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8 Ahson/RFID Handbook: Applications, Technology, Security, and Privacy 54996_C032 Page Proof page :37pm Compositor Name: JGanesan 596 RFID Handbook: Applications, Technology, Security, and Privacy Step 1 Step 2 b 11 b 1n b 21 b 2n a 11 a 1n b 11 b 1n 1 b 1n a n 11 a n 1, n a n 21 a n,1 a nn a n 11 a n 2n 1 a n 1n 1 a n 2n a n 1n FIGURE 32.4 Operation of PISP. Suppose that for any sequence of authentication messages of length n, at least one message is not received by the intruder. In order to compromise the authentication algorithm the intruder has to perform authentication procedure similar to the tag. To do so the intruder has to forge the key message s ji the intruder has to correctly guess the XOR of the corresponding (n (j i 1) (mod(n)))th column elements of the matrix B. Recall that dim (B) ¼ n. Let the intruder be unfamiliar with the authentication message s 1 ¼ (X 1, b 1 ) sent by the tag to the reader during the first authentication session (Figure 32.4, Step 1). That is, the intruder does not know the nth column of B (a 1n, a 2n,...,a nn ) and the appropriate row vector is b 1 ¼ (b 11, b 12,..., b 1n ). After the tag transmits the authentication message s 1 ¼ (X 1, b 1 ), X 1 ¼ (a 1n a 2n a nn ), b 1 ¼ (b 11, b 12,..., b 1n ), both the tag and the reader shift the rows of B down as described earlier. Note that in the next session the tag will send to the reader the XOR of the updated (n 1)th B 0 s column X 2 ¼ (b 1n 1 a 1n 1 a n 1n 1 ) and a new randomly generated vector b 2 ¼ (b 2n, b 2n 1,..., b 21 ) (Figure 32.4, Step 2). Now matrix B differs from the previous one by the newly inserted first row and the appropriate deletion of the last row. The PISP is secure from the information-theoretic standpoint, or unconditionally secure as was defined in [32, Chapter 2]. That is, the probability that the intruder will forge the key message and successfully perform session on behalf of the reader, is negligible for long enough l, where l is the number of bits of the element of B. Note also that the matrix size n factors in the security of PISP. If n is large the probability that the intruder does not overhear at least one authentication session is greater. However, large n and l require greater storage resources on the tag. Note that if the intruder is allowed to eavesdrop n consecutive sessions, it can desynchronize the tag and the reader by forcing the reader to replace a row in B which is unknown to the tag. in any authentication session S th j. For that Proactive Computationally Secure Protocol We now describe the proactive computationally secure protocol (PCSP). It is the extension of PISP that allows us to lift the assumption on limited intruder eavesdropping. The pseudocode for the protocol is shown in Figure As in PISP, the reader and the tag

12 Ahson/RFID Handbook: Applications, Technology, Security, and Privacy 54996_C032 Page Proof page :37pm Compositor Name: JGanesan 600 RFID Handbook: Applications, Technology, Security, and Privacy 1: Initialization 2: constants 3: q : integer {key size} 4: k[1..q]: integer {key} 5: variables 6: collide : boolean {trial outcome} 7: cfront, pfront : integer, initially 0 8: {currently and previously number of growth points in front} 9: cback, pback: integer, initially 0, 10: {currently and previously number of growth points behind} 11: Operation 12: for i := 1 to q do 13: for j := 1 to pfront do 14: collide := trial() 15: cfront := cfront : if collide = true, then cfront := cfront : collide := trial() 18: if collide = true, then 19: if key[i] = 0 then 20: cback := cback : else 22: cfront := cfront : for j := 1 to pback do 24: collide := trial() 25: cback := cback : if collide = true, then cback := cback : pback := cback, cback := 0, pfront := cfront, cfront := 0 FIGURE 32.7 Tag-side singulation algorithm. such as retail item-tagging where such heavyweight solutions are prohibitively expensive, low overhead cryptography may provide a convenient alternative. Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by Rita Altura Trust Chair in Computer Sciences, Lynne and William Frankel Center for Computer Sciences and Deutsche Telekom, DARPA contract OSU-RF #F C-1901, NSF CAREER Award , and a grant from the Wright Center for Sensor System Engineering.

13 Ahson/RFID Handbook: Applications, Technology, Security, and Privacy 54996_C032 Page Proof page :37pm Compositor Name: JGanesan Low Overhead RFID Security 601 References 1. G. Avoine. Bibliography on security and privacy in RFID systems. Available Online, G. Avoine and P. Oechslin. RFID traceability: A multilayer problem. In Financial Cryptography (FC), Roseau, The Commonwealth Of Dominica, February March Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3570, pp IFCA, Springer-Verlag, L. Batina, J. Guajardo, T. Kerins, N. Mentens, P. Tuyls, and I. Verbauwhede. An elliptic curve processor suitable for RFID-tags. Cryptology eprint Archive, Report 2006=227, M. Burmester, T. van Le, and B. de Medeiros. Provably secure ubiquitous systems: Universally composable RFID authentication protocols. In Conference on Security and Privacy for Emerging Areas in Communication Networks (SecureComm), Baltimore, Maryland, USA, August September IEEE, B. Defend, K. Fu, and A. Juels. Cryptanalysis of two lightweight RFID authentication schemes. In International Workshop on Pervasive Computing and Communication Security (PerSec) 2007, New York, USA, March IEEE Computer Society Press. 6. S. Dolev and M. Kopeetsky. Secure communication for RFIDs proactive information security within computational security. In Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol pp Springer, M. Feldhofer, S. Dominikus, and J. Wolkerstorfer. Strong authentication for RFID systems using the AES algorithm. In Workshop on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems (CHES), Boston, Massachusetts, USA, August Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol pp IACR, Springer-Verlag, K. Finkenzeller. RFID Handbook: Fundamentals and Applications in Contactless Smart Cards and Identification. John Wiley, New York, NY, USA, C. Floerkemeier, R. Schneider, and M. Langheinrich. Scanning with a purpose supporting the fair information principles in RFID protocols. In International Symposium on Ubiquitous Computing Systems (UCS), Tokyo, Japan, November Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol pp Springer-Verlag, G. Hancke. Practical attacks on proximity identification systems (short paper). In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, Oakland, California, USA, May 2006 pp IEEE Computer Society Press, T.S. Heydt-Benjamin, D.V. Bailey, K. Fu, A. Juels, and T. O Hare. Vulnerabilities in firstgeneration RFID-enabled credit cards. Manuscript, October A. Juels. Minimalist cryptography for low-cost RFID tags. In International Conference on Security in Communication Networks (SCN), Amalfi, Italia, September Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol p Springer-Verlag, A. Juels. RFID security and privacy: A research survey. Manuscript, September A. Juels and J. Brainard. Soft blocking: Flexible blocker tags on the cheap. In Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (WPES), Washington, DC, USA, October 2004, p ACM Press, A. Juels, R. Rivest, and M. Szydlo. The blocker tag: Selective blocking of RFID tags for consumer privacy. In Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), Washington, DC, USA, October 2003, p ACM Press, G. Karjoth and R. Moskowitz. Disabling RFID tags with visible confirmation: Clipped tags are silenced. In Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (WPES), Alexandria, Virginia, USA, November ACM Press, S. Karthikeyan and M. Nesterenko. RFID security without extensive cryptography. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM workshop on security of ad hoc and sensor networks (SASN), New York, NY, USA, 2005, pp ACM Press, C. Kaufman, R. Perlman, and M. Speciner. Network Security: Private Communication in a Public World. Prentice- Hall, T. Li and R.H. Deng. Vulnerability analysis of EMAP an efficient RFID mutual authentication protocol. In Second International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS), Vienna, Austria, April 2007.

14 Ahson/RFID Handbook: Applications, Technology, Security, and Privacy 54996_C032 Page Proof page :37pm Compositor Name: JGanesan 602 RFID Handbook: Applications, Technology, Security, and Privacy 20. T. Li and G. Wang. Security analysis of two ultra-lightweight RFID authentication protocols. In International Information Security Conference (IFIP SEC), Sandton, Gauteng, South Africa, May IFIP, A.J. Menezes, S.A. Vanstone, and P.C. Van Oorschot. Handbook of Applied Cryptography. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, D. Molnar and D. Wagner. Privacy and security in library RFID: Issues, practices, and architectures. In ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), Washington, DC, USA, October 2004, pp , ACM Press, M. Ohkubo, K. Suzuki, and S. Kinoshita. Cryptographic approach to privacy-friendly tags. In RFID Privacy Workshop, MIT, MA, USA, November P. Peris-Lopez, J.C. Hernandez-Castro, J. Estevez-Tapiador, and A. Ribagorda. LMAP: A real lightweight mutual authentication protocol for low-cost RFID tags. In Workshop on RFID Security (RFIDSec), Graz, Austria, July Ecrypt. 25. P. Peris-Lopez, J.C. Hernandez-Castro, J. Estevez-Tapiador, and A. Ribagorda. M2AP: A minimalist mutual- authentication protocol for low-cost RFID tags. In International Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing (UIC), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol pp Springer-Verlag, P. Peris-Lopez, J.C. Hernandez-Castro, J.M. Estevez-Tapiador, and A. Ribagorda. EMAP: An efficient mutual authentication protocol for low-cost RFID tags. In OTM Federated Conferences and Workshop: IS Workshop, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol pp Springer- Verlag, A. Poschmann, G. Leander, K. Schramm, and C. Paar. A family of light-weight block ciphers based on DES suited for RFID applications, July M. Rieback, G. Gaydadjiev, B. Crispo, R. Hofman, and A. Tanenbaum. A platform for RFID security and privacy administration. In USENIX=SAGE Large Installation System Administration conference (LISA), Washington DC, USA, December G. Roussos. Enabling RFID in retail. IEEE Computer, 39(3):25 30, K. Sakiyama, L. Batina, N. Mentens, B. Preneel, and I. Verbauwhede. Smallfootprint ALU for public-key processors for pervasive security. In Workshop on RFID Security (RFIDSec), Graz, Austria, July Ecrypt. 31. W. Stallings. Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practices, 2nd end. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, D. Stinson. Cryptography: Theory and Practice, 3rd end CRC=C&H, G. Tsudik. YA-TRAP: Yet another trivial RFID authentication protocol. In International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom), Pisa, Italy, March IEEE Computer Society Press, I. Vajda and L. Buttyán. Lightweight authentication protocols for low-cost RFID tags. In Second Workshop on Security in Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp), Seattle, WA, USA, October 2003.

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