state library of NSW A business case framework for RFID in NSW public libraries

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1 state library f NSW A business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW public libraries

2 A business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW public libraries

3 STATE LIBRARY OF NSW MACQUARIE STREET SYDNEY NSW 2000 TELEPHONE (02) A BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK FOR RFID IN NSW PUBLIC LIBRARIES THIS PROJECT WAS COMMISSIONED BY THE STATE LIBRARY OF NSW ON THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE NSW PUBLIC LIBRARY NETWORK RESEARCH COMMITTEE FOR THE LIBRARY COUNCIL OF NSW AND WAS UNDERTAKEN BY HUEGIN CONSULTING FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON A BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK FOR RFID IN NSW PUBLIC LIBRARIES AND AN ONLINE VERSION OF THIS PUBLICATION, PLEASE VISIT P&D4060-6/2013 ISBN STATE LIBRARY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, JUNE 2013 THIS WORK IS COPYRIGHT. IT MAY BE REPRODUCED IN WHOLE OR PART FOR STUDY AND TRAINING PURPOSES SUBJECT TO THE INCLUSION OF ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF THE SOURCE AND NO COMMERCIAL USAGE OR SALE. REPRODUCTION FOR PURPOSES OTHER THAN THOSE INDICATED ABOVE REQUIRES PERMISSION FROM THE STATE LIBRARY OF NSW. REQUESTS AND ENQUIRIES CONCERNING REPRODUCTION AND RIGHTS SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC LIBRARY SERVICES, STATE LIBRARY OF NEW SOUTH WALES THE STATE LIBRARY OF NEW SOUTH WALES IS A STATUTORY AUTHORITY OF, AND PRINCIPALLY FUNDED BY, THE NSW STATE GOVERNMENT. PRINTER: Pegasus Print Grup PAPER: (COVER) AND (TEXT) 100% RECYCLED PAPER MADE FROM 100% POST CONSUMER RECYCLED WASTE PRINT RUN: 200 ii A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries

4 Frewrd The State Library f NSW, n behalf f the NSW Public Library Netwrk Research Cmmittee, cmmissined and funded a prject t undertake a cst benefit analysis f using Radi Frequency Identificatin (RFID) in NSW public libraries. The aim f the prject was t explre and dcument the csts and benefits f using RFID in a variety f cntexts relevant t the NSW public library netwrk. The prject sught t prvide a guide t NSW cuncils cnsidering RFID and enable an infrmed cmparisn t be made between service mdels using RFID and nt using RFID. This reprt f the prject ffers a practical business case framewrk which libraries can use t ascertain the mst effective and cst efficient service mdel fr circulatin and stck management, in a variety f cntexts. Acknwledgements The Public Library Netwrk Research Cmmittee members fr this prject were: Jill Webb, Ryde City Library Linda Hrswell, Msman Library Adele Casey, Bland Shire Cuncil Paul Scully, Liverpl City Libraries Alexander Mills, Singletn Public Library J Carmdy, Richmnd Tweed Reginal Library Frances Sims, State Library f NSW Camern Mrley, State Library f NSW Leanne Perry, State Library f NSW Camern Mrley and Leanne Perry made a cnsiderable cntributin t this publicatin in terms f subject expertise and editrial assistance. The State Library thanks Huegin's Richard Buller and Ben Petschel, and als the libraries that agreed t be case studies fr the research. Frances Sims Directr, Public Library and Cmmunity Learning Services State Library f NSW A BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK FOR RFID IN NSW PUBLIC LIBRARIES 3 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries 1

5 Executive Summary Apprach In cnsultatin with the State Library f NSW, Huegin undertk interviews with a selectin f libraries acrss the State that had existing Radi Frequency Identificatin (RFID) systems installed fr the circulatin management f their library cllectins. These libraries had previusly made the decisin t invest public funds in installing an RFID system. We sught t understand hw each library cnsidered the ptins (and the csts and benefits f these) available t them prir t deciding t install RFID. Supprted by a literature survey n RFID in public libraries and in cnsultatin with the State Library, we prpsed that it wuld be beneficial t establish a rbust business case framewrk arund which future RFID purchases culd be made. This wuld place the nus nt a tender team t prvide crrect and current cst and benefit data fr the business case, rather than use a mdel that wuld quickly becme ut f date. We assessed the influence f RFID n circulatin management in libraries and sught t define the cst drivers and benefits which will aid the design and cnfiguratin f future installatin ptins. We als sught t prvide NSW public libraries with a means t carry ut benefit and key perfrmance indicatr tracking. Results Our investigatins f RFID systems in existing NSW reginal libraries fund limited quantificatin f the installatin csts and little quantificatin f benefits. It was evident that it was ging t be difficult t establish a rbust csts and benefits mdel that culd be used fr future purchases. Thrugh interviews with libraries that currently perate RFID, we established the key csts and benefits f RFID systems fr public libraries. We used these as the basis f a business case framewrk t be used fr making future purchases f RFID systems. Huegin recmmend that the business case framewrk wuld prvide a sund basis fr making prudent and efficient decisins abut the investment f public funds in library infrastructure prjects. We demnstrated a business case framewrk thrugh the use f examples f RFID system installatins. T supprt the business case we have prvided a means t als assess the lnger term benefits f RFID systems. 4 2 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries

6 Recmmendatins The key recmmendatins frm this reprt are: That the State Library makes available a business case framewrk t help develp prudent and efficient cases fr installing RFID systems. That public libraries track the direct and indirect staff csts assciated with the mre efficient prcesses that RFID can deliver. It is recmmended that these shuld be calculated prir t any future purchase t be able t truly represent any efficiency imprvement that an upgraded circulatin system may bring. Tw means f tracking desired utcmes shuld be implemented during and fllwing RFID installatin. The first is mnitring the lng term generatin f quantitative benefits by tracking planned benefits versus actual benefits achieved. The secnd is using KPIs t enable cntrl f perfrmance thrugh effective feedback. A BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK FOR RFID IN NSW PUBLIC LIBRARIES 5 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries 3

7 4 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries

8 Cntents Frewrd 1 Executive Summary 2 1 Intrductin 7 2 Literature Survey f RFID in the cntext f public libraries 11 3 Case studies 21 4 Circulatin management assessments fr RFID 35 5 Business case framewrk fr RFID in the cntext f public libraries 39 6 Benefits tracking and key perfrmance indicatrs 59 7 Future applicatins f RFID in libraries 64 Annex A Requirements traceability matrix 67 Annex B Interview agenda and particulars 69 Annex C Example csts 72 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries 5

9 6 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries

10 1 Intrductin We are primarily investigating the csts and benefits, and verall return n investment fr RFID tagging f library cllectins. We interviewed a number f libraries t understand hw they decided t invest t maximise that return n investment. We sught t understand hw each library cnsidered the ptins available t them, prir t deciding t install RFID and use it as part f a circulatin management system*. In this sectin we prpse that it wuld be mre beneficial t establish a rbust business case framewrk arund which future RFID purchases culd be made. * We use the term circulatin management system t describe any system related t check-in, srting, shelving, item lcatin, reservatins, check-ut and security (as illustrated n page 27). This is different t cllectin management which manages the lifecycle f an item frm purchase t dispsal r archive. A BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK FOR RFID IN NSW PUBLIC LIBRARIES 7 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries 7

11 RFID in the NSW library netwrk Public libraries play imprtant rles as infrmatin resurce prviders and cmmunity hubs. Library usage statistics indicate that public libraries are highly valued by their cmmunities, with the 2012 figures shwing mre than 35 millin visits t NSW public libraries, almst 48 millin lans and ver 52,000 public prgrams and events (surce: State Library f NSW Public Library Statistics 2011/12). In 2011, there were 99 public library services in NSW f which 24 had implemented Radi Frequency Identificatin (referred t herein as the RFID systems r RFID ), and in 2012 the number increased t 31. Reasns fr implementatin included, amng thers, imprvements in efficiency and custmer service and the capability t expand in future while maintaining existing staffing levels. As can be seen n page 18, implementatin f RFID was nt limited t libraries serving a large ppulatin r with a high item turnver t staff rati, with many small t mediumsize RFID libraries and the smallest serving a ppulatin f just ver 10,000. Huegin was engaged t develp a cst and benefit mdel that wuld evaluate the installatin f RFID bk tagging systems used in public libraries acrss the State. The riginal intentin was that the csts and benefits culd then be cmbined in a mdel t calculate a return n investment (ROI). The many cmbinatins f library types and pssible RFID slutins meant that calculating any ROI will depend n the design cnfiguratin chsen and that a cst and benefits mdel needed t be cmprehensive enugh t cver all pssible slutins. Our investigatins int RFID systems in existing NSW public libraries fund limited quantificatin f installatin csts and limited quantificatin f benefits. Sme f ur bservatins have been supprted by literature. It was evident that it was ging t be difficult t establish a rbust csts and benefits mdel that culd be used fr future purchases. Instead we prpsed t the State Library f NSW that it wuld be mre beneficial t establish a rbust business case framewrk arund which future RFID purchases culd be made. This wuld place the nus nt the tender team t prvide crrect and current cst and benefit data fr the business case. 8 8 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries

12 The need t establish prudent and efficient business cases Cnsidering the abve, Huegin recmmend that the basis fr establishing RFID systems in a library cntext shuld start with the use f a business case framewrk. The business case framewrk establishes the pretext fr the purchase f any RFID system within the cntext f csts, benefits, risks and ptinality. This reprt demnstrates hw t build prudent and efficient business case fr libraries wh are cnsidering installing RFID systems. By fllwing the business case framewrk the decisins t invest public funds shuld prvide a clear and cncise means by which a RFID prject can be deplyed. Establishing a hyptheses fr the csts and benefits analysis f RFID T establish the necessary data and infrmatin t build the business cases, Huegin sught t interview a number f libraries with existing RFID systems. Prir t starting this survey we established sme key hyptheses that we set ut t test. 1 T determine a ROI, the csts, benefits and risks need t be quantified. We believe that whilst csts are relatively straightfrward t define, the benefits will be less tangible. We believe that ptential business risks in perating RFID systems have nt been determined. The csts and benefits will depend n the breadth and depth f RFID deplyment in different library cntexts. 2 The full life-cycle f the system needs t be cnsidered t truly understand the investment decisin. Installatin ptins shuld be cnsidered ver a suitable multi-year life span. Additinal lifecycle features f an RFID system shuld be cnsidered such as bslescence and vendr lck. 3 Full ptinality needs t be cnsidered in the investment decisin including the d nthing ptin. There may nly be a few unique features f the technlgy that give it an edge ver existing technlgies. Where the features are similar then it will be difficult t demnstrate a clear financial advantage withut cncrete metrics t cmpare ptins. 4 Ptential benefits are nt necessarily realised. Benefits will nly be f lng term success if the system imprvements allw staff t be deplyed elsewhere. These ptential benefits will eventually be realised nly if the deplyment actually makes an imprvement elsewhere and that this is measured. The literature survey and ur wn investigatins infrmed the hyptheses fr RFID csts and benefits. A BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK FOR RFID IN NSW PUBLIC LIBRARIES 9 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries 9

13 Defining csts and benefits f RFID in a NSW library cntext Whilst the data that was gathered will be f benefit t the NSW Public Library netwrk, it will be the ability t use a rbust business case framewrk in which future RFID purchases are made that is imprtant. In establishing a business case framewrk we als made the fllwing bservatins: There is a need t ensure any purchase f a RFID system shuld align with the strategic intent f the verall rganisatin. There is a need t cnsider whle f life csts and benefits and nt just at the installatin stage. This shuld include assessment f staff csts befre and after installatin. Risks shuld be cnsidered frm bth a prject and business perspective. Optinality f installatin pssibilities is an imprtant part f the tendering prcess. In cnsultatin with the State Library, we undertk a number f interviews with a selectin f libraries acrss the State that had RFID systems installed. These libraries had previusly made the decisin t invest public funds in installing an RFID system. As we are primarily investigating the csts and benefits, and an verall ROI fr RFID, we interviewed the libraries t understand hw they decided t invest t maximise this ROI. We sught t understand hw each library cnsidered the ptins available t them prir t deciding t install RFID. The requirements f this csts and benefits prject and where they are addressed in this reprt, are given in Annex A A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries

14 2 Literature Survey f RFID in the cntext f public libraries The literature survey cvers the typical and key csts and benefits f RFID systems fr public libraries, and hw these might prvide a return n investment fr the rganisatin. A BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK FOR RFID IN NSW PUBLIC LIBRARIES 11 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries 11

15 Review f csts and benefits f RFID systems in libraries There have been many studies f the csts and benefits f RFID in libraries and many different appraches t the analysis reviewed in this reprt. Sme studies f nte include a survey f 27 Califrnian public and academic libraries (Engel 2006), a technical analysis by the standards bdy fr the UK bk industry (Edwards & Frtune 2008) and an analysis f barriers t implementatin in Australian academic libraries (Butters 2008). RFID is used in varius industrial applicatins. RFID systems in libraries have been in existence fr mre than a decade (Butters 2010 p6) with the first Australian implementatin being as early as 2002 (Butters 2008 p198). The majr alternative technlgies are barcdes (fr item identificatin) and electrmagnetic (EM) strips (fr detectin, als knwn as tattle-tape ). RFID tags can be used fr bth identificatin and detectin, alne r in cnjunctin with barcdes and/r EM. An imprtant feature f RFID is that the radi waves generated during the reading prcess are able t penetrate many materials and s can be emplyed where tags are nt visible t the eye (Butters 2010 p5). The key pints are given t the right. 1 Libraries have different pririties accrding t their lcal requirements (Butters 2008 p200). Since each library is different, with different gals, variatins in size, cllectins, staff, labur csts, pening hurs and ways f prviding service, there cannt be ne single frmula fr determining what csts and benefits culd be btained that is applicable t every library. (Engel 2006 p8). 2 Many f the csts and benefits are intangible, fr example Engel (2006) cnsiders csts vs savings and benefits vs detriments. In particular, Reprted benefits such as reducing lines at the circulatin desk, patrn satisfactin and staff satisfactin are best treated as quality imprvements, and can be as imprtant t a library as cst savings. These need t be included in any cst/benefit analysis even thugh they cannt be easily quantified. (Engel 2006 p37-38). 3 As a relatively new and rapidly evlving technlgy, csts may vary cnsiderably (Engel 2006 p6) and the time perid f useful life f the equipment may be unknwn (Engel 2006 p39). 4 Crrespndingly, sme f the benefits may be nt fully realised r cnsidered as future pssible benefits (Engel 2006 p21, Edwards & Frtune 2008 p17). 5 Sme f the benefits can ptentially be realised thrugh ther technlgies (Edwards & Frtune 2008 p9, Ayres 2012 p17) A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries

16 Identifying the key cst drivers with RFID Defining the cst drivers The studies categrise the csts in a manner similar t that f (Engel 2006): Implementatin (ne-ff) Equipment and supplies Cnversin Other (training, installatin, pre-implementatin research and planning) Maintenance (nging) Tagging Equipment maintenance Engel (2006, p28-33) reprted the range f csts bserved by the Califrnian libraries that had implemented RFID at the time f the study. They nte that There is n way t give the typical' cst f a system, because csts vary between vendrs, and the needs and gals f each library are different. Typical equipment csts include (Engel 2006 p31): Bk tags AV tags and cases Security gates Staff check-ut / check-in statin Self-check statins Tag prgrammer Inventry scanner Similarly the study fund significant differences in the cst f labur fr tagging, due nt nly t the size f the cllectin but als wh did the tagging (staff, vlunteers r temprary persnnel) and what tasks were assciated with tagging. Fr example, the study fund that The time t tag an item varied in the way it was reprted as did the tasks assciated with tagging. Sme libraries reprted the time it tk t get the item frm the shelf t the tagging statin, tag it and return it t the shelf. Others cunted nly the time it tk t tag the item nce it was at the statin. A number f libraries used the pprtunity, with the item in hand, t assess it fr cnditin and pssible weeding, which lengthened the time spent per item. (Engel 2006 p31). Estimates varied frm 5 secnds t 2 minutes per item. Similarly, difficulties were encuntered in estimating the duratin f the tagging effrt, being dependent n the size f the cllectin, hw many staff r vlunteers are tagging, hw many A BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK FOR RFID IN NSW PUBLIC LIBRARIES 13 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries 13

17 hurs a day tagging is dne, whether the tagging is cntinuus r stp-and-start, and what the deadline is. (Engel 2006 p32) The study als perfrmed a cst cmparisn fr electrmagnetic (tattle-tape) security versus RFID (Engel 2006, p30) by estimating the cst f equipment and supplies fr a hypthetical library with 60,000 items, finding that the csts were bradly similar with RFID being slightly higher due partly t the cst f RFID tags at the time. Onging csts The study fund that nging tagging csts were ften very clse t the cnversin csts n a per-item basis (Engel 2006 p34), whereas equipment maintenance csts were typically a percentage f the installatin cntract. The study nted that it is t sn t estimate the lngevity f RFID equipment, with factrs such as durability f equipment and ease f upgrade being currently unknwn A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries

18 Identifying the key benefits delivered by RFID Each study apprached its benefits analysis differently and fund different specific ptential benefits. Butters (2008, p200) describes the expected benefits f RFID accrding t a cmmn set f psitive utcmes desired by mst libraries: Prductivity Wrk Health & Safety Cllectin management Security Custmer service Image These categries are verlapping and interlinked. Each f the specific ptential benefits listed in ther studies bradly fit within ne r mre f the abve categries; fr example Engel (2006 p40-41) cnsiders ne-time benefits realised during the cnversin prcess (weeding, inventry, lcating missing/mis-shelved items) and n-ging benefits (circulatin staff cst reductin, increase in service and prductivity, theft preventin and lcatin f materials, reliability and quality imprvements). RFID has the ptential t imprve prductivity by reducing the staff time required t prcess items in circulatin. This is regarded as prbably the mst cmmn mtivatin fr implementing RFID (Butters 2008 p 201, Engel 2006 p17, Edwards & Frtune 2008 p11). RFID can imprve prductivity thrugh: Easier / mre efficient handling f items Self-check facilities Self-return Srting Handling f items is ptentially much mre efficient than with previus systems such as barcdes, which require the user t lcate the barcde (pssibly inside the bk) and align it with the infrared beam n an item-by-item basis (Engel 2006 p17). In cntrast, RFID tags can be scanned simultaneusly withut alignment and with the bk r multimedia case clsed. Self-service is ften seen as the quickest win fr significant cst savings, with the methdlgy being very similar t that emplyed by self-service systems fr barcded stck fr ver 25 years (Edwards & Frtune 2008 p11). Fr example, RFID s pssibilities fr faster check ut fr circulating materials and easy t learn self-check ut appealed t libraries that will need t d mre with the same level, r perhaps even less, staffing. Hwever Edwards & Frtune (2008 p9) als ntes that many libraries appear t have invested in RFID in the belief that it was their nly means f deplying self-service, nly t discver later that they need nt have dne s. Prductivity gains can als be realised thrugh self-return and assisted srting. Self-return systems vary and include a mdified self-check unit (with the user instructed t place the returned items A BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK FOR RFID IN NSW PUBLIC LIBRARIES 15 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries 15

19 in bins r n shelves), an RFID-enabled chute (that invisibly executes the check-in) and a secure returns slt (where the system checks first that the item belngs t the library and is a cmplete set). Sme libraries have autmatic srting via cnveyrs and bins. The ways that individual libraries utilise the prductivity gains can range frm redeplyment f staff time tward value-added services, t dwnsizing r budget reductins (Butters 2008 p201, Engel 2006 p17). Butters (2008 p201) cnsiders the prductivity cst/benefit calculatin and argues that libraries with high circulatin and small cllectins may find it easier t justify the expense f cnverting t RFID fr reducing the burden n circulatin staff. Hwever Ayres (2012 p17) states that based n hw high-circulating libraries use RFID tday, they are ften much better ff purchasing an AMH system (autmated check-in system with three r mre srts) if their bjective is t reduce perating expenses... RFID implementatins typically cst hundreds f thusands f dllars... a small AMH system can be had fr under $50, A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries

20 Identifying the key benefits delivered by RFID Wrk Health & Safety RFID systems have the ptential t reduce staff injury. This is expected t be achieved mainly thrugh reductin in the frequency f repetitive mtins used in checking ut materials (Engel 2006 p20 and 37). The Califrnian study nted that mst libraries had this as a gal and several libraries yielded benefits in this area. Cllectin management RFID has the ptential t facilitate tasks previusly cnsidered impractical and intrduce new ways t manage cllectins, such as reducing the time taken fr inventries frm mnths t hurs r days, r lcating items fr custmers. This is perhaps the least well-understd ptential benefit f RFID. The Califrnian study (Engel 2006 p19) fund that mst f the libraries surveyed had purchased RFID with the ability t perfrm inventries as a primary r secndary gal, althugh nly ne library reprted actual experience in using RFID fr inventry. Other studies nte that RFID-based stck management... is an area f peratin that ffers bth the ptential fr greatest innvatin and greatest disappintment (Edwards & Frtune 2008 p14) and the reducing need fr access t printed materials and the large cllectin sizes within academic libraries essentially mean that RFID is a very expensive cllectin management slutin if it is the nly benefit sught, and ptentially ne with a slwly diminishing value (Butters 2008 p202). Security RFID has the ptential t imprve security in libraries. The Califrnian survey (Engel 2006 p19) fund that tattle-tape slutin that has been dminant fr the past decade r mre was seen as unsatisfactry t mst f the libraries interviewed. With RFID systems, sme libraries benefited frm fewer false alarms (and cnsequently fewer bag searches) and knwledge f which items set ff the alarm. Furthermre ne library stated that the self-check system was mre secure than their previus system where it was pssible fr patrns t turn ff the security tag withut checking ut the item. On the ther hand, sme authrs state that RFID-based security is nt as effective as that prvided by EM-based security (Butters 2008 p203) - fr example RFID tags may be easier t find and remve than EM security strips. Hwever libraries that have nly part f their cllectin secured may benefit: the public library psitin that an 80% effective slutin cvering all materials is still better than a 100% slutin cvering 40% f the cllectin may still be sund. Custmer service RFID has the ptential t imprve patrn satisfactin thrugh varius means such as imprved efficiency, reduced lines at check-ut, a reductin in the number f false alarms r bag searches. Interestingly, the Califrnian survey nted that, given the cntrversies abut RFID and privacy, amng the libraries surveyed, mst have patrns that are happy with the system (Engel 2006 p24). A BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK FOR RFID IN NSW PUBLIC LIBRARIES 17 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries 17

21 Image Sme studies have nted that image may be a factr in the RFID decisin: fr example, it may be expected that the prfile f the library will be enhanced thrugh the implementatin f RFID (Butters 2008 p200) A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries

22 Identifying the risk assciated with RFID systems Many authrs discuss at least sme f the risks r cncerns assciated with implementing RFID systems. In particular, the studies by Butters(2010) and Edwards & Frtune(2008) cver many risks frm a technical perspective and discuss ways t avid cmmn pitfalls. Business risk Assciated with any prject is a risk f pr investment return. Libraries wnder whether the expense is wrth the presumed gains in efficiency (Engel 2006 p9). Butters (2008, p6) suggests that the imprtant questins t cnsider are these: D we really knw what we want RFID t deliver in ur library r can we devise a prcess t find ut? Are there systems n the market that can deliver what we want? Can we cnstruct a psitive & realistic business case t demnstrate that the benefits justify the cst? D we have the skills and experience (r access t them) t make the right system evaluatin/selectin? Fr example, we have an envirnment where there are significant differences in the strengths and weaknesses f vendr s RFID slutins... This means that the library must have a very clear visin f what thse success factrs are befre appraching the market. T d therwise is t risk having the success factrs influenced by the pitch f a specific vendr. This is a particular risk when the knwledge gap between the systems supplier and the library is great (Butters 2010 p17-18). Safety and privacy There are perceived health risks assciated with electrmagnetic fields at UHF frequencies emplyed in newer RFID technlgy (Butters 2010 p15), hwever the health risk is cnsidered lw cmpared t devices such mbile phnes (Butters 2010 p4). There are cncerns abut brrwer privacy (Engel 2006 p9), hwever it is nted that varius technical reasns make malicius surveillance impssible at medium t lng range and while shrt range cvert scanning may be technically pssible, there are numerus things that libraries can d t mitigate the risk (Butters 2010 p8-9). A BUSINESS CASE FRAMEWORK FOR RFID IN NSW PUBLIC LIBRARIES 19 A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries 19

23 Risk f bslescence needs t be cnsidered fr lng term slutins There is a risk that the technlgy des nt perfrm t expectatins r becmes bslete. Libraries are cncerned that the still-evlving technlgy may leave them with yesterday s prduct that n lnger wrks with a new generatin f equipment (Engel 2006 p9). In particular, with many RFID suppliers nw in the market... RFID is an area in which standards are particularly imprtant... libraries will need RFID systems which can successfully interperate with each ther (Edwards & Frtune 2008 p7). It is suggested that current Internatinal Standards Organisatin (ISO) standards g sme way t address the needs f libraries but d nt address data security and interperability (Butters 2010 p9-10). Edwards & Frtune (2008 p8-9) nte that sme RFID suppliers are nw claiming t be able t read any tag frmat, hwever they recmmend sme pints t cnsider carefully befre pting fr this apprach, including: Hw many different data mdels... can be accmmdated by a Library Management System (LMS) befre the systems perfrmance becmes unacceptably slw? Hw easy will it be t switch LMS r RFID prvider in the future if the new prvider des nt supprt the slutin being used? Edwards & Frtune (2008 p7) als discuss issues in respnsibility fr managing data - while it shuld nt really be a cncern fr libraries, they shuld simply be aware that RFID and LMS suppliers need t c-perate and prvide libraries with slutins that wrk. Primary References Ayre, Lri Bwen (July 2012), Chapter 2: RFID Csts, Benefits and ROI, Library Technlgy Reprts, vl 48 n 5 pp17-19, Butters, Alan (September 2010), Radi Frequency Identificatin (RFID): an intrductin fr library prfessinals, Sybis Whitepaper, Whitepaper Ed 2.pdf Butters, Alan (September 2008), RFID in Australian academic libraries: explring the barriers t implementatin, Australian Academic & Research Libraries, vl 39 n 3 pp , Edwards, Simn and Frtune, Mick (Nvember 2008), A guide t RFID in libraries, BIC e4libraries prject, library guide final rev.pdf Engel, Elena (July 2006), RFID implementatins in Califrnia libraries: csts and benefits, BIC e4libraries prject, A Business case framewrk fr RFID in NSW Public Libraries

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