Near shore and shoreline oil spill response Current status and need for future development

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1 Near shore and shoreline oil spill response Current status and need for future development Svein Ramstad SINTEF Gunnar Pedersen Akvaplan-niva The 3rd Norway Russia Arctic Offshore Workshop St Petersburg, June

2 Increased risk/consequences of acute oil spills Petroleum exploration and production North Pole 12 mill tons in 2004 Approx 1 vessel/day Transport routes Prevention; continuous technology development and safety in petroleum industry and transportation -> safer operations 0-risk scenario; will never be reached human factor involved Accidental spills for petroleum activity will also take place in the future development of response techniques and strategies; cost-effective and minimize environmental effects 2

3 Development of effective oil spill response in North Norway/Barents Sea region Off-shore Coastal - Shoreline Challenges for North-Norway/ Barents sea region; Daylight; mid-night sun to polar nights Low temperature (water/ambient) Icing Infrastructure/logistics remote areas Personnel Equipment Vulnerable environment Coastal/nearshore Will affect the effectivity and the requirements for an oil spill operation Separate JIP-project on Oil spill response in Arctic and ice-covered waters ( ) 3

4 Shoreline oil spill response - case history (2007) Server (2007, Jan 13 th ) Fedje/Bergen Heavy storm, engine stop 380 ton IFO380, 240 ton emulsion recovered from sea operation Shoreline cleanup; 40 km oil contaminated shoreline 129 working positions working days Clean-up period; ->2007 July 1 st Waste generation; 1300 m 3 Clean-up cost (incl. waste handling); 120 mnok Server main cleanup/restoration techniques Recovery nearshore; pumping / belt conveyor Flushing (low pressure/cold water) Flushing (high pressure/warm water) Manual removal (hand equipment) Sorbents (bark) Natural recovery Combination of cleanup techniques -> need for more cost-effective shoreline cleanup techniques and strategies 4

5 Development of shoreline clean-up and restoration techniques and strategies Criterias Effect on the environment HSE Time Logistics/infrastructure Waste generation Personnel Cost effectiveness Case studies and real oil spills have shown that the environment can restore oil contaminated area at an enhanced rate (oil type/weathering, sediment, environmental parameters) Self-cleaning due to weathering processes of oil on shoreline Evaporation (De)Emulsification Oil fines interaction Erosion Washout Dispersion Biodegradation Transport processes Photo-oxidation etc Take advantage of self-cleaning, by stimulation of the important processes Development of in-situ clean-up and restoration techniques, e.g. Shoreline cleaning agents Bioremediation Oil fines Surf-washing Burning Self-cleaning Use in-situ techniques and strategies in combination with traditional techniques/strategies 5

6 Oil spills in coastal areas; Strategies for development new and innovative shoreline clean-up and restoration techniques JIP Program; Coastal Oil Spills Coastal and shoreline oil spills response for cold climate regions Program activities identified as important research areas (gap analysis) in the case of an accidental oil spill in coastal areas and at shoreline Overall objectives; To contribute to an adequate and sufficient basis of competence and facts to documentate possible consequences in case of an oil spill close to the coast To provide documentation ensuring the countermeasures giving the optimal environmental gain Industrial partners (phase I/II); StatoilHydro, ENI Norge Other partners; Norwegian Research Council of Norway, Norwegian Coastal Administration, Norwegian University of Science and Technology International cooperative/consulting partner; Cedre (F)/Polaris (US) 6

7 Phase I; Natural processes of oil on shorelines Laboratory studies at SINTEF SeaLab Quantification of natural processes under simulated environmental conditions for representative oil types and weathering (250 o C/max water emulsion) Experimental facilities simulates main environmental parameters (scale down environment), under controlled and reproducible conditions Parameters; Continuous supply and exchange of seawater Temperature; water/ambient (-20 o C -> +20 o C) Sediment; Clay -> sand -> solid substrate) Exposure (wave, current) Tidal variation Light (sim. sun irradiation) Ice Different complexicity for various experimental systems, dependent on objectives of experiments/studies

8 Oil spills in coastal areas Phase II; Guideline development and biological effects Development of guideline/protocol for testing of shoreline cleanup products and techniques. Bioremediation products and strategies Sorbents Shoreline cleaning agents (surface release and dispersants Effectivness testing Toxicity testing Other techniques? International cooperation > widely accepted tests Biological effect studies of oil on shoreline, water column and seafloor biota (oil droplets and soluble compounds)

9 Oil spills in coastal areas Phase III; Operationalisation of new shoreline cleanup and restoration techniques Define window of opportunity for use of different techniques and strategies (time, shoreline substrate, oil type and weathering etc) Research and development needed: Laboratory screening studies Large scale feasibility studies (meso-scale laboratory studies and field studies) Technology development; Challenges and important aspects: Product development Availability of designed products Use under severe climatic conditions; robust Application and spreading Multipurpose equipment and products Combination of different techniques Oil recovery Monitoring/docunebtation Biological effects Oil budget/properties Waste handling Large technological challenges in cold climate and remote areas! 9

10 Oil spills in coastal areas - Future planned activities Field testing Verification of laboratory studies Testing and documentation under realistic conditions and environment long term testing of effectiveness and biological effects of various treatment techniques Implementation of new techniques and strategies for shoreline cleanup in oil spill response plans Development of numerical models for fate, behaviour and effects of oil on shoreline, and decision support tool Data generated in laboratory and field studies form the basis 10

11 Oil spills in coastal areas Global - circumpolar Habitates Large challenges very complex ; requires cooperation and participation from a large number of parties with different sectors to reach objectives Systemtatic research of the fate, behaviour and biological effects of oil on shoreline(laboratory and field studies) Development of new techniques and strategies for shoreline clean-up Window of opportunity for use of different techniques Technology development Model development 11

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