Spacing Learning Over Time. A Work-Learning Research Document. March Copyright 2006 by Will Thalheimer. All rights are reserved.

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1 Work-Learning Research, Inc. 2 Belmont Terrace Somerville, MA 02143, USA Phone: Spacing Learning Over Time A Work-Learning Research Document. March Copyright 2006 by Will Thalheimer. All rights are reserved. The spacing effect is one of the most reliable findings in the learning research, but it is, unfortunately, one of the least utilized learning methods in the workplace learning field.

2 How to cite this report using APA style: Thalheimer, W. (2006, March). Spacing Learning Over Time. Retrieved November 31, 2006, from Obviously, you should substitute the date the document was downloaded for the fictitious November 31 st date. Published March Reformatted Value $295, Available FREE* The Author: Will Thalheimer is a learning-and-performance consultant and research psychologist specializing in learning, cognition, memory, and performance. Dr. Thalheimer has worked in the workplace learning field, beginning in 1985, as an instructional designer, simulation architect, project manager, business leader, trainer, consultant, and researcher. He has a PhD from Columbia University and an MBA from Drexel University. He founded Work-Learning Research in 1998 to help client organizations create learning environments to maximize performance and help learning professionals instructional designers, e-learning developers, trainers, performance consultants, talent managers, and chief learning officers utilize research-based knowledge to build effective learning-and-performance solutions. Dr. Thalheimer can be contacted at or at the Work-Learning Research phone number below for inquiries about learning audits, workshops, speaking engagements, high-level instructional design, and consulting on e-learning, classroom training, learning measurement, learning strategy, and business strategy for learning. Work-Learning Research, Inc. Somerville, Massachusetts USA All information contained in this document is copyrighted. Copyright 2006 by Will Thalheimer. All rights are reserved. *Sharing Rules: You may copy and distribute this document as long as you (a) share it intact and whole, (b) don t charge a price for it, and (c) don t include it in any priced event or product, (d) don t share it in a manner that generates good will that might be translated in the future into tangible financial benefits. I do not receive a salary for translating research into practical recommendations. You can help support my work by (1) following the spirit of the sharing rules; (2) passing this report to others; (3) consider advertising within this document or on my blog/website; and/or (4) hiring me to consult, speak, give workshops, audit or evaluate your learning interventions or audit your work-learning environment. Thanks! 2

3 The spacing effect is one of the oldest and best documented phenomena in the history of learning and memory research. Harry Bahrick & Lynda Hall (2005, page 566), quoted in the Journal of Memory and Language, a well-respected refereed journal. 3

4 Summary This report reviews research on the spacing effect and related learning factors from the preeminent refereed journals on learning, memory, and instruction. The research shows that spacing learning over time produces substantial learning benefits. These benefits result from different mechanisms, including those based on repetitions and those based on other factors. Spaced-repetition effects are particularly noteworthy given the enormous research literature supporting their use. The following findings are highlighted in the report: 1. Repetitions if well designed are very effective in supporting learning. 2. Spaced repetitions are generally more effective than non-spaced repetitions. 3. Both presentations of learning material and retrieval practice opportunities produce benefits when utilized as spaced repetitions. 4. Spacing is particularly beneficial if long-term retention is the goal as is true of most training situations. Spacing helps minimize forgetting. 5. Wider spacings are generally more effective than narrower spacings, although there may be a point where spacings that are too wide are counterproductive. A good heuristic is to aim for having the length of the spacing interval be equal to the retention interval. 6. Spacing repetitions over time can hurt retrieval during learning events while it generates better remembering in the future (after the learning events). 7. Gradually expanding the length of spacings can create benefits, but these benefits generally do not outperform consistent spacing intervals. 8. One way to utilize spacing is to change the definition of a learning event to include the connotation that learning takes place over time real learning doesn t usually occur in one-time events. 4

5 How This Research Report Is Organized To create the best experience for you the reader this report begins by conveying the research findings in straightforward language, and only toward the end of the report does it jump into the vernacular of the research community. After the initial review of the findings, examples and case studies are provided to ensure that you can visualize how the research is applicable to real instructional-design situations. Questions are provided to strengthen your learning and help clarify key points. The research is then summarized in depth. Finally, the 100-plus research articles cited in this report are listed. The sections can be outlined as follows: The Findings Concisely Conveyed Applications and Examples Case Studies of Real-World Applications Questions to Reinforce Learning Extensive Research Support List of Supporting Research Studies 5

6 What is the Spacing Effect? When we talk about the spacing effect, we are talking about spacing repetitions of learning points over time. The spacing effect occurs when we present learners with a concept to learn, wait some amount of time, and then present the same concept again. Spacing can involve a few repetitions or many repetitions. Spaced repetitions need not be verbatim repetitions. Repetitions of learning points can include the following: 1. Verbatim repetitions. 2. Paraphrased repetitions (changing the wording slightly). 3. Stories, examples, demonstrations, illustrations, metaphors, and other ways of providing context and example. 4. Testing, practice, exercises, simulations, case studies, role plays, and other forms of retrieval practice. 5. Discussions, debate, argumentation, dialogue, collaboration, and other forms of collective learning. Repetitions can also be delivered to different perceptual modalities (visual, auditory, olfactory, kinesthetic) and through different learning media (text, audio, video, computer, internet, classroom, etc.). Regardless of the way repetitions are manifested, if two or more presentations of the same learning point are repeated with some sort of time delay between them, they are likely to produce the spacing effect. So what is the spacing effect? It is the finding that spaced repetitions produce more learning better long-term retention than repetitions that are not spaced. It is also the finding that longer spacings tend to produce more long-term retention than shorter spacings (up to a point where even longer spacings are sometimes counterproductive). Note that distributing unrelated, non-repetitious learning events over time does not officially constitute the spacing effect. When we give learners a rest between learning sessions, we may limit their learning fatigue, but we re not necessarily providing them with all the advantages that spacing can provide. Again, the spacing effect occurs when repetitions of learning points are distributed over time. 6

7 What Causes the Spacing Effect? Despite the fact that the spacing effect is one of the most studied phenomena in the field of learning research 1 its causes are still being debated and discussed. The following reasonable explanations have been put forth: 1. Wider spacings require extra cognitive effort and such effort creates stronger memory traces and better remembering. 2. Wider spacings create memory traces that are more varied than narrow spacings, creating multiple retrieval routes that aid remembering. 3. Wider spacings produce more forgetting during learning, prompting learners to use different and more effective encoding strategies that aid remembering in the future. 1 One of the reasons the spacing effect is so often researched is that the phenomenon runs counter to our everyday understanding of how learning works. How can it be that exactly equal learning presentations the first one using a widely spaced repetition and the second one using a narrowly spaced repetition produce different levels of learning? The spacing effect is also researched extensively because it sheds light on the fundamental nature of human thinking and cognition. 7

8 What Benefits Accrue When We Space Learning Over Time? We ve already hinted at the most important benefit. Spacing improves learning results. But it s extremely important to be specific about this. Spacing repetitions over time facilitates long-term remembering. It enables our learners to store information in memory in a manner that makes the information more resistant to forgetting than non-spaced repetitions. This needs to be put into perspective from two different vantage points. First, repetitions are good, but spaced repetitions are better. The following graph shows that repetitions are better than single presentations of learning material, spaced repetitions are better than non-spaced repetitions, and widely-spaced repetitions are better than narrowly-spaced repetitions. Of course, the results in the graph below represent only one research study and your results will vary depending upon the learners, the learning materials, and many other factors as well. Still, the general principles are likely to apply Spaced Repetition Widely-Spaced Repetition 20 0 Single Presentation Non-Spaced Repetition Dellarosa & Bourne (1985, Experiment 1) Second, spaced repetitions are not always better than non-spaced repetitions in creating short-term memory retrieval. In other words, if your learners need to remember something for only a short time for example 15 minutes wider spacings are much less likely to provide advantages over narrowly-spaced repetitions (as compared to situations that require long-term retention). We are all familiar with the antithesis of the spacing effect the cramming effect. If we bunch our learning into a short time frame, we can do well when we have to retrieve information soon after learning, but we tend to quickly forget what we learned. How much do you remember from your freshman biology class? To summarize, spacing helps learners remember over relatively long time frames. It is less helpful or not helpful at all for short-term remembering. The benefits of spacing can also be considered from another perspective. Spacing repetitions over time reduces the number of repetitions that are needed to produce the same level of learning results. For example, in one experiment we ll describe later, the number of repetitions needed was reduced by half simply by increasing the spacing interval between repetitions. 8

9 Other Benefits of Spacing Although not discussed in the spacing-effect research literature, it is likely that spaced repetitions provide additional benefits in addition to long-term memory retrieval. For example, other research paradigms have shown that spaced repetitions can be beneficial in making ideas more persuasive and products more desirable. These effects aren t always straightforward (for example, more repetitions don t always lead to more persuasion or more desirability), but they do show some potential to influence the success of our learning interventions. Training often involves some form of persuasion. Essentially, we want learners to change their behavior on the job. Sometimes this involves changing long-term habits, long-held beliefs, or lifelong values. One-time training immersions just won t cut it when we need to ask so much of our learners. Desirability can play a part in learning as well. People tend to spend more time thinking about things they care about. They tend to avoid ideas and things they dislike. The more our learning concepts seem enjoyable (to think about or work with), the more time learners will attend to them. The more attention given, the more those concepts will be enriched and reinforced. Trainers and training facilitators may be subject to similar effects. The more times a learner encounters a trainer, the more that learner may come to respect and admire that person (assuming of course that the trainer is worthy of admiration, as most are). Such feelings may lead learners to engage at a deeper level with the learning materials. Finally, spaced repetitions may bring learning events closer to the time when they will be needed on the job. The more time that passes between learning and application, the more our learners experience forgetting. As soon as learning events end, forgetting begins. By adding subsequent spaced repetitions, we essentially extend learning and lessen forgetting. Side Effects of Spacing Spacing repetitions over time has some side effects. Spaced repetitions typically cause a temporary increase in forgetting between the times when the beneficial repetitions are delivered. Learners are prompted to forget early to remember later. This forgetting, though generally shown to spur learning activity, might be frustrating for some learners. From a purely logistical perspective, spacing may be difficult to implement. Sometimes we can t get our learners to sit down to learning material after long delays. Finally, spacing s biggest hurdle may be its challenge to training-industry orthodoxy we as instructional professionals, haven t used it in the past, so we don t think to use it now. 9

10 Spacing Benefits Mapped to the Learning & Forgetting Curves It may be helpful to think about the spacing effect from the standpoint of both learning and forgetting. People learn and people forget. Our role as instructional designers is not just to maximize learning, but also to minimize forgetting. The learning and forgetting curves portrayed in the diagram below capture some of the essential properties of human cognition. 2 Typical Learning & Forgetting Curves Learning Curve During Learning Remembering On-the-Job Forgetting Curve During the learning events, memory for information is strengthened. As soon as the learning events end, forgetting begins. Notice that people tend to learn things relatively quickly, but that true expertise takes time and lots of learning effort. Note also that forgetting happens rather quickly in most situations. Why am I covering all this? Because it is vital to understanding the primary benefit of the spacing effect that it facilitates long-term remembering. In other words, it reduces the slope of the forgetting curve. 2 Because all learning situations are unique, the curves displayed are only representative of the general concepts involved. Your learning results will vary. 10

11 The diagram below depicts the addition of spaced repetitions to the primary learning events. You ll note that the learning curve is less steep than the typical one, indicating the learning is often more difficult with spaced repetitions. More importantly, you ll also see that the forgetting curve is much less severe. To summarize the gist of the diagram, spaced repetitions help minimize forgetting, while creating minor and temporary difficulties during learning. Learning & Forgetting with Spacing during Learning Learning Curve During Learning Remembering On-the-Job Forgetting Curve 0 Spacing during learning slows learning slightly. Spaced learning makes memory much more resistant to forgetting. Compare this diagram to the one on the previous page. You ll notice how spaced repetitions have slowed learning slightly but significantly reduced the amount of forgetting that occurred. 11

12 The final diagram shows what happens when spaced learning events are added during the on-the-job experience of the learners. Again, the primary learning events are depicted on the left and the on-the-job experience is depicted on the right. When we provide spaced repetitions on the job, the forgetting curve becomes a learning-and-forgetting curve. The additional learning can help maintain high levels of remembering. Learning & Forgetting with Spacing On-the-Job During Learning Learning Curve Remembering On-the-Job Forgetting Curve Spaced learning on the job turns the forgetting curve into a learning-and-forgetting curve, improving memory. One of the implications of the learning/forgetting curve discussion is that we ought to consider pushing learning closer to the time when it will be needed on the job. The closer in time learning is delivered to the situations when it is needed, the less forgetting will be a factor. The less forgetting, the more learners will be able to remember what they learned and apply it to their jobs. For example, suppose that, in January, we teach learners how to properly handle ten dangerous safety-related situations, but they don t actually experience one of those onthe-job situations until July. Forgetting and failure will be much more likely than if we also provided our learners with monthly spaced repetitions from February through June. Of course, we do need to realize that just-in-time learning is not usually feasible for complex learning topics. It will take someone more than a few minutes to learn a language, become a skilled mechanic, or understand the American political system. 12

13 Benefits of Learning Mechanisms Tangential to Spacing As we discussed above, the spacing effect involves repetition of learning concepts. What about spacing unrelated learning sessions over time without repeating any of the learning material or learning points? Will this produce any advantage? It may. One thing we all know from our own experience as learners is that learning can be hard work. Long learning sessions can create fatigue, inattention, and cognitive processing that is less intense and effective than the ideal. To prevent such learning fatigue, learners may benefit from having unrelated learning sessions spaced over time. On the other hand, it s important to be clear that the spacing effect implies some sort of repetition of the learning message. So, though it may be helpful to space unrelated learning sessions to avoid fatigue, the spacing effect goes beyond fatigue prevention. Distributing learning sessions over time whether these sessions repeat learning points or not may induce extra studying as well. This is especially true if learners feel that the new material will require prerequisite knowledge. Learners who have been away from material may be inspired to refresh their knowledge before they go on to the next topic. They know from experience that if they don t understand what came before, the new material just won t make any sense. This re-learning effect can apply equally to spacing or non-spacing situations (that is, those involving spaced repetitions and those involving new material). Finally, spacing learning sessions over time because it enables different mental contexts to be utilized may push learners toward more creative perspectives on the material being learned. For example, say you are learning about instructional design in a course that spans the months from February through June. In each week of that five-month period, you will have different things on your mind you will be working on different instructional design projects, different content, different design issues. So, if the learning material in the course is repeated periodically throughout the five months, you will have many opportunities to weave the spaced threads of knowledge into a variety of cognitive structures relating the spaced material to many different concepts and situations. Such variety will not only help you remember the spaced concepts better (the spacing effect), but it will also enable you to more creatively apply the spaced knowledge to your real world of work 3. 3 Creativity is not just a question of individual predispositions. Creativity can be increased when people have recent experience with varieties of relevant information. 13

14 How Can We Create the Spacing Effect? Conceptually, there are two ways to create the spacing effect. We can put a delay between two or more repetitions or we can present other learning material between two or more repetitions. The table below shows the different ways we can space repetitions of Topic A over time. Insert a Delay Between Repetitions Insert Other Topics Between Repetitions 1. Topic A Topic A 2. wait Topic B 3. Topic A Topic A 4. wait Topic C 5. Topic A Topic A To reiterate, between the repeated presentations of Topic A we can either wait or we can provide learning opportunities on other topics or learning points. 14

15 Adding Spacing to Intact Learning Events Spacing can be designed into our learning interventions or it can be added to augment our existing programs. Suppose you previously designed a one-day workshop delivered by an instructor in a classroom. Learning could be spaced by adding additional repetitions of key learning points either before or after the workshop. This could be done in a variety of ways, for example, by having the learners read an article before coming to the workshop or having them practice in a simulation after the training. Conceptually, we can think of this as adding spacing before and after our primary learning events. Add Repetitions Before Primary Learning Events B Add Repetitions After We can augment many different types of primary learning events in this way. We can facilitate long-term retention by adding repetitions to e-learning, computer-based training, classroom training, videos, books, podcasts, mentoring, on-the-job learning, tutoring, and even informal-learning. Unique Opportunity for E-learning E-learning has a unique advantage over classroom training programs and stand-alone computer-based training applications. It offers us as creators and managers of learning the opportunity to connect with our learners in a meaningful way over time. For many learners, after the training the manual goes on the shelf and the concepts learned are never considered again, much less utilized on the job. E-learning is no panacea, but it does offer us a unique opportunity to stay connected to our learners. We, of course, must figure out how to provide our learners with interesting, useful, and engaging spaced learning events. Prompting Others to Support Learning On a similar tangent, e-learning methodologies can be utilized to help others support and reinforce learners efforts at learning. For example, learners managers can be prompted (1) to give their direct reports time and permission for learning, (2) to demonstrate or describe how newly-learned concepts are applicable to the workplace, (3) to encourage learners to apply what they ve learned in their current work efforts, and (4) to acknowledge and reward good learning efforts. 15

16 How Many Spaced Repetitions are Enough? One critical point to consider is that spacing may not produce an effect unless more than one or two or three repetitions are used. This is especially critical when difficult, lengthy, or technical learning materials are used. Let s face it. When there is a lot to learn, or when the learning material is complex, learners will need more repetitions. When learning events are spaced out, the difficulty of learning complex or lengthy materials may be compounded, and so, the advantages of spacing may only become evident when enough repetitions are used to enable a basic threshold of learning. What is the Right Spacing Interval? It appears from the research that the ideal spacing interval should be roughly equal to the retention interval the time between the last learning opportunity and the time when the information is needed on the job. So for example, if you know your learners will have to remember information for two weeks before needing to apply that information on the job, then the ideal time between repetitions should be two weeks. In the diagram below, the arrows represent the intervals we should try to equalize. First Repetition Spacing Interval Second Repetition Retention Interval On-the-job memory retrieval Learning Phases Retention Performance Again, if the retention interval is one week, the spacing interval should be one week. If the retention interval is eight months, the spacing interval, ideally, should be eight months. But note how I used the word, ideally. While the ideal spacing interval may maximize long-term remembering, we don t have to be tied to the ideal to get learning benefits. In fact, most instructional-design situations don t lend themselves to having really long spacing intervals. What can be done? First, we should remember that longer spacing intervals tend to be better than shorter ones. We can also space repetitions from one day to the next. There appears to be a great advantage to one-day delays. If this is not feasible, we can use 4-hour spacings instead of 2-hour spacings, 1-hour spacings instead of 15-minute spacings, and 10-minute spacings instead of an immediate repetition. 16

17 Reframing The Learning Event To add spaced learning, it is often necessary to prompt our learners to stretch their concept of what constitutes the learning event. For example, many learners see a classroom workshop as a learning event, but view additional learning as extra and optional. It s the same thing with e-learning. When someone completes a 45-minute program, they think they re done. These expectations have been built up through long experience with typical learning sessions, but they are not immutable. As instructional designers, we should probably accept some of the blame for these expectations. More importantly, we can set different expectations in our new designs. As the research shows, we do our learners a disservice if we push them toward singleevent learning interventions. It s not that these interventions are bad, they re just not nearly as effective as they might be. Old Way Optional Learning Event Optional New Way #1 Preparatory Learning Primary Learning Event Additional Learning New Way #2 First Learning Event Second Learning Event Third Learning Event Learning Events are framed in gold. As illustrated, the newer framings can prompt learners to more fully utilize spaced learning. 17

18 Presentation versus Retrieval Practice Although the spacing effect applies to repetitions in general, it is helpful to differentiate between two types of repetitions, (1) presentation, and (2) retrieval-practice opportunities. Examples of each are presented in the table below. Presentation Retrieval Practice Explanations Descriptions Examples Illustrations Tests and Quizzes Simulations Decision Scenarios Skill Practice As you can see, the major difference between the two is that retrieval practice requires the learner to respond to some learning material by retrieving information from memory and making an overt response. Retrieval practice can be diagrammed as follows. Retrieval Practice Learner gets test question, simulation, decision, or practice situation, etc. Learner retrieves information from memory. Learner responds overtly to the original question, decision, etc. Why is this distinction important in relation to the spacing effect? Because retrievalpractice opportunities sometimes benefit by gradually increasing the time between repetitions, while expanding the time between presentations doesn t elicit this benefit. It s also important because we ought to realize that we re not limited to using the spacing effect only for straightforward presentations of information. 18

19 Using Gradually Expanding Spacing Intervals Suppose we presented management trainees with leadership scenarios on a periodic basis to help them maintain their learning. Suppose further that each scenario covers a particular learning point. The table below shows us how we might gradually increase the spacing of scenarios covering Learning Point A. As before, I m making a distinction between spacing by delay or by inserting other learning material between repetitions. Expanding Spaced Repetitions Using a Delay Between Repetitions Inserting Other Topics Between Repetitions 1. Scenario on Point A Scenario on Point A 2. wait 1 day Scenario on Point B 3. Scenario on Point A Scenario on Point A 4. wait 2 days Scenario on Point B 5. Scenario on Point A Scenario on Point C 6. wait 6 days Scenario on Point A 7. Scenario on Point A Scenario on Point B 8. wait 20 days Scenario on Point D 9. Scenario on Point A Scenario on Point E 10. wait 60 days Scenario on Point F 11. Scenario on Point A Scenario on Point A As you can imagine, this process can prove a bit cumbersome, especially if you have a lot of learning points to cover. Still, it may be worth utilizing expanding spaced repetitions in some situations. See the next page for details. 19

20 The research on expanded spacings is still a bit cloudy. Both types of spacings consistent and expanding are better than no spacings at all. In other words, it is clear that the spacing effect works for both. What is a bit unclear is determining when one type of spacing is better. The table below offers some tentative recommendations. What it Does Which Type of Spacing is Better, Consistent or Expanding Spacings? Presentation Prompts learners to perceive the information Retrieval Practice with Feedback and Relearning Prompts learners to respond to cues, and then provides corrective feedback Retrieval Practice with No Feedback and No Relearning Prompts learners to respond to cues, but provides no corrective feedback Which is Better? Equal. Consistent and expanded spacings are beneficial to an equal extent Equal. Consistent and expanded spacings are beneficial to an equal extent Expanding maybe. Expanded spacings sometimes produce better results As the chart above suggests, there aren t that many real-world learning situations in which expanded spacings are better than consistent spacings. For presentations, consistent and expanded spacings are equally beneficial. For retrieval practice, expanded spacings only produce added benefits when we don t give our learners feedback on their retrievals and in real-world instructional designs we only occasionally forgo feedback. The reason that expanded spacings may provide an advantage when learners don t get feedback and don t get a chance to relearn the information is that the initial narrow spacings help the learners maintain the retrievability of the information. This is critical because (without corrective feedback) once the learners forget the information; they have no way of recovering it. Expanding spacings are usually more difficult to accomplish than consistent spacings. On the other hand, expanded spacings may be useful to keep learners interested over long practice sequences. To summarize, in most cases we can use both types of spacings, but expanding spacings may have some benefit when we provide no feedback or relearning. 20

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