4,445,482 May 1, 1984

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1 United States Patent [191 Hasegawa et al. [1 1] [45] 4,445,482 May 1, 1984 [54] AIR/FUEL RATION FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM ADAPTED TO OBTAIN STABLE ENGINE OPERATION UNDER ' PARTICULAR ENGINE OPERATING CONDITIONS [75] Inventors: Shumpei Hasegawa, Niiza; Noriyuki Kishi, Itabashi, both of Japan Honda Gm Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Japan Appl. No.: 376,106 [73] Assignee: [21] [22] Filed: May 7, 1982 [30] Foreign Application Priority Data May 15, 1981 [JP] Japan [51] int. cm..... F02M 51/00; F02D 5/00 [52] us /489; 123/491; 123/493 [58] Field of Search /489, 480, 478, 483, 123/491, 440 [56] References Cited U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 3,483,851 12/1969 Reichardt /491 4,354,238 10/1982 Manaka et a]. 123/489 4,359,993 11/1982 Carlson /493 4,383,515 5/1983 Higashiyama et a] /489 Primary Examiner-Raymond A. Nelli Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Lyon & Lyon [57] Answer An air/fuel ratio feedback control system adapted to control the air/fuel ratio of an air/fuel mixture being supplied to an internal combustion engine, by the use of a?rst coef?cient having a value variable in response to actual exhaust gas concentration and at least one second coef?cient having a value variable in dependence on the kind of a particular operating condition or region in which the engine is operating. The control system is operable such that when the engine is operating in an operating condition other than predetermined particu lar operating conditions of the engine, the value of the?rst coef?cient is varied in response to the output of an exhaust gas concentration sensor, and simultaneously the value of the second coef?cient is held at a?rst pre determined value, and when the engine is operating in one of the predetermined particular operating condi tions, the value of the second coef?cient is held at a second predetermined value, and simultaneously the value of the?rst coef?cient at a third predetermined value which is a mean value of values of the?rst coef? cient obtained when the engine is operating in the above operating condition other than the particular operating conditions. 22 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures I-J. - H INPULREADISTORE aaslc ANALOG VALUESISTAR I ER sw POSITION I, I.:".--:::: :-:::':::J.I l l. I I ' I ' - ~ I I ' l I 0212mm: 1 I :, TIrImlTIcns I I I I I l l : l 12 I f 7 I l (41mm: It, arm I I I ' KAFLKPLK gr, I I I : M is. I I DETERHlNE K", I KnmKm lrorchcc?v. TV I ' I l l I l I l, a I I I,13 I l : nzmnms TV : l I : IJETERMINE 1, Is 11 l I I l /9 I I l A4 x I ' c mum: I { CALCULATE I l r I Tounqll'oufs : : l'uutul'l oufs no FUEL (U I ' l L.i J I J I L...1 ' l AUUA'IE INJEETURS G l I

2 U.S. Patent May 1, 1984 Sheet 1 of 17 4,445,482 G. F I {13 15 v

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6 US. Patent May 1, 1984 Sheet 5 of 17 4,445,482 FIG. 5B COUNT OIL REAUJEU m FIG. 5 F G.5A FIG. 5B

7 U.S. Patent May 1, 1984 Sheet 6 of 17 4,445,482 \ o AF..l DR I. E C 0ST 0L Tm R 00A WT.LO D.1 F PZC ED. Y1H E F. NSI NR E E0 D LEV A T L B ONA ST T E A K (RN E.1.l C POW PF. ON A N m 0 c MM R m w. N 0 6. /.. I l 1 l.ll.l \,... I l.l D. D R E 07. I L ST T E0 K KR E F 2/ o F T C 2 V E AT. EE m0 R D0 NL 0 M UP IUL GE. D c STU? K IR SE.1 A L E I..17. ET U C N PW P0 NA.l 1U.. W N P M I' UAI TRZ E F. SP R0 rr um BF.l 2 MM [T 13

8 US. Patent May 1, 1984 Sheet 7 of 17 4,445,482 FIG. 6 FIG. 7

9 US. Patent May 1, 1984 Sheet 8 of 17 4,445,482 FIG. 8 PB mmhg ubs 800 u / =12 WOT REGION =10 70o //////, K02 : KREF FEEDBACK / 500 'CONTROL REGION// Kw0T=1.0 =1.0 / / Ko2= FEEDBACKCONTROL //// / ////// MIXTURE LE Kw0T= - P5101 "Oo- /// K L5 = 0.6 (360) " K02 = KREF 300. REGION l/ 6 REGION '- - > DECELERATING iv/0p0 ; '! REGION KkglK-REF 100- ' " - l. Ne /1\ 2 3 I 5 6 1x10 )

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12 May 1, 1984 Sheet 11 of 17 4,445,482 U.S. Patent cz<v66u n63 zwao ammo: 1. l I l I l I l I l I l I l 1 J B B 0 MB m B. m Wm. ms mn B G M6 Av.L I Sm R2 / O.1 so c F HA "H E In. mm AF m o 5 B p 2 1 BB M 7 8 AS 5 P T 5 MU 3 E1 Q All 5. R w B L B..l \l // B 5 D1. S. C... m.l LLL L BA 5 /" W BB L5 B AB AB BAA M A B AT G c in, B w B Q r B B IR M% W Mm Y M 2 Y U M 1 m5 L0 N5 mm M % Kw u 0 m E q. 0mm 1mm (nmuoms T : Tm m NM 2 mom M. mm F 1M 6 I <><><> + 9 N P K 11 %1111 BB V B 5 \1 5 m + 0 m /2m 05

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16 US. Patent May 1, 1984 Sheet 15 of 17 4,445,482 SET PULSE K / CPS(B1)O :1 REGISTER 606 GOO-(B4) Q04 #a-1 CPS11 L REGISTER ' FIG. I4A FIG. I4 BOO-(B) 505 / #B REGISTER CPS10 'L l FIG. I48

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18 US. Patent May 1, 1984 Sheet 17 of 17 4,445,482 30:. :5; oz \\ Zmau mmu op ommau ommau 43.9%; % 279mg // wmmu mmmu Fmwm No.6 mohm almvohm 2.1m ohm

19 I 1 AIR/FUEL RATION FEEDBACK CONTROL 7 SYSTEM ADAPTED TO, OBTAIN STABLE ENGINE OPERATION UNDER PARTICULAR ENGINE OPERATING CONDITIONS., 4,445,482 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an air/fuel ratio feedback control system for performing by electronic means feedback control of the air/fuel ratio of an air/fuel mixture being supplied to an internal combustion en gine, and more particularly to an air/fuel ratio feedback control system of this kind, which is capable of posi tively controlling the air/fuel ratio to a-predetermined value best suited for a particular operating conditionof the engine when the engine is operating in the particular operating condition, to thereby achieve improved oper ational stability and driveability of the engine.. A fuel supply control system adaptedfor use with an internal combustion engine, particularly -,a igasoline.en- ' gine has been proposed e.g., by U.S. Pat. No; 3,483,851, which is adapted to determine the valve opening period of a fuel quantity metering oradjusting means for con trol of the fuel injection quantity, i.e. theair/fuel ratio of an air/fuel mixture being supplied to the engine, by 25?rst determining a basic value of the above. valve open ing period as a function of engine rpm and intakepipe absolute pressure and then adding to and/or multiply ing same by constants and/or coefficients being. dunc tions of engine rpm, intake pipe absolute pressure, en gine temperature, throttle valve opening,,exhaust vgas ingredient concentration (oxygen concentration), etc., by electronic computing means... ~. - Also, in. an engine having a three-way catalyst ar ranged in its exhaust system, it is generally employed to 35 control the air/fuel ratio of the mixture to a theoretical mixture ratio in a feedback manner responsive to the.output of an exhaust gas concentration sensor which may be represented by an Oz sensor, arranged in the exhaust system of the engine, to obtain the best conver-v sion efficiency of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon mon oxide and nitrous oxides in the exhaustgases emitted from the engine. However, this feedback control based upon the output of the exhaust gas sensor cannot be applied when the engine is operating in a particular operating condition such as engine idle, wide-open throttle where the air/fuel ratio of the mixture needs to be controlled to a value different from the theoretical mixture ratio.. - Therefore, in the case of applying the above exhaust gas concentration-based feedback to the aforemen tioned fuel supplycontrol system using coefficients, etc., it is necessary to carry out open-loop control when the engine is operating in such particular operating condition, by using a coefficient having afpredeter mined value corresponding to the particular operating condition, so as to achieve adesired predetermined air/fuel ratio best suited for engine operating under the above particular operating condition. It is thus desirable that the predeterminedair/fuel ratio corresponding.to the particular operating condi tion canbe achieved with certainty by means of open loop control. However, as a matter of fact, the actual air/fuel ratio can sometimes have a value different from the desired predetermined value due to variations in the performance of various sensors for detecting the operat ing condition of the engine and a system for controlling or driving the fuel quantity metering or adjusting means. In such event, it is impossible to obtain required operational stability and driveability of the engine. OBJECT AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is the object of the invention to provide an air/fuel ratio feedback control system for use with an internal combustion engine, which is capable of controlling the air/fuel ratio of the mixture to a predetermined value or a value very close thereto corresponding to a particular operating condition of the engine, when the engine is operating in the above particular operating condition, to thereby assure achievement of required operational stability and driveability of the engine. The present invention provides an air/fuel ratio feed back control system f'or use with an internal combustion engine, which is adapted to control the air/fuel ratio of an air/fuel mixture being supplied to the engine, by the use of a?rst coefficient having a value variable in re sponse to the output of an exhaust gas concentration sensor arranged in the exhaust system of the engine, and at least one second coefficient having a value variable in dependence on the kind of a particular operating condi tion'in'which the engine is operating. The control sys is characterized by including an electric circuit means which is operable such that when the engine is operating in an operating condition (i.e. feedback con trol region) other than predetermined particular operat ing conditions of the engine, the valuev of the first coeffi cient is varied in response to the output of the exhaust gas concentration sensor, and simultaneously the value of the second coefficient is held at a first predetermined value, and when the engine is operating in one of the predetermined particular operating conditions, the value of the second coefficient is held at a second prede termined value which is a mean value of values of the first coef?cient obtained during engine operation under the above operating condition, i.e. feedback control region other than the particular operating conditions. - Thus, during open-loop control under a particular oper ating condition of. the engine, the use of the?rst coeffi cient having its value held at the third predetermined or means value in addition to the second coefficient having its value held at the second predetermined value makes it possible to obtain an air/fuel ratio more closer to a desired air/fuel ratio best suited for engine operation in the particular operating condition of the'engine, obtain ing improved operational stability and driveability of the engine. ' 1 I Preferably, the above mean value at which the first coefficient is to be held comprises a mean value of val ues of the first coefficient each assumed immediately before or after a proportional term control action which is performed during air/fuel ratio feedback1 control. Also preferably, an up-to-date value of them: coef ficient is used for calculation of the above'mean' value, each time it is obtained immediately before or after each proportional term control action. Thus, a mean value of the?rst'coefficient can always be obtained which is an up-to-date value and which represents a mean value obtained at an instant when the actual air/fuel ratio of the mixture assumes a value most close to the theoreti cal mixture ratio, making it possible to carry out air/ fuel ratio control fully responsive to the present operating conditionof the engine, in an accurate manner. The above and other objects, features and advantages of the invention willbe more apparent from the ensuing

20 ' ' ' 3 detailed description taken in connection with the ac companying drawings in which: 4,445,482 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating the whole ar- 5 rangement of an air/fuel ratio feedback control system according to the present invention; FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating a program for control of the valve opening periods TOUTM, TOUTS of the main injectors and the subinjector, which are operated by an electronic control unit (ECU) in FIG. 1; FIG. 3 is a timing chart showing the relationship between a cylinder-discriminating signal and a TDC signal inputted to the ECU, and drive shgnals for the main injectors and the subinjector, outputted from the ECU; FIG. 4 is a?ow chart showing a main program for control of the basic valve opening periods TOUTM, TOUTS; FIGS. 5A and 5B illustrate a flow chart.showing a 20 subroutine for calculation of the value of Oz-feedback control correction coefficient K02; ' FIG. 6 is a view showing an Ne-Pi table for determin ing a correction value Pi for correcting Oz-feedback control correction coefficient K02; FIG. 7 is a graph showing a manner of detecting the value of correction coefficient K01 by means of propor tional term control; FIG. 8 is a graph showing a manner of applying correction coefficients to various operating conditions 30 of the engine; FIGS. 9A and 9B illustrate a circuit diagram illustrat ing the whole internal arrangement of the ECU, show ing in detail a correction coefficient K02 calculating k section; 35 FIG. 10 is a circuit diagram illustrating details of a. lean/rich state comparator and part of a particular oper ating condition detecting circuit in FIG. 9; FIG. 11 is a circuit diagram illustrating details of a K02 calculating circuit in FIG. 9; 40 FIG. 12 is a circuit diagram illustrating details of a mean value calculating circuit in FIG. 9; FIG. 13 is a circuit diagram illustrating details of another example of the KO; value calculating circuit in FIG. 9; 45 FIGS. 14A and 14B illustrate a circuit diagram illus trating details of another example of the mean value calculating circuit in FIG. 9; and FIG. 15 is a timing chart showing the relationship between various signals generated in the circuit of FIG. 14. DETAILED DESCRIPTION The present invention will now be described in detail with reference to the drawings. Referring?rst to FIG. 1, there is illustrated the whole arrangement of a fuel supply control system for internal combustion engines, to which the present invention is applicable. Reference numeral 1 designates an internal combustion engine which may be a four-cylinder type, for instance. This engine 1 has main combustion chain bei's which may be four in number and sub combustion chambers communicating with the main combustion chambers, none of which is shown. An intake pipe 2 is connected to the engine 1, which comprises a main intake pipe communicating with each main combustion chamber, and a sub intake pipe with each sub combus tion chamber, respectively, neither of which is shown Arranged across the intake pipe 2 is a throttle body 3 which accommodates a main throttle valve and a sub throttle valve mounted in the main intake pipe and the sub intake pipe, respectively, for synchronous opera tion. Neither of the two throttle valves is shown. A throttle valve opening sensor 4 is connected to the main throttle valve for detecting its valve opening and con verting same into an electrical signal which is supplied to an electronic control unit (hereinafter called ECU ) 5. A fuel injection device 6 is arranged in the intake pipe -2 at a location between the engine 1 and the throttle body 3, which comprises main injectors and a subinjec.tor, none of which is shown. The main injectors corre spond in number to the engine cylinders and are each arranged in the main intake pipe at a location slightly upstream of an intake valve, not shown, of a corre sponding engine cylinder, while the subinjector, which is single in number,'is arranged in the sub intake pipe at a location'slightly downstream of the sub throttle valve, for supplying fuel to all the'engine cylinders. The main injectors and the subinjector are electrically connected to the ECU 5 in a manner having their valve opening periods or fuel injection quantities controlled by signals supplied from the ECU 5. 0n the other hand, an absolute pressure sensor 8 communicates through a conduit 7 with the interior of the main intake pipe'of the throttle body 3 at a location immediately downstream of the main throttle valve. The absolute pressure sensor 8 is adapted to detect absolute pressure in the intake pipe 2 and applies an electrical signal indicative of detected absolute pressure to the ECU S. An intake-air temperature sensor. 9 is arranged in the intake pipe 2 at a location downstream of the absolute pressure sensor 8 and also electrically connected to the ECU 5 for supplying thereto an elec trical signal indicative of detected intake-air tempera ture. An engine temperature sensor 10, which may be formed of a thermistor or the like, is mounted on the main body of the engine 1 in a manner embedded in the peripheral wall of an engine cylinder having its interior?lled with cooling water, an electrical output signal of which is supplied to the ECU 5. An engine rpm sensor (hereinafter called Ne sen sor ) 11 and a cylinder-discriminating sensor 12 are arranged in facing relation to a camsha?, not shown, of the engine 1 or a crankshaft of - same, not shown. The former 11 is adapted to generate one pulse at a particu lar crank angle each time the engine crankshaft rotates through 180 degrees, i.e., upon generation of each pulse of the top-dead-center position (T DC) signal, while the latter is adapted to generate one pulse at a particular crank angle of a particular engine cylinder. The above pulses generated by the sensors 11, 12 are supplied to the ECU 5, A three-way catalyst 14 is arranged in an exhaust pipe 13 extending from the main body of the engine 1 for purifying ingredients I-IC, CO and NOx contained in the exhaust gases. An 0; sensor 15 is inserted in the exhaust pipe 13 at a location upstream of the three-way catalyst 14 for detecting the concentration of oxygen in the exhaust gases and supplying an electrical signal indica tive of a detected concentration value to the ECU 5. Further connected to the ECU '5 are a sensor 16 for detecting atomospheric pressure and a starter switch 17 for actuating the starter, not shown, of the engine 1, respectively, for supplying an electrical signal indica

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MAIN COMPUTER MONlTOR. INPUT/ OUTPUT ClRCUlT. 4,748,566 May 31, 1988. United States Patent [191. [11] Patent Number: [45] Date of Patent:

MAIN COMPUTER MONlTOR. INPUT/ OUTPUT ClRCUlT. 4,748,566 May 31, 1988. United States Patent [191. [11] Patent Number: [45] Date of Patent: United States Patent [191 Sasaki et al. [11] Patent Number: [45] Date of Patent: May 31, 1988 [54] ENGINE CONTROL APPARATUS [75] Inventors: Shoji Sasaki; Kenji Tabuchi, both of Katsuta, Japan [73] Assignee:

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