from which some can pass into the body by absorption. Airborne contaminants can rest on food or the hands and, as a resut, be ingested during taking of food. However, the gastrointestina tract is the east vunerabe area for substances to enter the body in the working situation as the danger of ingestion is very sma. It is important to restrict eating in canteens away from work and to make it mandatory for workers to wash their hands thoroughy before eating or drinking. 4. Injection/impantation A forcefu breach of the skin due to injury can carry hazardous substances through the skin barrier. It invoves the introduction of a substance into the body by way of a neede and syringe, compressed air, high-pressure hydrauic eaks, or any other capabe medium EFFECTS OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS The effects of chemicas can be heath effects, fire and exposion or damage to the environment. 81 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

87 HEALTH EFFECTS Exposure to hazardous chemicas can be categorized as being either acute or chronic depending on the concentration and ength of exposure. Toxicity refers to the abiity of a chemica to produce injury once it reaches a susceptibe site in or on the body and the quantitative study of the body s response to toxic substances. Acute effects and exposures invove exposure to a sudden dose of a highy concentrated substance. They usuay resut from an accident (e.g. a spi or eak) that resuts in an immediate heath probem that can cause irritation or in extreme cases death. Acute effects and exposures are characterized by the fact that they are sudden, severe; they typicay invove just one incident, and cause immediate heath effects. Chronic effects and exposures are due to exposures to sma concentrations over time with the resut that the associated heath probems deveop sowy. The characteristics of chronic effects and exposures are that they invove continua exposure over time to imited concentrations of toxic substances with the resut that there is a progressive accumuation of toxic substances in the body and an aggravation of the heath probems with itte or no awareness of exposures on the part of affected empoyees. A toxic substance which enters the body utimatey affects one or more organs of the body. The iver pays an important roe in eiminating toxic substances, however, when the dose is more than the iver can hande, the toxic substances can move to other organs and affect them. The organs that are affected by toxic substances are the bood, kidneys, heart, brain, centra nervous system, skin, iver, ungs, and eyes. The effects of chemicas can be categorized as foows: Irritation means that a condition is aggravated when chemicas come into contact with the body. The parts of the body affected are the skin, the eyes and the respiratory tract. Aergies can be acquired through exposure to chemicas. Initiay workers may not deveop an aergy; however repeated exposure may produce a reaction in the body. Even exposure to a ow eve ater coud induce an aergic reaction. The skin or the respiratory tract can be affected by an aergic reaction. Lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) refers to a situation when a chemica interferes with the oxygenation of the body tissues. Two kind of asphyxiation exists: simpe asphyxiation and chemica asphyxiation. Simpe asphyxiation occurs when oxygen in the air is repaced by an inert gas e.g. nitrogen, carbon dioxide. Chemica asphyxiation refers to a situation where chemica action interferes with the body s abiity to transport and use oxygen e.g. carbon monoxide. Narcosis and anaesthesia: exposure to reativey high concentrations of certain chemicas (e.g. acetone) can depress the centra nervous system inducing an effect simiar to being drunk. Sometimes it may resut in unconsciousness and even death. 82 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

88 Systemic poisoning refers to a situation when a chemica induces an adverse response to one or more body systems (e.g. excretory system, nervous system). The effect is not ocaized at the point of contact with the chemica. Cancer is an uncontroed growth of ces due to ong exposure to certain chemicas. Cancers usuay appear many years after the first exposure to the substance. Damage to unborn foetus (teratogenesis) refers to a situation whereby congenita maformation resuts from exposure to certain chemica substances. Genetic effects on future generations (mutagenesis) - the genetic effects of certain chemicas on workers may ead to undesired changes in future generations. Dusty ungs (Pneumoconiosis) refer to a condition caused by the deposit of sma dust partices in the gas exchange areas of the ung and the reaction of the tissue to their presence FIRE AND EXPLOSION Chemicas in the workpace can cause certain risks of fire and exposion.. Gases, soids (dusts) and iquid chemicas can catch fire. However, a source of heat is usuay required to ignite the fire and it can occur in many instances e.g. eectrica current, static eectricity, spontaneous combustion, chemica reaction, friction, process heat, open fames, soar heat, radiant heat and ightning. For a fire to occur oxygen is the third eement that is required ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE Many chemicas can cause severe environmenta damage if they eak into the environment e.g. some chemicas are dangerous to aquatic ife DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP Occupationa disease prevention rests on the eves of exposure for various hazardous substances beow which humans can be exposed without significant threat to their heath. This is based on the dose-effect reationship. A dose of a hazardous substance can be expressed in a number of different ways e.g. amount per unit of body weight. Different hazardous substances wi have different dose-effect reationships e.g. certain substances need a ow concentration to produce an effect (e.g. hydrogen cyanide) whist others need a higher concentration to produce an effect. The dose threshod is an important concept which refers to the minimum dose required to produce a measurabe effect and this threshod is different for different substances. This concept is important in the correct use and interpretation of Workpace Exposure Limits (previousy known as Threshod Limit Vaues). 83 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

89 10.8 MANAGING CHEMICAL HAZARDS When managing chemica hazards the aim is to eiminate or reduce to the owest possibe eve hazardous chemicas that can come into contact with the worker or the environment, or that can produce a fire or an exposion. The principes of managing chemicas at the workpace invove: Eimination of the process or chemica, i.e. avoid using the hazardous substances. Substitution of the hazardous chemica by a ess dangerous one (e.g. use water-based paints instead of sovent-based ones). Engineering contro which might incude encosing the equipment to restrict the spread of contaminants in the working environment, Ventiation, which is regarded as one of the best forms of contro, apart from substitution and encosure for airborne chemicas. Exhaust ventiation or diution ventiation can be used depending on the nature of the chemica and concentration. Administrative contro refers to measures and procedures estabished by management as part of a program to contro exposure, or to monitor the effectiveness of other contro measures and incude: Identification of a hazardous chemicas used Labeing (which incude hazardous symbos, the types of hazard pictograms used is given at figure 10.1), Provision and use of materia safety data sheets, Safe storage, Procedures for safe transfer, Safe practices for handing and use, Housekeeping measures, Disposa procedures, Monitoring of exposure, Medica surveiance, Record-keeping, Training and education, Emergency preparedness. 84 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

90 Persona protective equipment (PPE) is used if it is not possibe to reduce chemica hazards to an acceptabe eve. The equipment forms a barrier between the toxic substance and the route of entry. PPE shoud are considered as a ast resort. The common types of PPE used are respirators, goves, aprons, eye gogges, and boots. Persona hygiene aims to keep the body cean and not to aow anything harmfu to remain on it for ong periods as it can be absorbed through the skin. Exposive Fammabe Compressed Gas Oxidising Corrosive Toxic Irritant Heath Hazard Environmenta Hazard Fig.10.1: hazard pictograms 85 Open University of Mauritius - Essentias of Occupationa Safety & Heath

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