GLOBAL LEARNING XPRIZE PROPOSED GUIDELINES, V.1

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1 GLOBAL LEARNING XPRIZE PROPOSED GUIDELINES, V.1 22 September 2014

2 INDEX 1. Executive Summary Why this Competition? The Global Crisis in Education The Grand Challenge The Opportunity Breakthroughs in the Science of Reading Affordability of Computing Devices Evidence of Potential for Child-Driven Learning Competition Details The Prizes Competition Timeline Judging Criteria Semi-finalist Selection Criteria Final Judging: Reading Final Judging: Writing Final Judging: Numeracy Host Country Selection English as an Official Language Political Support from Host Government Potential Host Countries Test Population and Delayed-Entry Cohort (Control Group) Hardware and Communications Hardware Platform Power Local Communication Troubleshooting Key Operational Partners Partner Selection Criteria Supporting Roles Advisory Board Ethics Review Board Judging Panel Open Source Open Source License Agreement Code and Content Availability Collaboration and Competition Phases of the Competition Registration Qualifying Round Qualification of Teams XPRIZE Community Forum Virtual Team Summit Software Design Period Submission of Entries Finalist Round Finalist Team Summit Adaptation of Entries to Local Culture Baseline Testing Iteration of Entries during Field Testing Controlling External Influence and Communication Post-Field Test Assessment Assessment Teams Questions for Public Comment

3 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The document you are reading now is the result of an intensive design period to build a competition that will address perhaps the grandest challenge facing humanity today: the need to educate all children. We have set a clear vision and course for what we believe is the best way to face the Grand Challenge of educating the hundreds of millions of children who cannot read, write, or do basic arithmetic. Throughout these guidelines, you will see a series of questions. So please get involved, give us your feedback, or form a team. We believe we are strongest when we work together to create radical breakthroughs for humanity. There are still 57 million children who have no access to any kind of primary school, and an additional 250 million kids who have some schooling but do not learn basic literacy and numeracy. 1 Of the eight United Nations Millennium Goals (MDGs), world leaders identified the achievement of universal primary education by the year 2015 as key to meeting the needs of the world s poorest. XPRIZE believes that there is enormous untapped potential for technology-based learning to transform the education opportunities of children living in even the poorest and most remote places on Earth. Technology holds promise to transform the learning environment for these children. While there has been a rush to introduce technology in classrooms in wealthy communities, scant effort has been made to focus technology on where it is needed most rural villages around the world where resources are scarce. Governments and the international community have made progress on getting children into school, but significant work remains to be done. Technology-based learning enables children to learn at their own pace in their own space. This is particularly important in impoverished communities where children especially girls are expected to contribute to the work of the family or may not have a safe school environment. Early experiments in using technology for self-directed learning have shown that children in non-literate communities with no access to school and no prior experience with a computer are able to self-organize into learning communities where children teach themselves and each other. 2 The Global Learning XPRIZE is designed to stimulate the development of software solutions aimed at accelerating child-driven learning. Teams must agree that if their solution is selected as a Finalist, their software and content will be released under open source licenses, creating a global public good available for anyone to use, adapt, or improve upon for the benefit of children everywhere. We are on the cusp of a moon-shot moment where the merging of advances in neuroscience, computer technology, and child-driven learning methods can provide a transformation in the lives of children around the world. XPRIZE is looking to challenge the world to develop open source software that can make a powerful contribution toward creating dynamic learning environments accessible to all children, no matter where they live or their station in life. 1 UNESCO. Education for All Global Monitoring Report Dangwal and Gope, Indian adaptation of Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire, International Journal of Education and Development using ICT 7.3 (2011) 3

4 The Global Learning XPRIZE is a $15 million Competition that will reward the Team whose technology results in the greatest levels of learning achievement in reading, writing, and numeracy by children with no access to quality education. The Competition will invite Teams from all over the world to develop open source software capable of fostering self-guided learning among young children. The Judging Panel of the Global Learning XPRIZE will select the top five software Entries, each of which will receive a $1 million prize. These Finalist software Entries each will be loaded onto a standard tablet and field tested for an 18-month period with children in a set of villages in one region of Sub-Saharan Africa (as described in Section 5.2). The judges will award a $10 million Grand Prize to the Team whose Entry results in learning gains double that of current educational achievement in three key building blocks for 21st century literacy: Reading Writing Numeracy The ultimate goal of the Global Learning XPRIZE is to spur social and technological change to empower children anywhere on Earth to develop the skills to be critical and creative 21st century thinkers who ask questions, challenge assumptions, solve problems, and communicate effectively. Innovative educational content will: Be immersive in all aspects of a child s life Reward and challenge children to continue to develop as creative and critical thinkers Support how children naturally learn from each other by providing the opportunity to organize themselves into a community of learners The Global Learning XPRIZE is about empowering all children no matter their circumstances to reach their fullest potential. Education saves lives, fosters peace, strengthens the rights of women and girls, and promotes economic growth. 3 According to UNESCO, if all students in low-income countries had basic reading skills, 171 million people could be lifted out of poverty a 12 percent reduction in world impoverishment. 4 Because the Global Learning XPRIZE is about viewing children as a mission and not a market, we expect it will harness the passion and the power of the open-source community to make real and demonstrable impact on the global learning crisis. In the post-competition world, we envision enormous growth in the quality and quantity of technologies specifically designed to reach illiterate, underserved children, and a rallying of global leaders, policy makers, parents, and most importantly children themselves to embrace learning in an exciting, engaging, and child-centered way. 3 For a good discussion of the impact of education on poverty, see 4 4

5 2. WHY THIS COMPETITION? The gap between the rich and the poor will continue to increase unabated without a radical new approach to bringing quality education to those who are currently being left behind. In 2014, the World Economic Forum identified growing income inequality one of the top five global security risks. 5 A basic literacy foundation is one of the most important factors for a child s success and a country s economic growth. However, there are key market failures in addressing this critical area: Resources: A shortage of teachers exists throughout the world; millions more are needed to help teach in overcrowded classrooms filled with students of varying age and skill levels. Skilled teachers are less likely to serve in remote areas where the greatest barriers to quality education exist. Political forces favor middle-class urban populations, resulting in more educational resources including teachers, supplies, and school buildings being directed to such areas rather than to remote villages. Scalability: Current educational models leave millions of children without the opportunity to learn basic skills. These models cannot scale because they require finite resources such as teachers and schools, which are simply not available to many children, especially in the poorest communities. Time: The amount of time it takes a child to achieve a basic literacy foundation is on average between three and seven years. However, if we can prove that certain key elements of literacy such as reading, writing, and numeracy can happen more rapidly, we will push the boundaries for multiple areas and types of learning and learning delivery systems, shifting the education paradigm as a whole. Customization: Personalized learning opportunities have the potential to revolutionize the learning space. Customizing one s learning experience according to personal relevance, need, and interest as well as adapting the experience to one s speed, pace, and style can transform the learning industry into a robust, commercial industry and bring it to even the most remote parts of the world. The Global Learning XPRIZE seeks to address the market failures in global education by providing financial incentives and attracting global attention to the challenge of developing scalable solutions to reach children who lack access to quality educational opportunities. The Global Learning XPRIZE is designed to stimulate the development of software solutions aimed at accelerating child-driven learning. 2.1 THE GLOBAL CRISIS IN LEARNING Children are the most precious natural resource of any nation, and literacy is one of the single most important skills for children to develop if they are to thrive as individuals and global citizens. Literacy opens the mind of a child to a lifetime of critical and creative thinking. The development of such forms of thought in a society fuels discovery, productivity, and innovation, which, in turn, drive economic and social development. Nevertheless, millions of children never learn to read, never learn basic math, and never develop the creative and critical thinking skills necessary to achieve their full potential. The problem is two-fold some children do not have the opportunity to attend school and others receive substandard teaching in class. 5 World Economic Forum. Global Risks 2014: Ninth Edition. 5

6 Although more children now enter school, the quality of education that many children in low income countries receive is of extremely poor quality. As a result, a stunning 250 million children in developing countries are struggling to read even basic words, to write, and to count even though half of these children attend school. The global shortage of teachers, particularly in Sub- Saharan Africa, is growing. UNESCO projects that countries will need an extra 1.6 million teachers in classrooms to achieve universal primary education by 2015, and this number is expected to rise to 3.3 million by To compound the problem, pressure to achieve universal primary education enrollment has exacerbated overcrowding of classrooms and hiring of unqualified teachers, resulting in sub-standard learning. 2.2 THE GRAND CHALLENGE The number of children out of school is not the only crisis. Although more children now enter school, one third of all children are not learning the basics whether they attend school or not. About 137 million children began primary school in 2011, but at least 34 million are likely to drop out before reaching the last grade. Twenty-five percent of children are now leaving school early reflecting no improvement since Over the last two decades, national education policies and international aid for education have mainly focused on improving access to primary school. Progress has been made on this front, and this progress must be accelerated. However, the reality is that at the current pace, 47 percent of primary-school-aged children who are currently out of school are unlikely to ever enter school. We must redouble our efforts to ensure that children who attend school actually learn. 2.3 THE OPPORTUNITY At XPRIZE, we asked ourselves what can be done to spur innovation aimed at radically transforming the learning experience for the millions of young children today who have no access to quality education. And what does it mean to be literate in the 21st century? We see three powerful forces at work that, if harnessed, have the potential to transform learning: Breakthroughs in the science of reading Affordability of computing devices makes scalability possible Evidence of the potential of child-driven learning What is lacking, however, is any unified effort to merge these forces in ways that could benefit the world s poorest children BREAKTHROUGHS IN THE SCIENCE OF READING Brain-imaging research now allows us to see and track the multiple component processes that make up what is called the "reading brain circuit. This same research, when studied across time, gives us a developmental trajectory for understanding what processes are critical to the development of reading from acquisition phases in the new reader to full fluent comprehension in the adult. In turn, this evolving knowledge base has created opportunities for more precise approaches to teaching young and older readers alike how to read, as well as a platform for better understanding 6 6

7 which forms of intervention work best for different readers. For example, research has revealed that very young readers need particular emphasis on the sounds (i.e. phonemes) in their language to learn how to decode. Comparatively, older readers can be helped to move from basic decoding to fluent reading by emphasis on the unique orthographic patterns in their language and on the roots and affixes that form these patterns. We believe there is enough understanding of these principles to create transformative, technology-based learning systems that can provide children with critical learning experiences in the absence of a human teacher. This can be achieved by leveraging how children learn in selforganizing peer groups, and incentivizing and rewarding their desire and ability to learn and improve together in a deeply immersive way AFFORDABILITY OF COMPUTING DEVICES MAKES SCALABILITY POSSIBLE The price/performance curve for computing and communications hardware has reached the point where it is possible to develop and deploy high-performance mobile computing devices in the most remote regions of the world. The One Laptop per Child initiative is a case in point. Through the program, more than 2.8 million laptops have been purchased by developing country governments and deployed all over the world in very remote places. Tablets such as the Huawei Impulse are now on the market for close to USD $100. And Datawind has announced a USD $38 Android-based tablet for the North American market. These tablets have sufficient capabilities (e.g., Internet connectivity, memory, and battery life) to build dynamic learning platforms. Given the economies of scale, we can expect further price drops, coupled with greater capabilities, in the near future EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL OF CHILD- DRIVEN LEARNING All children have a natural curiosity and an inherent ability to create, communicate, and express themselves. The challenge is to create learning opportunities that nurture these talents in ways that make learning joyful and to incentivize children to take charge of their own learning. As anyone knows who has ever witnessed a small child play on a smart phone or tablet computer, these devices are highly engaging. Because children intuitively understand how to use the applications on such devices, they are quickly able to manipulate the apps and maneuver the device. Early experiments in using technology for self-directed learning have shown that children in nonliterate communities with no access to school and no prior experience with a computer are able to self-organize into learning communities, where children of a wide range of ages teach themselves and each other. In the Hole-in-the-Wall experiment in India, where a computer was placed in a community without any instruction, children developed a proficiency in computer literacy rivaling that of children who received explicit instruction in school. The ongoing Global Literacy Collaborative being conducted by MIT, Tufts University, and Georgia State University in Ethiopia presents further evidence. Within one year, 40 children who live beyond the reach of schools in two villages that are largely illiterate have been achieving remarkable precursor literacy skills using tablets. With no adult to teach them, many of these children have learned the alphabet and letter-sound correspondence rules, can recognize almost all English letters, and can write letters from memory. A few of the children can even read a group of sight words, with the top performers on the cusp of decoding and beginning to read. In both villages, older girls are among the most advanced learners and are actively teaching the other 7

8 children. Through their own motivation, these children are using the tablets an average of six hours a day exploring and sharing more than 300 apps and educational media. Their drive and desire to learn to read and to do so together is inspiring. 7 3 COMPETITION DETAILS The Global Learning XPRIZE is a 4 ½ -year competition with total prize purses of $15 million. This is a two-round, incentivized Competition that will allow Teams to demonstrate tablet-based learning tools in an engaging and self-directed way for children who lack access to quality education. The XPRIZE model actively avoids presupposing what the eventual winning design may entail. Entries submitted by Teams are expected to vary immensely and represent a wide range of innovative approaches. The winning Team will be the one whose software produces the highest achievement in aggregate scores in the core competencies of reading, writing, and numeracy. The winning Team must produce results that are twice the control group scores. 3.1 THE PRIZES Finalist Prizes In the qualifying round of the competition the Judging Panel will select up to 5 Finalist Teams that have crafted the most impressive technology based on the criteria found in section Each Finalist Team will be eligible to receive a USD $1 million Finalist Prize. Grand Prize Award Following an 18-month field-testing period of the five finalist Teams Entries by children in rural villages in a Sub-Saharan African country (to be determined by XPRIZE), judges will award the Grand Prize based on the results of post-assessments of children using the tablets. The Team with the highest aggregate score greater than twice that of a control group will be the winner of the USD $10 million Grand Prize. Points will be awarded in each of the following three core learning competencies: Reading Writing Numeracy 3.2 COMPETITION TIMELINE The Global Learning XPRIZE will operate over a course of approximately 4 ½ years. The timeline below includes the major Competition phases and events. The Global Learning XPRIZE is a fixed-date Competition with four phases, one of which involves testing the performance of competitors Entries. A more detailed Competition Calendar will be available in the Rules and Regulations (to be released at a later date). The major phases of the Competition will be: 7 8

9 Registration: After the Competition launches in September 2014, individuals and Teams will have until March 31, 2015 to register and pay. Phase 1: After Registration closes on March 31, 2015, Teams will have 18 months (until September 30, 2016) to develop their Entries. The XPRIZE Community Forum (http://forum.xprize.org) will be available for Teams and individuals to ask questions, discuss, and if they choose, to share ideas. Phase 2: During Phase 2, Semi-finalists will be announced, followed three months later by the top five Finalists. Phase 3: There will be 18 months of field testing from June 2017 through November Phase 4: A panel of judges will assess the results of the field testing beginning in December 2018, and the Grand Prize winner will be announced in March KEY DATES September 22, 2014 March 31, 2015 April 3, 2015 Competition Launch Registration deadline Virtual Summit for registered Teams & individuals 4 th Quarter of 2016 Submission of Entries 4 th Quarter of 2016 First Judges Summit 1 st Quarter of 2017 Announcement of Semi-Finalists 1 st Quarter of 2017 Team Summit for Semi-finalists to convene and/or team up 1 st Quarter of 2017 Submission of updated Entries (Semi-finalists) 2 nd Quarter of 2017 Announcement of Finalists, $1 million award 2 nd Quarter of 2017 Field testing begins 4 th Quarter of 2018 Conclusion of field testing; Assessment begins 1 st Quarter of 2019 Assessment concludes; Final Judges Summit 1 st Quarter of 2019 Announcement of Grand Prize Winner XPRIZE encourages Teams to merge, reorganize, collaborate and/or share technical assets during the course of the Competition in order to create the most effective Entries with the highest likelihood of winning a Prize, subject to the terms and conditions in the Competitor Agreement. 9

10 3.3 JUDGING CRITERIA The first round of judging will take place during a down-select period at the end of These submissions will be judged on the design, the technology, the potential for a child s learning, and the quality of the explanation of the overall solution (see section 4.3.1) Semi-finalists will be announced in early 2017, and will have about a month to tweak their Entries before another round of judging to determine the top five Finalist Teams. After the 18 months of field testing, the top five Finalists Entries will be judged on the highest aggregate improvement in the core competencies of reading, writing, and numeracy. To be eligible for the Grande Prize, the winning Team must also produce results that are at least twice the control group scores. Testing will be done using the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA), the Early Grade Math Assessment (EGMA), and the Early Grade Writing Assessment (EGWA). These assessment criteria are summarized below. In this final assessment, reading will count for 60% of the final score (see section 4.3.2), writing will count for 10% of the final score (see section 4.3.3), and numeracy will count for 30% of the final score (see section 4.3.4) SEMI-FINALIST SELECTION CRITERIA Once XPRIZE receives all Entries, down-selection begins to determine the Semi-finalists. Entries will be judged on the following general criteria: Ability to measurably increase the learning of children in villages with limited access to schooling Creation and implementation of a design that is easy to use and engaging for children, so they can operate it alone and/or in self-organized groups Creation of open source software that makes marked improvements to existing technology Judges will also assess the background research and quality of explanation of the overall solution in each category. The breakdown of each category is as follows: Learning (50%) Judges will assess the educational content and teaching method of each Entry to determine the likelihood of significant learning gains in reading (60%), numeracy (30%), and writing (10%). Design (30%) Judges will evaluate features of design such as: usability (a child can operate autonomously), engagement (motivating, playful software that is usable up to eight hours a day), localization (ability to be adapted to different languages and cultures), personalization (capable of tracking individual progress and engaging multiple cognitive styles), and community integration (enables or encourages involvement with adults and other children). Technology (20%) Judges will evaluate Entries for customizability, device/os portability, code transparency and resiliency. Teams will be rewarded for collaboration on design and implementation. Judges will look for software that is scalable and customizable for 100 million children or more across many cultures and languages PUBLIC FEEDBACK: We hope that Teams will work collaboratively to find the best solution possible to enhance learning. However, we do not currently require it for participation. Should collaboration between Teams be part of the judging criteria or simply be rewarded with perks? 10

11 Once the five Finalists are selected, XPRIZE will distribute the Entries crafted by those Teams to the 3,000-4,000 children ready to receive them for the field testing. A more detailed description of the measurement procedure will be provided in a set of Rules and Regulations that will be prepared and adopted by XPRIZE and will be provided to each Team as an Attachment to these Guidelines at a later date ( Rules and Regulations ). After the top five Finalist Teams have completed their field tests, their Entries will go through a final round of judging as outlined below FINAL JUDGING: READING Learning to read is a passport to everything else in life. Learning to read not only sets up a child for a lifetime of literacy, it also opens up the brain to new ways of thinking and learning. Reading ability will be measured using the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA). The aspects of reading that will be assessed include the following: Letter name knowledge the ability to recognize and name the 26 uppercase and lowercase letters used in the English language Phonemic awareness and letter sound knowledge the ability to understand the sounds associated with each letter of the alphabet Familiar word reading the ability to automatically recognize and memorize commonly used words ( sight words ) without having to decode or sound them out Unfamiliar word reading the ability to use strategies, such as replacement with a familiar word, to decipher unfamiliar words Oral reading fluency the ability to read a text accurately and fluently Reading comprehension the ability read and understand a text FINAL JUDGING: WRITING Research indicates that reading and writing instruction is most effective when taught together. When children read extensively they become better writers. At the same time, practice in writing helps children build their reading skills. Writing ability will be assessed using the Early Grade Writing Assessment (EGWA) which is currently under development and should be available before our field testing begins. The aspects of writing that will be assessed in the context of this prize include the following: PUBLIC FEEDBACK: We are basing the competition on success in reading, writing, and numeracy. Are these too many to focus on? Most experts agree that reading is the most important building block to literacy, so we have weighted it far more heavily than writing. Is it important to keep writing as a criterion? Dictation the ability to write letters, words, and short sentences when they are dictated Recording the ability to write the names of common objects when they are displayed Cloze Tests the ability to write a correct word in a simple sentence where one word has been left out Description the ability to describe a common object or activity 11

12 3.3.4 FINAL JUDGING: NUMERACY As with literacy, a basic understanding of numeracy is a crucial building block for lifelong learning. Numeracy enables one to develop logical thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Mathematics skills are also critically important for children as they grow older and enter the workforce. While numeracy involves all dimensions of mathematics and is the type of skill needed to function in everyday life, it is more than just numbers. Numeracy is intricately linked to language, as words are the tools for translating numerical code and giving it meaning. The Global Learning XPRIZE will challenge competitors to go beyond basic arithmetic and to demonstrate that children have a working sense of numbers and intuition for logic. Children will be assessed using the Early Grade Mathematics Assessment (EGMA). Numeracy will be judged on mastering the following areas: Oral counting fluency the ability to count out loud Number naming fluency the ability to recognize and distinguish between numbers One-to-one correspondence the ability to count objects Quantity discrimination the ability to make judgments about differences by comparing quantities in object groups Missing number the ability to name a missing number in a set or sequence of numbers Addition and subtraction the ability to add and subtract Shape recognition the ability to recognize shapes such as circles, squares, triangles, and rectangles Pattern extension the ability to identify similarities and differences among the objects that make up a patterns or guesses 3.4 HOST COUNTRY SELECTION While it is expected that the technologies generated as a result of the Competition will have benefits for children and their communities in privileged and non-privileged circumstances alike, XPRIZE is conducting the Competition in developing countries rather than in the United States for two reasons: Our aim is to address the market failure in using technology to address the learning crisis in the least-developed areas of the world where crippling poverty prevents children from accessing quality education. In developing countries we will be able to test the Entries ability to help children who have not had previous exposure to educational technology, demonstrating that the Teams interventions can improve learning achievement in children ENGLISH AS AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGE AND THE LANGUAGE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL EDUCATION XPRIZE recognizes the cultural and political importance of local languages and does not intend for this prize to affect the teaching or use of the many languages around the world. We want the Global Learning XPRIZE to be consistent with the national education goals of the host country. The Global Learning XPRIZE will be conducted only in a country with a national policy of promoting English fluency and where English is a language of instruction but not necessarily the only language. 12

13 XPRIZE is conducting the Competition in English for a number of reasons: Conducting the Competition in one common language creates a uniform basis upon which to compare Team Entries. English is a language of global communication, and many developing-country governments have committed to it as a goal. Many Heads of state support English as the language for long-term national productivity and competitiveness. Learning to read and write in English will have immediate local and social value, as well as long-term economic value through as a passport to 21st century skills. Early experiences in using computer-aided learning have shown that children are able to learn basic skills in English regardless of their local language. Much research shows that when learning to read English as a second language, people of all ages show greater progress when also learning to read their native language. That is why Teams are strongly encouraged to design programs that include the local language. That language will be announced before the start of the development phase POLITICAL SUPPORT FROM THE HOST GOVERNMENT For political, legal, and logistical reasons, XPRIZE must operate in a country where there is strong support and approval from leaders at all levels of government, including local leaders at the village level. Without such support, implementation will be impossible POTENTIAL HOST COUNTRIES XPRIZE is exploring potential partnerships with Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. Vetting these countries will require deeper research, including interviews with government and UN officials on the ground in each location. The Global Learning XPRIZE will work with ministries of education, United Nations (UN) agencies, and local nonprofit organizations to identify villages that are willing to participate in the field testing (including the delayed-entry cohort as described in 3.4.4) Teams Entries will be randomly assigned to the villages. The villages to be selected are intended to be representative of the typical conditions found in rural villages with low educational achievement rates. The precise indicators to be used are to be determined. Villages will be selected based on the following criteria: Full support of parents, elders, and leaders in the community/village Full support from the national ministry of education and local ministry officials regarding access to villages and their people Commitment to girls access to education and technology Adequate nutritional levels for the children, as physical and intellectual stunting could preclude children from taking full advantage of the technology offered 8 Adequate security to enable children to assemble safely and enable access to the village by XPRIZE staff, partners, and assessors as needed Approximately 30 children between the ages of 7-12 Low primary school completion rate 8 Global Learning XPRIZE will use United Nations World Food Programme guidelines to determine minimum nutritional requirements. 13

14 3.4.4 TEST POPULATION AND DELAYED-ENTRY COHORT (CONTROL GROUP) The test population will be children between the ages of 7 and 12. This wide age range will allow a greater opportunity for children to teach each other. In recent work done in Ethiopia and elsewhere, observers noticed that older children quickly became the teachers and spent hours per day working with younger children. We can expect that each village will have an average of 30 children of the test population age. With a target of at least 100 villages participating, the total number of children participating in the field testing will be approximately 3,000-4,000. XPRIZE commissioned a statistical power analysis to determine the number of villages needed to achieve a sound level of confidence that the judging will be based on robust data. The Global Learning XPRIZE will abide by international research protocols related to studies involving children during field testing. This includes prior consent by parents or guardians of children participating in the field testing. Each parent of a child receiving a tablet will be fully informed and will have the absolute right to refuse the tablet. This holds true throughout the course of the Competition. To assess the efficacy of Teams Entries against the current state of learning for children who are either attending inadequate or no school at all, XPRIZE will establish a delayed-entry cohort. This will be a control group of at least 40 villages. Children in the control group will not receive tablets during the Competition, but will receive them loaded with the winning technology after the conclusion of the Competition. Children in both the treatment and control groups will be given the same baseline and final assessments. Once the pool of villages is established, XPRIZE will randomly assign villages to either the control group or the test group. 3.5 HARDWARE AND COMMUNICATIONS PROVIDED BY XPRIZE The Global Learning XPRIZE is about software. To make the Competition accessible to as many Teams as possible from around the globe, to allow Teams to focus their attention on creating the best software possible, and to ensure fairness in the evaluation of software solutions, the Global Learning XPRIZE will be conducting the field testing and evaluating the results of that testing. Specifically, the hardware and communications support necessary to Test Teams Entries in the field and all of the logistics around field testing will be provided by the Global Learning XPRIZE, either directly or through partners. Because this Competition is based on the presumption that the software should be designed for self-directed/peer-to-peer learning, XPRIZE will provide the hardware to children without any instructions or training. Teams will not have direct access to the villages. However, XPRIZE will provide the Teams with periodic reports containing data on use of the software by the children involved in field testing, as well as give the Teams opportunities to update their Entries at four points during the field-testing period HARDWARE PLATFORM Teams must design their software to run on an Android tablet. The Android tablet to be used in field-testing will be equipped with microphones, cameras, and speakers, as well as a minimum six-hour battery life in normal usage. Teams are encouraged to make use of these features. Competitors can and should assume that children will use the tablets up to six hours a day. 14

15 However, given the likely absence of a power grid in most if not all treatment villages, XPRIZE cannot guarantee that children will be able to simultaneously use and charge their tablets. Tablets will be delivered to the children directly. XPRIZE is agnostic on whether the tablets are used in a classroom setting or not. This is neither required nor prohibited. XPRIZE expects that in some locations tablets may be integrated into classroom learning or accompanied by some kind of mentoring support organized by the community itself. In other locations, children may selforganize into peer groups as they have done in many computer-based learning experiments to date. The Competition is designed with a large enough sample size so that the outcome will be applicable to a wide range of real-life learning circumstances of children who lack access to quality education POWER The Global Learning XPRIZE will arrange for participating children to be able to charge their tablets via stored or alternative energy means. XPRIZE will provide energy to the testing sites. Assuming there are 30 tablets per village, the Global Learning XPRIZE expects to provide sufficient power and storage to provide each tablet with one full battery charge per day consistently throughout the year. Testing villages will be able to keep the tablets and power source when testing is complete. Delayed-entry cohorts who will be the control group during the testing period will receive tablets and a power source when testing is complete LOCAL COMMUNICATIONS Peer-to-peer communication is key to learning and, accordingly, key to the technology environment of this XPRIZE. The Android tablets will be equipped with the ability to talk to each other directly, as well as to receive from and transmit to a central in-village server. Competitors are encouraged to develop and make use of point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communications as part of their software solutions. While the Global Learning XPRIZE will provide local connectivity, competitors are strongly encouraged to design solutions that run stand-alone as much as possible. The tablets will not be connected to the Internet. This ensures that the Competition is a level playing field and mimics the real-world situation in the communities in which XPRIZE aims to be most helpful, i.e., places where there is no practical or affordable Internet access TROUBLESHOOTING AND POWER/HARDWARE FAILURE Global Learning XPRIZE staff or their partners will regularly visit and assess each testing site to ensure functioning of both hardware and power. Site assessors will come equipped with replacement tablets and necessary tools to replace the power supply. If something does happen, best efforts will be made to keep the Competition running with as little downtime for the children as possible. Upon final country and village selection, a risk assessment will be performed and a risk management plan will be created for each village that will guide the XPRIZE staff and operational partners in the management of critical downtime events, including force majeure. 3.6 KEY OPERATIONAL PARTNERS Success of the prize will depend on strong partnerships. In particular, XPRIZE will need one or more operational partners (such as United Nations agencies, local and international NGOs, and government ministries) to assist with the field-testing phase of the prize, including the provision 15

16 of power, tablets, and troubleshooting, as well as with the learning achievement assessment process on which the final judging will be based. Field testing of the Competition Entries will require partnerships with international organizations. XPRIZE will seek partnerships with organizations that have excellent relationships with the host government, solid experience operating in the country, and the requisite capacity to work with host governments and other local officials in identifying villages, setting up field-testing operations, and monitoring implementation. The best partner organizations will have multiple strengths to share, including a strong champion within the organization, a shared vision, and a strong organizational profile in terms of reach, reputation, and operational capacity within the country PARTNER SELECTION CRITERIA Organizational partnerships will be selected based on the following criteria: Relationship with governments The partner must have a relationship with a government that is manifested in a basic country agreement that allows for the import of technology and other goods in an expeditious and tax-free manner. Operations The partnership can contribute dedicated staff and the necessary organizational and logistical support in the implementation of the field-testing of Competition Entries. Reputation The partner has a reputation for integrity and excellence in the host country and has leaders in the field of development, and can remain neutral in the Competition. Policy The partnership can result in influencing the thinking of government officials and development experts. 3.7 SUPPORTING ROLES ADVISORY BOARD An Advisory Board will be formed to assist with the formulation of the technical aspects of the Competition. The Advisory Board will be independent of XPRIZE, and all competing Teams and Team Members. All members of the Advisory Board will be required to sign non-disclosure or similar agreements, as well as statements acknowledging that they make no claim to the Intellectual Property developed by Teams or relevant Team sponsors or partners ETHICS REVIEW BOARD An Ethics Review Board will be commissioned to ensure compliance with ethical guidelines developed specifically for the Global Learning XPRIZE. When dealing with children, the strictest ethical considerations must be met and XPRIZE takes seriously its responsibility in ensuring the safety and protection of all children participating in this Competition. The role of the Ethics Review Board will include, but not be limited to, ensuring that parents and other significant leaders in the community where tablets will be deployed are adequately informed about the project and given consent forms for their acceptance or refusal. In addition, the Board will be charged with making regular inquiries into the conduct of the prize and the status of the children. 16

17 3.7.3 JUDGING PANEL The official judges of the Competition make up the Judging Panel. The Judging Panel will evaluate the Entries and will be responsible for assessing compliance with the Competition Guidelines, and Rules and Regulations. The judging panel will be comprised of highly qualified and impartial judges from around the world, including the host country. Members of the Judging Panel will have cross-functional and relevant backgrounds in order to ensure that the Judging Panel will be able to address all aspects of the Competition. The judging panel will be independent of any Team participants and will not be involved in any other area of Competition operations. All members of the Judging Panel will be required to sign non-disclosure or similar agreements, as well as statements acknowledging that they make no claim to the Intellectual Property developed by Teams or relevant Team sponsors or partners. XPRIZE shall select all members of the Judging Panel and submit them to the Advisory Board for review and approval. Members of the Judging Panel are outside experts and volunteers, not employees of XPRIZE. All determinations, exercises of discretion, and decisions made by the XPRIZE Foundation or the Judging Panel may be made in the XPRIZE Foundation s or the Judging Panel s sole and absolute discretion, including without limitation the award of prizes. All decisions and opinions made by the Judging Panel shall be rendered by a majority of the judges, are binding on both the Teams and the XPRIZE Foundation, and are not subject to review or contest. The Judging Panel retains sole and absolute discretion to declare a winner of the Competition and otherwise award all prizes. 3.8 OPEN SOURCE An essential component of the Competition design is a commitment not only to open source software solutions, but also to an open source development process. In order to maximize the potential for the growth of this solution beyond XPRIZE, the Finalist Entries will be released under permissive licenses allowing both commercial and non-commercial use. To achieve these goals: All code, content, and assets developed by all Finalists will be released under open source licenses that permit free distribution, derivative works, and use in commercial and noncommercial settings. Teams will be able to build solutions that use existing open source libraries and components, allowing them to work faster and focus on their unique contributions. The five Finalists solutions and all code developed in common will be made available to and supported by a public foundation to which multiple organizations and individuals can contribute future work. During the Competition period, the open community and repositories will be cultivated. Competitors and others can contribute and collaborate on parts of the project while competing with other parts. Participation in the Global Learning community by non-competitors is encouraged and supported. XPRIZE will create and support open code repositories, forums, and events to enable this participation. XPRIZE will require all code developed by finalists and contributed to the project to be licensed under the Apache License, 2.0 (Apache-2.0). This license is also used by the open source Android operating system used in the competition. XPRIZE will require all content and assets developed by finalists and contributed to the project to be licensed under the Creative Commons CC BY (4.0) license. 17

18 All Teams are welcome and encouraged to depend on or make use of other components, libraries, content, assets, and code. All such materials must be available under any Open Source Initiative (OSI) or Creative Commons license compatible with the Apache License, 2.0 or the CC BY (4.0) license. Compatible means that each Team s entire Entry must be usable without violating the license terms of those components licensed under the Apache License, 2.0 or the CC BY 4.0 license. Source code licensed under the BSD, MIT, or Apache licenses currently meets this criterion; other open source licenses may also meet it. Content and assets must be licensed under terms that permit commercial usage. The Creative Commons CC BY and CC-BY-SA licenses currently meet this criterion. Teams cannot submit entries that include or rely on software or content that is either closed-source, proprietary, illegally sourced, or depends on per-seat licensing OPEN SOURCE LICENSE AGREEMENT In order to ensure the Entries submitted by Teams are licensable under the required terms, any Team member or participant with commit access to a Team s repository or a common, shared repository must use open source. This agreement will grant licenses to each contribution so the final products of the Competition may be licensed under the Apache 2.0 and CC BY licenses. The open source license agreement will state that everything contributed is the intellectual property of the contributor. Each contributor is expected to retain the copyright on any code or content created, but each contributor will grant licenses to the source code, content and any patents held by the contributor required to use those materials. In essence, the agreement will grant all rights required for the source code contributed to be licensed and used under the terms of the desired open source licenses (Apache License, 2.0 and CC BY) CODE AND CONTENT AVAILABILITY A core goal at XPRIZE is for the winning technologies to continue to evolve and grow by providing a mechanism in which Teams can monetize their solutions and compete with other innovators and organizations. Simply releasing code is not enough to achieve that goal; XPRIZE will also work with a partner organization to set up a formal foundation to act as a steward for the winning code and content. This foundation will fulfill a number of functions: Provide context, community, tooling and infrastructure for the code to continue to evolve and grow. Provide legal protection where appropriate for the code and assets. Provide a governance structure in which many organizations and individuals can participate in enhancing and evolving the code and assets. The winning Team will be invited to participate in the foundation as founding members COLLABORATION AND COMPETITION The Global Learning XPRIZE is the first open source software XPRIZE. Within the spirit of community that is a foundation of the open source world, we want to encourage collaboration and discussion around common problems and solutions that impact Teams. This discussion will take place on - our community discussion forum. The forum will be open to Team members and others in order to capture the contributions of the widest possible audience. Our community at XPRIZE will be encouraging Teams to work together around these common challenges and encouraging third parties to join in the effort to support Teams around these 18

19 common problems. We strongly encourage Teams to be active in the forum and collaborate where possible. When the development period opens, XPRIZE anticipates providing Teams access to a GitHub repository that is private to that team. The Team will be able to control access rights in that repository to be as open or as closed as the Team prefers. If a Team wishes to add additional members, they are free to do so within their repository. In addition to the individual Team repositories XPRIZE anticipates developing an XPRIZE common repository. This will be a fully open GitHub repository where collaboration can occur around common software components, services, and functions. It is here that Teams will be encouraged to collaborate. It is anticipated that the XPRIZE Common repository will have an independent governance board that will determine who gets commit access and perform the common responsibilities of open source project governance. 4.PHASES OF THE COMPETITION 4.1 REGISTRATION To participate in the Competition, Teams must complete the Registration process using the Competition website once Registration has opened (http://learning.xprize.org). Teams interested in competing and being eligible for a Prize in the Global Learning XPRIZE must have registered by March 31, No late registrations will be accepted. Registration involves the following steps: 1. Complete and submit an Intent to Compete Form (http://globallearning.xprize.org/teams). Upon approval of this form by XPRIZE, the Team will be invited to activate an account on the Team Portal with instructions sent to the individual registrant or Team Leader by In the Team Portal, Teams may add additional Team Information. Once all relevant documents are released, Teams can sign them and complete registration. 3. To complete registration, Teams must submit the Registration Fee of USD $500, payable in U.S. Dollars only. 4. Upon approval, a Competitor Agreement and related documentation will be sent to the individual or Team for signature. These related documents include the Competition Guidelines, the Media Rights Agreement, Insurance Requirements, the Branding and Style Guide, the Public Relations Guide, the Team Sponsorship Guide, the Team Release and Waiver Document, and the Team Member Release Waiver and Confidentiality Document. 5. Any Team Members accessing the software repository must sign an open Contributor License Agreement in the form provided by XPRIZE. Registration must be approved and accepted by XPRIZE in order for a Team to compete and be eligible to receive any Prizes. XPRIZE may refuse Registration for any reason, including, but not limited to, XPRIZE s determination that a prospective Team: (i) lacks the understanding of the financial or technical means required to present a viable Entry; (ii) is not or will not remain an Eligible Entity, (iii) is not likely to comply with the terms of the Competitor Agreement; or (iv) is likely to disrupt relationships with the other Teams, sponsors, or otherwise unreasonably endanger the administration of the Competition or related activities. Registration materials will be reviewed by XPRIZE for completeness and for compliance with the principles and rules of the Competition using all available information. XPRIZE may pose additional questions or requests 19

20 for clarification to supplement the Registration materials as part of its evaluation. All rejection or acceptance decisions made by XPRIZE will be final and in its sole and absolute discretion. 4.2 QUALIFYING ROUND QUALIFICATION OF TEAMS At the close of the registration period, XPRIZE will review each Team s registration and notify those Teams that they have successfully completed the registration process and have qualified to participate in the Qualifying Round XPRIZE COMMUNITY FORUM In addition to the Team Portal, which is used to access forms and administer the Competition, XPRIZE maintains a public forum for general discussion (http://forum.xprize.org). Individuals or incomplete Teams are encouraged to use the Global Learning XPRIZE Forum to find others from around the world with complementary skills to round out their Team VIRTUAL TEAM SUMMIT Once registration has closed, all registered Teams will be invited to participate in a virtual Team summit with XPRIZE staff. At this event, XPRIZE will brief entrants on the Competition rules and guidelines; provide background on the qualifying round submission process; address marketing, PR and social media needs; and be available to answer any questions Teams may have about the Competition. 4.3 SOFTWARE DESIGN PERIOD Qualifying Teams will be given 18 months to complete the design and implementation of their software and submit it to XPRIZE for review by the Judging Panel. The Competition is strictly focused on software. Teams will be provided with detailed hardware and communications specifications by XPRIZE, which will provide all hardware and communications necessary to test the solutions. There are no limits to the design of Teams Entries. However, to be considered by the Judging Panel in the Qualifying Round, Entries must meet the following standards: Submissions must include applications/tools that address all three of the Competition s core competencies reading, writing, and numeracy. Teams must certify that they hold sufficient rights to their submission through copyright or licensing. Software solutions must be designed in English. Teams must agree that their Entry, if selected as a Finalist, will be released under open source licenses at completion of the Competition SUBMISSION OF ENTRIES Following the 18-month software design phase of the Competition, Teams will submit their Entries to an XPRIZE server used specifically for the Prize. Teams are encouraged to conduct their own user testing of their Entries prior to submitting them to XPRIZE (at their own expense) and to provide documentation to XPRIZE about the results of that testing along with their 20

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