Studies on the surface area of zeolites, as determined by physical adsorption and X-ray crystallography

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Studies on the surface area of zeolites, as determined by physical adsorption and X-ray crystallography"

Transcription

1 Studies on the surface area of zeolites, as determined by physical adsorption and X-ray crystallography D. J. C. YATES Central Basic Research Laboratory, Esso Research and Engineering Cotnpatzy, Linden, New Jersey Received September 18, 1967 The determination of the surface areas of zeolites is discussed. It is shown that it is incorrect to use the multilayer isotherm method of Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller for solids where only little more than one monolayer can be adsorbed, in cavities little larger than the adsorbed molecules. The areas of such materials can, however, be determined from the beginning of the linear portion of their isotherms (point B). In addition, X-ray spectra can provide an independent method of measuring changes in the surface areas of zeolites. Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 46, 1695 (1968) Introduction Although there is now a very considerable volume of work dealing with adsorption on zeolites, there is very little of it that is concerned with the problem of the determination of the surface area of such materials. In general, although there has been considerable criticism of its theoretical basis (see review in refs. la, 2, 3a), the equation derived by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (B.E.T.) (4) has gained wide acceptance as a valid method of determining the surface area of solids. Nevertheless in some instances, it is considered that the B.E.T. equation, at least as regards surface area determination, has its main utility in being a convenient analytical method (lb, 2a) of locating point B (5), the point on the isotherm where a monolayer is adsorbed. Most solid surfaces have physical adsorption isotherms of type I1 in Brunauer's classification (6), and their geometrical structure is such that there is no physical restriction on the number of layers of gas that can be adsorbed. Such multimolecular layers cannot form on zeolites (and some charcoals), as their very small cavities are of similar dimensions to molecules which are adsorbed (7-9). Under such conditions, the isotherms are expected to be of type I in nature. Such isotherms have been reported by many workers using the natural zeolites analcite (9), chabazite (7-9), erionite (lo), and mordenite (7, ll), and with the synthetic zeolites faujasite (7, 12-17), mordenite (IS), and type A (7, 19). Some values of surface areas have been given in the above work (10, 15, 19) and in reviews (20, 21). There has, however, been no agreement on the best method of area determination, some workers using the B.E.T. method (15, 19, 22, 23), others (10, 19) using the Langmuir equation (2b). Barrer has introduced (20, 21) the concept of monolayer equivalent area for zeolites. Some data on a synthetic faujasite are presented, where the area values obtained with the B.E.T. equation are compared with those obtained by the point B method. It is stressed that the B.E.T. equation should not be used for materials with very small pores, such as zeolites. As zeolites are crystalline, the possibility exists of measuring relative surfaces areas by X-ray crystallography. This has been examined, and it is shown that this method can easily be used to monitor surface area changes in zeolites. Experimental Apparat~ts and Materials All isotherms were determined volun~etrically, using argon at 77 OK. For most of the work, conventional Pyrex glass cells and vacuum systems were used, the pressures being measured with mercury manometers (24). In some cases, however, a quartz Bourdon gauge was used to measure pressures (17). The X-ray equipment consisted of a Phillips diffractometer, using copper Ka radiation, with a Geiger counter detector. The zeolite samples were exposed to air while their spectra were being measured. The synthetic faujasite used was an experimental material donated by the Davison Division of W. R. Grace & Co., and had a silica-to-alumina ratio similar to that of zeolite Y of the Linde Co. (25, 26). The structure of this zeolite is similar to that of synthetic zeolite Linde X, which is fairly well known (26-28). The material contained some 15% of a binder, but the nature and surface area of the binder were not given by the manufacturer. The argon, of purity 99.5%, was obtained from the Matheson Co., East Rutherford, New Jersey. Procedure In addition to the fresh material, 11 samples were available which had been used, under varying degrees of

2 1696 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY. VOL. 46, 1968 severity, for drying gases. All samples were handled identically. For the surface area measurements I g was loaded into the Pyrex cells, and evacuation begun. The cell was then heated to 150 "C while pumping. After a good vacuum was reached at this temperature, the temperature was increased to 370 "C. Pumping was then continued until a vacuum of 2 x Torr or better was obtained. The cell was then closed, cooled to 77 OK, and argon added. After the isotherm was determined, the argon was evacuated while the sample was warmed to room temperature. The cell was then recooled to 77 "K and helium added to calibrate the cell. After this, the sample was taken out of the cell and weighed. All of the surface area values are given per gram of anhydrous zeolite. The samples were ground in a mortar and pestle for X-ray examination, and that portion which passed through a 300 mesh screen was used. The powder was pressed into a holder using McCreery's procedure as discussed in detail by Klug and Alexander (29). Results Surface Area Values As referred to earlier (la, lb, 2a, 3a, 4-6), for physical adsorption isotherms, point B corresponds to the adsorption of a monolayer ofmolecules. If a molecule of known size such as nitrogen or argon is used, the surface area of the solid can be calculated from a knowledge of the number of moles of gas adsorbed, per gram of solid, at point B on the isotherm. There are two widely accepted methods of determining point B (la, 2). The first is simply to measure the isotherm in sufficient detail so that the shape of the "knee" near point B can be determined accurately. The other method is to use the B.E.T. equation and to determine two or more points on the isotherm in the relative pressure (pip,) region between 0.05 and As the B.E.T. plot gives a straight line, the slope and intercept of which give the monolayer capacity, a minimum of two isotherm points is needed. In practice, for an accurate determination, it is usual to measure 3 or 4 points on an isotherm. For nlolecular sieves, as they contain such small cavities, the isotherm is not type 11, and the B.E.T. equation should not be used. The only way, therefore, that the surface areas can be determined is by measuring the isotherm in a fairly detailed fashion. This has been done in this work, and argon isotherms at 77 OK are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. From the first of these isotherms, it was determined that the point B occurred at a pressure of 1.5 cm Cp/po = 0.071), and this pressure was used to define the point B on subsequent isotherms. This meant that the isotherm I I I I I I I pressure, crn Hg FIG. 1. Argon isotherms at 77 "K on a series of sodium faujasites. FIG. 2. Argon isotherms at 77 OK on a series of sodium faujasites.

3 YATES: STUDIES ON THE SURFACE AREA OF ZEOLITES 1697 TABLE I Surface areas of Na-Y zeolites by two methods Monolayer Surface area Ratio of areas capacity from Surface area Surface area using the point B from point B as % of B.E.T. equation l3.e.t- equation Sample (cn13//s) (m2/g) fresh sample (m2/g) point B method Fresh A B 181.O C D E F G H I J K only had to be closely defined in this region, and that the isotherms did not have to be measured at pressures higher than about 10 cm. After the experiment was finished, the sample was taken out of the cell and rapidly weighed before it could adsorb water from the air. Using this dry weight, the surface areas were calculated, and these values are given in Table I. The areas have also been expressed as a percentage of the area of the fresh sieve. The area of the adsorbed argon atoms needed to calculate the surface area from the monolayer capacity has been taken as 14.6 A2, following Livingston (30). In order to show the inapplicability of the B.E.T. equation to zeolites, we have also constructed a B.E.T. plot for every isotherm. In most cases, satisfactory B.E.T. plots were obtained, but the areas obtained from them (see Table I) were always found to be considerably lower than those obtained by the point B method, except for the samples of extremely low area (H-K). The latter had obviously lost most of their zeolitic character. As the area of the zeolite increased (i.e. going towards the fresh material), the B.E.T. equation gave areas with lower and lower values relative to the areas obtained from point B. It will be seen that the use of the B.E.T. equation with a normal zeolite would cause an underestimate of the area by about 20%. Deterlnination of Changes in Crystallinity The unique characteristic of zeolites as adsorbent~ is that they are crystalline. Most silicas are an~orphous, and some aluminas are partly crystalline, but the very developmen6 of the ad- sorptive property of a zeolite depends on its longrange order, as shown by its regular array of tetrahedrally coordinated cubo-octahedral structural units. With specific reference to faujasite, a considerable amount of work on its structure and properties has been published (12,26-28). In particular, its crystal structure has been determined by a three-dimensional Fourier analysis of its X-ray diffraction patterns by Broussard and Shoemaker (27). While their work was on the 13X faujasite, the structure of 13Y faujasite is quite similar (26). It has been found that various batches of synthetic zeolites, of the Na-X type, have variations in crystallinity depending on the variations in their manufacture.' These differences are proportional to the peak height at a given diffraction angle. Hence, if the instrumental conditions of the X-ray diffractometer are kept constant, changes in crystallinity can be easily followed with reference to the original zeolite. This has been done with all the samples used here. Their X-ray diffraction spectra have been determined, all under identical instrumental conditions, and the decrease in crystallinity has been determined with reference to the peak heights of the fresh zeolite. The peaks with Miller indices 331, 533, and 555 (see ref. 27) have been used. These have d-spacings of 5.70, 3.78, and A, and occur at 28 values of about 15.5, 23.5, and The complete spectra of Na-X over a range of 20 values from 5 to 55 degrees is given in Fig. 1 of ref. 27. In this work ID. J. C. Yates. Unpublished observations.

4 1698 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY. VOL the spectra were also measured over the same range of 28 values. However, to make the diagram simpler, typical spectra obtained for our samples are shown in Fig. 3 only for 28 values between 14 and 34 degrees. In all cases the three peak heights were measured and expressed for each of the peaks as a percentage of the peak height of fresh zeolite. The average of these three peaks was then taken and used as the best indication of the overall crystallinity of the sample. The data are given in Table 11. I I I I I I el d8prell) FIG. 3. X-ray diffraction patterns of a series of faujasites of decreasing surface area. Discussion Adsorption Measurements It has been known for some considerable time that most zeolites have type I (6) adsorption isotherms (7-9, 11-14, 18, 19), which are characteristic of monolayer adsorption, and capillary condensation is absent (2,3a). The B.E.T. theory, on the other hand, applies to the case of multilayer adsorption (la, 2,3a), most commonly seen as type I1 isotherms. Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that the application of the B.E.T. equation to type I isotherms yields an incorrect value of urn, the monolayer capacity. In this work, on a faujasite containing a binder, the TABLE I1 Crystallinity changes in Na-Y zeolites d-spacings - Average 5.7 A 3.78 A 2.85 A crystallinity (% of (% of (% of Sample (%) fresh) fresh) fresh) - - Fresh A B H I, J, and K all have zero crystallinity B.E.T equation gave urn values about 20% less than those obtained directly from point B. Similar discrepancies can be found in the literature. For example, Eberly (15) used the B.E.T. equation to determine the area of Linde NaX faujasite and obtained a value of 760 rn2ig. In some isotherms on NaX using argon at 77 OK, when the point B was at 3.0 cm, we obtained monolayer capacity values of 228 cm3/g (of dehydrated zeolite) for Lot No and 230 cm3/g for Lot No R. These materials have been used in earlier work (17, 31, 32). Assuming an argon area of 14.6 A2, these capacities correspond to surface areas of 895 and 903 m2/g. Again the B.E.T. value is too low. In later work on erionite, Eberly (10) used both the B.E.T. equation and the Langmuir equation and considered the latter more reliable. Here, again, the B.E.T. values were considerably lower than the Langmuir values (10). Similar effects had been observed considerably earlier with A type zeolites by Breck and co-workers (19). Other values obtained (23) by the B.E.T. method seem low, although a range of values was given (60S800 m2/g) for zeolites A, X, and Y, with no further details. For some considerable time it has been recognized that isotherms in zeolites can be represented by the Langmuir equation (7-14, 18, 19, 33, 34). In many cases, this equation has been used to obtain zeolite monolayer capacities, and hence surface areas. However, there are many problems in the use of the Langrnuir equation to obtain v, values (3b). For instance, there are numerous isotherms which give excellent straight-line Langmuir plots, but which fail to give consistent urn values (3c). When consideration is given to

5 YATES: STUDIES ON THE SURFACE AREA OF ZEOLITES 1699 the assumptions underlying the Langmuir equation, it seems very unlikely. that they could apply to adsorption in zeolitic cavities. In fact, it has been stated by Young and Crowell (2c): "Charcoal and chabazite are the only adsorbents characterized by type I isotherms and it is certain that adsorption on these two porous solids does not even approximate the severely simple Langmuir picture." With the addition of other zeolites, the above seems a fair summary of the situation. From the above discussion, it will be seen that the B.E.T. multimolecular isotherm gives, as might be predicted for a type I isotherm, incorrect surtace areas for zeolites. The Langmuir equation applies to type I isotherms. It does not necessarily follow, however, that the vm values derived from the equation will be correct (2c, 3b, 3c). This would seem to eliminate all methods, except that of the recognition of point B as the completion of the monolayer. As the zeolite isotherms are type I with no rise in the amount adsorbed at saturation pressure (p,), the possibility exists of using this point as a measure of surface area. For example, with the Na-X sample, which had an argon vm value of 230 cm3/g (corresponding to a surface area of 903 m2/g), the amount adsorbed at saturation was 247 cm31n. Very 'hilar values (248 cm3/g) have been reported by Barrer and Sutherland (12). If this value is taken as equivalent to a monolayer, the area would then be 970 m2/g. On balance, the use of the point B, which is very well established with adsorbents with type I1 isotherms, is considered the most reliable. It is also relatively insensitive to the particular pressure chosen for point B, as shown by the data in Table I11 for argon at 77 OK on NaX (Lot No R). If point B is taken at 3.0 cm, v,, is 230 cm3/g. However, if it were to be taken anywhere in the pressure region from 1.5 to 5 cm, the v, value would be within k2.5 % of that at 3 cm. This is very much less than the uncertainty in the area (om) which the argon atom occupies (30) in the monolayer (14.6 A'). The problems in assign- ing a unique om value to a given molecule have been discussed recently (24. Even nitrogen (at -195 "C), which has probably been used more than any other adsorbate, has been assigned om values ranging from 15.4 A2 to 16.2 A2 (lc, 30). In conclusion, providing that no molecular sieve effects interfere (e.g. neither A nor N, are Pressure (cm Hg) TBLE I11 Argon isotherm at 77 O K on Na-X Corresponding Volume adsorbed surface area (cm3/g) (m2/g) l(sat. press.) adsorbed (19) on Na-A at -195 "C) it is proposed that the determination of point B on an isotherm of a simple, small, nonpolar molecule such as argon, nitrogen, or oxygen offers the most accurate means of measuring the surface areas of zeolites. Other adsorbents which give type I isotherms with the above gases (for example some kinds of charcoal (35)) should also be treated in the same fashion. Some remarks in a recent paper (36) also draw attention to the difficulties of using the B.E.T. equation for zeolites, and a procedure is suggested which seems similar to that used here, although point B was not determined explicitly. X-Ray Measurements Although some considerable effort has been put into using low-angle X-ray scattering as a method of measuring surface areas (Id), it has not been too successful. The difficulty is that only crystallite sizes are given, rather than total surface area. This limitation does not apply here, as the unique characteristic of zeolites as adsorbents is that they are entirely crystalline and normal X- ray techniques can be used. Despite this, there has apparently been only one attempt made very recently (36) to use the X-ray spectra of zeolites as a measure of their surface area. The only details given were : "The changes in surface area as determined by N2 adsorption and in crystallinity as determined by X-ray analysis were always found to be in general agreement." Before this work was started, there was very little information available in the literature about the usefulness of the X-ray spectra as a measure of the decreasing surface areas of zeolites. It should also be stressed that there are almost no data on, and less understanding of, the reasons

6 1700 CANADIAN JOURNAL OF < :HEMISTRY. VOL. 46, 1968 for the breakdown of zeolites at elevated temperatures. For instance, it is conceivable that the outer portions of the sieve crystals might decompose most readily. If the products of this decomposition were amorphous silica and alumina, it is possible that this amorphous material would block the very small (13 A) holes in the outside of the crystal. It is then probable that the surface area would drop considerably, as there would be a much restricted access to the interior of the crystals. However, such a process would not readily be detected by X-rays, as the overall crystallinity of the material would be but little affected. Data given in Tables I and I1 and Fig. 4 show that the above process only occurs to a small 1 I I I I I + '/, Average cryslsllin~ly from X-ray speclra FIG. 4. Relation between average crystallinity and surface area for a series of faujasites. extent under the conditions used here. If the surface area and crystallinity decreased to exactly the same extent, the points would all fall on the 45" line shown in Fig. 4. This line is defined by the fresh zeolite (100% surface area and 100% crystallinity) and the origin, when all surface area and all crystallinity are lost. The points in Fig. 4 lie fairly close to this line, considering the difficulties in measuring the crystallinities. However, there are 6 points below the line (greater loss in area than in crystallinity) and 3 above it, so there is some slight evidence that surface area is lost to a greater degree than is crystallinity. It is concluded that, under the above condi- tions, surface area changes in zeolites can be measured equally well by gas adsorption or by X-ray crystallinity measurements. Nevertheless, the gas adsorption method is the most generally applicable, as there are times when the X-ray spectra vary for other reasons than surface area changes. For instance, if it is desired to ascertain whether the zeolite structure has not been damaged as a result of ion exchange, the X-ray spectra cannot readily be employed to do this. The expected changes in surface area per gram of dehydrated zeolite can be calculated, and values close to these have been found (17) for the Ag-X and Li-X. On the other hand, if a series of zeolites with the same structure and cation but varying areas are under study, the X-ray method may be faster than the adsorption method, although the latter method is probably the most accurate. Absolute Areas Zeolites are unique among highly dispersed materials, as they are crystalline in nature. If its structure is f~~lly understood, and its dimensions established, a given zeolite can then have an "ab~olute" surface area, that is, an area defined crystallographically. Such an area will be independent of the errors and uncertainties inherent in area values derived from physical adsorption isotherms. For the X form of faujasite, many X-ray measurements of its structure have been reported (12, 2&28,37), and the volumes of its supercages have been calculated and converted into surface area values (38, 39). It is known that gases such as argon and krypton do not enter the sodalite cages (17, 40), so that area values obtained from isotherms of these gases can be directly compared with values calculated from the size of the supercages. For argon, with the point B method, the sample of Na-X used in this work has a surface area of 903 m2/g. One of the calculations (38) gave a value of 1400 m2/g for Na-X, which seems rather high. Other calculations (39) gave values between 960 and 1132 m2/g, depending on the model used. In view of the fact that most samples of zeolites probably contain some am;unt of noncrystalline material, surface area values calculated from crystallographic data should be higher than values obtained from isotherm measurements. With this proviso, it is felt that the experimental value (903 m2/g) is in

7 YATES: STUDIES ON THE SURFACE AREA OF ZEOLITES 1701 quite good agreement with the calculated (39) values ( m2ig). As calculations become more precise in the future, it should be possible to use the difference between the experimental and calculated surface areas as a measure of absolute degree of crystallinity of a given sample. At present, no samples of known crystallinity seem to be available, so that X-ray spectra cannot be used to measure the absolute crystallinity of zeolites. The value of 100% average crystallinity was assigned to the fresh Nay zeolite in Table I1 solely to enable relative comparisons to be made, and should not be taken to imply that this material is entirely crystalline (apart from its binder content, whose nature is unknown). 1. P. H. EMMETT. In Catalysis. Vol. 1. Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, N.Y (a) p. 31; (b) p. 40; (c) p. 38; (d) p D. M. YOUNG and A. D. CROWELL. Physical adsorptionofgases. Butterworths and Co. Ltd., London (a) p. 190; (b) p. 183; (c) p. 109; (d) p S. BRUNAUER, L. E. COPELAND, and D. L. KANTRO. InThesolid-gas interface. Vol 1. Edited by E. A. Floo~. M. Dekker Inc., New York, N.Y (a) p. 77; (b) p. 80; (c) p S. BRUNAUER, P. H. EMMETT, and E. TELLER. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60, 309 (1938). 5. P. H. EMMETT and S. BRUNAUER. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59, 1553 (1937). 6. S. BRUNAUER. The adsorption of gases and vapors. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J W. E. ADDISON and R. M. BARRER. J. Chem. Soc. 757 (1955). 8. P. H:-EM~ETT and T. W. DEWITT. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65, 1253 (1943). 9. R. M. BARRER. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. A, 167, 393 (1938). 10. P. E. EBERLY. Am. Mineralogist, 49, 30 (1964) R. M. BARRER. Trans. Faradav Soc (1944). 12. R. M. BARRER and J. W. SUTH~RLAND. ' roc. ROY. Soc. London, Ser. A, 237,439 (1956). 13. R. M. BARER and W. I. STUART. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. A, 249,464 (1959). 14. R. M. BARER and P. J. REUCROFT. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. A, 258,431 (1960). 15. P. E. EBERLEY. J. Phys. Chem. 65, 68 (1961). 16. H. W. HABGOOD. Can. J. Chem. 42,2340 (1964). 17. D. J. C. YATES. J. Phys. Chem. 70, 3693 (1966). 18. R. M. BARRER and D. L. PETERSON. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. A, 280, 466 (1964). 19. D. W. BRECK, W. G. EVERSOLE, R. M. MILTON, T. B. REED, and T. L. THOMAS. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 5963 (1956). 20. R. M. BARRER. 10th Colston Symposium on the structure and properties of porous materials. Butterworths, London p R. M. BARRER. Brit. Chem. Eng. 4, 267 (1959). 22. P. B. VENUTO, E. L. WU, and J. CATTANACH. Paper presented at Molecular Sieve Symposiunl, Soc. Chem. Ind., London, April R. L. MAYS and P. E. PICKERT. Paper presented at Molecular Sieve Symposium, Soc. Chem. Ind., London. Aoril 1967., - a D.-J. C. YATES, W. F. TAYLOR, and J. H. SINFELT. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86, 2996 (1964). 25. D. W. BRECK. U.S. Patent No (1964). 26. D. W. BRECK. J. Chem. Educ. 41,678 (1964). 27. L. BROUSSARD and D. P. SHOEMAKER. J.. Am; Chem. SOC. 82, 1041 (1960). 28. R. M. BARRER. Endeavour, 23, 122 (1964). 29. H. P. KLUG and L. E. ALEXANDER. X-ray diffraction procedures. J. Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y p H. K. LIVINGSTON. J. Colloid Sci. 4, 447 (1949). J. L. CARTER, P. J. LUCCHESI, and D. J. C. YATES. J. Phys. Chem. 68, 1385 (1964). D. J. C. YATES. J. Phvs. Chem (1965). P.-CANNON. J. Phys. khem. 63, 160 (19%). ' P. CANNON and C. P. RUTKOWSKI. J. Phys. Chem. 63, 1292 (1959). S. BRUNAUER and P. H. EMMETT. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59, 2682 (1937). C. V. MCDANIEL and P. K. MAHER. Paper presented at Molecular Sieve Svmoosium.. Soc. -them. Ind.. London. Aoril R. M. BARRER, F.-W. BULTITUDE, and J. W. SUTHER- LAND. Trans. Faraday Soc. 53, 1111 (1957). 38. M. M. DUB~IN. Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Khim. 209 (1964). 39. A. V. KISELEV and A. A. LOPATKIN. Kinetika i Kataliz, 4, 786 (1963). 40. L. V. C. REES and C. J. WILLIAMS. Trans. Faraday SOC. 60, 1973 (1964).

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN COLLOIDS AND SURFACES

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN COLLOIDS AND SURFACES EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN COLLOIDS AND SURFACES PARTICLE SURFACE AREA FROM GAS ADSORPTION TYPES OF ADSORPTION Physical adsorption: rapid, depends on adsorbate bulk concentration, multiple molecular layers

More information

BET Surface Area Analysis of Nanoparticles

BET Surface Area Analysis of Nanoparticles OpenStax-CNX module: m38278 1 BET Surface Area Analysis of Nanoparticles Nina Hwang Andrew R. Barron This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0

More information

Surface Parameters of Stannic Oxide in Powder, Ceramic and Gel Forms by Nitrogen Adsorption Techniques l

Surface Parameters of Stannic Oxide in Powder, Ceramic and Gel Forms by Nitrogen Adsorption Techniques l PHYSICAL SCIENCES 137 Surface Parameters of Stannic Oxide in Powder, Ceramic and Gel Forms by Nitrogen Adsorption Techniques l JAMES L. RUTLEDGE, Department of Physics OIdahoma State University, StlUwater

More information

Texture characteristic of membrane materials ASAP, BET

Texture characteristic of membrane materials ASAP, BET Texture characteristic of membrane materials ASAP, BET Theory Specific surface (surface area) is used for the characterization of many materials. There are various techniques how measure the specific surface

More information

Surface Area and Porosity

Surface Area and Porosity Surface Area and Porosity 1 Background Techniques Surface area Outline Total - physical adsorption External Porosity meso micro 2 Length 1 Å 1 nm 1 µm 1 1 1 1 1 mm macro meso micro metal crystallite 1-1

More information

Physical Chemistry Practical Course, Oxford University. Determination of the Surface Area of Alumina by Nitrogen Adsorption at 77K (4 points)

Physical Chemistry Practical Course, Oxford University. Determination of the Surface Area of Alumina by Nitrogen Adsorption at 77K (4 points) Physical Chemistry Practical Course, Oxford University 1.06 Determination of the Surface Area of Alumina by Nitrogen Adsorption at 77K (4 points) What you will do In this experiment you will study the

More information

Some generalization of Langmuir adsorption isotherm

Some generalization of Langmuir adsorption isotherm Internet Journal of Chemistry, 2000, 3, 14 [ISSN: 1099-8292]. Article 14 Some generalization of Langmuir adsorption isotherm Leszek Czepirski, Mieczyslaw R. Balys, Ewa Komorowska-Czepirska University of

More information

Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Module - 03 Lecture 10 Good morning. In my last lecture, I was

More information

Adsorption. December 2014

Adsorption. December 2014 Adsorption December 2014 1 Nanosized objects have a large surface area Dividing the size of an object by 2... doubles the accessible surface 2 Adsorption Absorption Absorption is a phenomenon that occurs

More information

Studies on Pore Systems in Catalysts

Studies on Pore Systems in Catalysts JOURNAL OF CATALYSIS 4, 319323 (1965) Studies on Pore Systems in Catalysts V. The t Method B. C. LIPPENS* AND J. H. DE BOER From the Department of Chemical Technology, Technological University of Delft,

More information

Use the BET (after Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) equation is used to give specific surface area from the adsorption

Use the BET (after Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) equation is used to give specific surface area from the adsorption Number of moles of N 2 in 0.129dm 3 = 0.129/22.4 = 5.76 X 10-3 moles of N 2 gas Module 8 : Surface Chemistry Objectives Lecture 37 : Surface Characterization Techniques After studying this lecture, you

More information

Physical Adsorption Theory

Physical Adsorption Theory Physical Adsorption Theory Basic Concepts and Models q Isotherm P/Po Michael L. Strickland Micromeritics Instrument Corp. Norcross, GA U.S.A. Measuring the Isotherm An isotherm is a graphical representation

More information

A New Technique Provides Faster Particle Size Analysis at a Lower Cost Compared to Conventional Methods

A New Technique Provides Faster Particle Size Analysis at a Lower Cost Compared to Conventional Methods A New Technique Provides Faster Particle Size Analysis at a Lower Cost Compared to Conventional Methods Howard Sanders and Akshaya Jena Porous Material Inc. Ithaca, NY The technique described here calculates

More information

Effect of surface area, pore volume and particle size of P25 titania on the phase transformation of anatase to rutile

Effect of surface area, pore volume and particle size of P25 titania on the phase transformation of anatase to rutile Indian Journal of Chemistry Vol. 48A, October 2009, pp. 1378-1382 Notes Effect of surface area, pore volume and particle size of P25 titania on the phase transformation of anatase to rutile K Joseph Antony

More information

Low Temperature Adsorption Versus Pore Size in Activated Carbons

Low Temperature Adsorption Versus Pore Size in Activated Carbons Low Temperature Adsorption Versus Pore Size in Activated Carbons D. Martins 1, I. Catarino 1, D. Lopes 1, I. Esteves 2, J.P. Mota 2, G. Bonfait 1 1 CEFITEC Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências

More information

ISO 12800 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

ISO 12800 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12800 First edition 2003-12-01 Nuclear fuel technology Guide to the measurement of the specific surface area of uranium oxide powders by the BET method Technologie du combustible

More information

ADSORPTION OF N2 ON SILICA GEL

ADSORPTION OF N2 ON SILICA GEL Chapter 6. Adsorption of N 2 41 6 ADSORPTION OF N2 ON SILICA GEL The purpose of this experiment is to study the adsorption of gases on solid surfaces and to introduce you to some aspects of vacuum technique

More information

A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR SURFACE AREA DETERMINATION THROUGH SUPERCRITICAL CO 2 ADSORPTION

A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR SURFACE AREA DETERMINATION THROUGH SUPERCRITICAL CO 2 ADSORPTION MAKARA, TEKNOLOGI, VOL. 14, NO. 1, APRIL 2010: 1-6 A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR SURFACE AREA DETERMINATION THROUGH SUPERCRITICAL CO 2 ADSORPTION Mahmud Sudibandriyo Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik,

More information

Motivation Physisorption Chemisorption Outlook

Motivation Physisorption Chemisorption Outlook Surface area determination - physisorption and chemisorption Literature: Motivation Physisorption Chemisorption Outlook 1. DIN ISO 9277: BET method 2. DIN 66136: Dispersion measurement of metals 3. DIN

More information

(S&G 5th ed. Expt 27, 6th, 7th & 8th eds. Expt 26)

(S&G 5th ed. Expt 27, 6th, 7th & 8th eds. Expt 26) Chem 367-2/ Physical Adsorption 63 PHYSICAL ADSORPTION (S&G 5th ed. Expt 27, 6th, 7th & 8th eds. Expt 26) The sample used in this experiment needs to be conditioned for at least two hours before the experiment;

More information

Derivation of the BET and Langmuir Isotherms

Derivation of the BET and Langmuir Isotherms Derivation of the BET and Langmuir Isotherms October 5, 2011 1 Langmuir Isotherm Assumptions used for the Langmuir isotherm 1. Gaseous molecules behave ideally 2. Only one monolayer forms 3. All sites

More information

Standard Test Methods for Carbon Black Surface Area by Multipoint B.E.T. Nitrogen Adsorption 1

Standard Test Methods for Carbon Black Surface Area by Multipoint B.E.T. Nitrogen Adsorption 1 Designation: D 4820 99 Standard Test Methods for Carbon Black Surface Area by Multipoint B.E.T. Nitrogen Adsorption 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 4820; the number immediately

More information

Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Module No. #03 Lecture - 08 So, last time we were talking about

More information

presented by Neal Leddy CMA Analytical Workshop 2012 SURFACE AREA AND POROSITY

presented by Neal Leddy CMA Analytical Workshop 2012 SURFACE AREA AND POROSITY presented by Neal Leddy CMA Analytical Workshop 2012 SURFACE AREA AND POROSITY Adsorption When a gas or vapour phase is brought into contact with a solid, part of it is taken up and remains on the outside

More information

Gas Thermometer and Absolute Zero

Gas Thermometer and Absolute Zero Chapter 1 Gas Thermometer and Absolute Zero Name: Lab Partner: Section: 1.1 Purpose Construct a temperature scale and determine absolute zero temperature (the temperature at which molecular motion ceases).

More information

Oxygen Enrichment of Air on Zeolites Modified By Li + and Zn 2+

Oxygen Enrichment of Air on Zeolites Modified By Li + and Zn 2+ Research Paper Oxygen Enrichment of Air on Zeolites Modified By Li + and Zn 2+ Hüseyin Karaca and Murat Teker Department of Chemistry, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya, Turkey Tel.: +90 264 2956049; Fax:

More information

Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing

Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing CERTIFIED REFERENCE MATERIAL FOR THE GAS ADSORPTION BAM-PM-101 Material: SiO 2 with specific surface area (BET) of 0.177 0.004 m² g -1 Mean of means

More information

The interaction of Cu(100)-Fe surfaces with oxygen studied with photoelectron spectroscopy. I

The interaction of Cu(100)-Fe surfaces with oxygen studied with photoelectron spectroscopy. I 5 The interaction of Cu(100)-Fe surfaces with oxygen studied with photoelectron spectroscopy. I Mg Kα excited photoemission. Abstract The oxidation of Cu(100)-Fe surfaces was studied using XPS. Surfaces

More information

COVER STORY: Surface Area: The Most Underutilized Particle. Property in Pharma. What s Inside: Regulatory Intelligence Update

COVER STORY: Surface Area: The Most Underutilized Particle. Property in Pharma. What s Inside: Regulatory Intelligence Update September 2012, Vol. 10 The National Pharmaceutical Sciences Group s Quarterly Magazine COVER STORY: Surface Area: The Most Underutilized Particle Property in Pharma What s Inside: Regulatory Intelligence

More information

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389)

Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) 13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, 2013 A Study of Commercial Nanoparticulate g-al 2 O 3 Catalyst Supports Yahaya Rozita, [a] Rik Brydson,* [a] Tim P. Comyn,

More information

Pharmaceutical Physical Characterization: Surface Area and Porosity

Pharmaceutical Physical Characterization: Surface Area and Porosity Whitepaper Authors: Dr John M. Zielinski Intertek Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals, Allentown, USA Dr Lorna Kettle Intertek Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals, Manchester, UK Date: April 2013 Pharmaceutical Physical

More information

PHYSISORPTION DETERMINATIONS

PHYSISORPTION DETERMINATIONS G A S S O R P T I O N A N A L Y S I S PHYSISORPTION DETERMINATIONS Most atoms that make up a solid are bound on all sides by other atoms in the bulk of the solid. The atoms on the surface of the solid,

More information

vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK

vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS / ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF APPENDICES ii iii

More information

THE USE OF ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR MEASURING THE SURFACE AREAS OF CATALYSTS AND OTHER FINELY DIVIDED MATERIALS.' ABSTRACT.

THE USE OF ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR MEASURING THE SURFACE AREAS OF CATALYSTS AND OTHER FINELY DIVIDED MATERIALS.' ABSTRACT. A paper presented at the Seventy-first General Meeting, held at Philadelphia, Pa., May 1, 1937, Dr. E. L. Kropa presiding. THE USE OF ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR MEASURING THE SURFACE AREAS OF CATALYSTS AND

More information

2/15/2013. Chapter 13

2/15/2013. Chapter 13 Chapter 13 The skunk releases its spray! Within seconds you smell that all-too-familiar foul odor. You will discover some general characteristics of gases that help explain how odors travel through the

More information

ADSORPTION OF WATER ON THE FINE FRACTIONS OF FINNISH TILLS

ADSORPTION OF WATER ON THE FINE FRACTIONS OF FINNISH TILLS ADSORPTION OF WATER ON THE FINE FRACTIONS OF FINNISH TILLS AARRE KELLOMÄKI and PERTTI NIEMINEN KELLOMÄKI, AARRE and NIEMINEN, PERTTI, 1986: Adsorption of water on the fine fractions of Finnish tills. Bull.

More information

Chapter 5. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 5. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Class: Date: Chapter 5 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the pressure of the sample of gas trapped in the open-tube mercury manometer

More information

BENTONITE-METHYLAMINE COMPLEXES i

BENTONITE-METHYLAMINE COMPLEXES i BENTONITE-METHYLAMINE COMPLEXES i by I~ICKiRDS A. ROWLAND ~ AND E. JOSEPH WEISS a Shell Development Company (A Division of Shell Off Company), Exploration and Production Research Division, Houston, Texas

More information

CALIBRATION OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE X-RAY DIFFRACTION STAGE BY DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL EXPANSION A.R. Drews

CALIBRATION OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE X-RAY DIFFRACTION STAGE BY DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL EXPANSION A.R. Drews Copyright(c)JCPDS-International Centre for Diffraction Data 2001,Advances in X-ray Analysis,Vol.44 44 CALIBRATION OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE X-RAY DIFFRACTION STAGE BY DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL EXPANSION A.R. Drews

More information

SORPTION ISOTHERM STUDY ON TWO POLYAMIDE NANOFIBEROUS MEMBRANES. Yan WANG, Jakub WIENER, Guocheng ZHU

SORPTION ISOTHERM STUDY ON TWO POLYAMIDE NANOFIBEROUS MEMBRANES. Yan WANG, Jakub WIENER, Guocheng ZHU SORPTION ISOTHERM STUDY ON TWO POLYAMIDE NANOFIBEROUS MEMBRANES Yan WANG, Jakub WIENER, Guocheng ZHU Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Department of Textile Materials, Liberec,

More information

Analytical Services. Part number Measurement Description. Single-Point BET with Nitrogen 06000-1N. Multi-Point BET With Nitrogen 06000-3N

Analytical Services. Part number Measurement Description. Single-Point BET with Nitrogen 06000-1N. Multi-Point BET With Nitrogen 06000-3N 06000-1N 06000-3N Single-Point BET with Nitrogen Multi-Point BET With Nitrogen Single-point BET specific surface area (P/Po = 0.3) by nitrogen adsorption at 77K. Dynamic flow method unless otherwise requested.

More information

Hydrogen Adsorption on Nanoporous Biocarbon

Hydrogen Adsorption on Nanoporous Biocarbon Hydrogen Adsorption on Nanoporous Biocarbon Mikael Wood, Jacob Burress, Cintia Lapilli, Peter Pfeifer, Parag Shah, Galen Suppes University of Missouri-Columbia Phillip Parilla, Anne Dillon National Renewable

More information

Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis

Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis Center for Materials Science and Engineering at MIT http://prism.mit.edu/xray An X-ray diffraction pattern is a plot of the intensity of X-rays scattered

More information

TDS. Dirk Rosenthal Department of Inorganic Chemistry Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG Faradayweg 4-6, DE 14195 Berlin dirkrose@fhi-berlin.mpg.

TDS. Dirk Rosenthal Department of Inorganic Chemistry Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG Faradayweg 4-6, DE 14195 Berlin dirkrose@fhi-berlin.mpg. Modern Methods in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research TDS Dirk Rosenthal Department of Inorganic Chemistry Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG Faradayweg 4-6, DE 14195 Berlin dirkrose@fhi-berlin.mpg.de TDS = TPD

More information

Adsorption at Surfaces

Adsorption at Surfaces Adsorption at Surfaces Adsorption is the accumulation of particles (adsorbate) at a surface (adsorbent or substrate). The reverse process is called desorption. fractional surface coverage: θ = Number of

More information

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

More information

ADSORPTION, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

ADSORPTION, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Physicochemical Surface and Catalytic Properties of the Na 2 0-doped CuO-ZnO/Al 2 System G.A. El-Shobaky, G.A. Fagal, A.S Ahmed and M. Mokhtar. Reprinted from ADSORPTION, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 15

More information

Physical Characterization: Surface Area and Porosity

Physical Characterization: Surface Area and Porosity Whitepaper Authors: Dr John M. Zielinski Intertek Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals, Allentown, USA Dr Lorna Kettle Intertek Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals, Manchester, UK Date: April 2013 Physical Characterization:

More information

Pore size and BET surface area. analysis at your fingertips. SA 3100. Gas Adsorption Analyzer

Pore size and BET surface area. analysis at your fingertips. SA 3100. Gas Adsorption Analyzer Pore size and BET surface area analysis at your fingertips. SA 3100 Gas Adsorption Analyzer The History of Beckman Coulter Particle Characterization Introducing The SA 3100 Surface Area and Pore Size Analyzer

More information

CHEM 1411, chapter 5 exercises

CHEM 1411, chapter 5 exercises CHEM 1411, chapter 5 exercises 1. A gas-filled balloon with a volume of 12.5 L at 0.90 atm and 21 C is allowed to rise to the stratosphere where the temperature is 5 C and the pressure is 1.0 millibar.

More information

X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROCEDURES

X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROCEDURES X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROCEDURES For Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials HAROLD P. KLUG HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL PHYSICS LEROY E. ALEXANDER SENIOR FELLOW IN X-RAY DIFFRACTION Mellon

More information

Adsorption and Catalysis

Adsorption and Catalysis Adsorption and Catalysis Dr. King Lun Yeung Department of Chemical Engineering Hong Kong University of Science and Technology CENG 511 Lecture 3 Adsorption versus Absorption H H H H H H H H H Adsorption

More information

General Properties of Gases. Properties of Gases. K is for Kelvin. C is for degrees Celsius. F is for degrees Fahrenheit PROPERTIES OF GASES GAS LAWS

General Properties of Gases. Properties of Gases. K is for Kelvin. C is for degrees Celsius. F is for degrees Fahrenheit PROPERTIES OF GASES GAS LAWS PROPERTIES OF GASES or GAS LAWS 1 General Properties of Gases There is a lot of empty space in a gas. Gases can be expanded infinitely. Gases fill containers uniformly and completely. Gases diffuse and

More information

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion. Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

More information

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat What are temperature and heat? Are they the same? What causes heat? What Is Temperature? How do we measure temperature? What are we actually measuring? Temperature and Its

More information

Humidity, Evaporation, and

Humidity, Evaporation, and Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Dew drops like these, on a banana leaf photographed just after sunrise, form when the air temperature drops to or below the dew point. At the dew

More information

Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors. Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson

Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors. Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Introduction History of Superconductors Superconductors are material which

More information

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 2 Chem. 1A

CSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 2 Chem. 1A Name: Lab Section: EXPERIMENT 2: HYDRATE PRE LABORATORY ASSIGNMENT Score: /10 (To be completed prior to lab, read the experiment before attempting) 1. A student obtains the following data: Mass of test

More information

This chapter gives a brief outline of the experimental techniques used for the

This chapter gives a brief outline of the experimental techniques used for the CHAPTER II Experimental Techniques This chapter gives a brief outline of the experimental techniques used for the characterization of catalysts and the test of catalyst activity in this study. 2.1 Thermo-gravimetric

More information

Bloom s Taxonomy. Study Habits and Study Resources: Pause. Expectations: Develop a working knowledge of the topics.

Bloom s Taxonomy. Study Habits and Study Resources: Pause. Expectations: Develop a working knowledge of the topics. Dr. C. Weldon Mathews Chem 1 Office: 004 Evans Lab Telephone: 9-1574 email: mathews.6@osu.edu web: www.chemistry.ohio-state.edu/~mathews/ Office hours: TR 1:30 - :00 pm TR 4:00-5:00 pm or by appointment

More information

Nitrogen Gas Adsorption in Zeolites 13X and 5A

Nitrogen Gas Adsorption in Zeolites 13X and 5A Nitrogen Gas Adsorption in Zeolites 13X and 5A H. Melissa Magee Mentored by Professor N. S. Sullivan Walla Walla University, 24 S. College Ave., College Place, WA 99324 Abstract. Since the discovery of

More information

CHEM 105 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99. = -163 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Ni(CO) 4 (g) = -260 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Cr(CO) 6 (g)

CHEM 105 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99. = -163 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Ni(CO) 4 (g) = -260 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Cr(CO) 6 (g) CHEM 15 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99 NAME (please print) 1. a. given: Ni (s) + 4 CO (g) = Ni(CO) 4 (g) H Rxn = -163 k/mole determine H f for Ni(CO) 4 (g) b. given: Cr (s) + 6 CO (g) = Cr(CO) 6 (g) H Rxn = -26

More information

Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling

Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling By: OpenStax College Online: This module is copyrig hted by Rice University. It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution

More information

Rutherford s Gold foil scattering experiment

Rutherford s Gold foil scattering experiment Rutherford s Gold foil scattering experiment Introduction: In physics, Rutherford scattering is a phenomenon that was explained by Ernest Rutherford in 1909, and led to the development of the Rutherford

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY - SURFACE ADSORPTION

SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY - SURFACE ADSORPTION SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY - SURFACE ADSORPTION BACKGROUND The adsorption of molecules on the surfaces of solids is a very interesting and useful phenomenon. Surface adsorption is at the heart of such things

More information

processes has undergone remarkable expansion the

processes has undergone remarkable expansion the SOME PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS ON CATALYSTS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE R. M. Engelbreoht Monsanto Chemical Company The large scale use of catalysts in commercial processes has undergone remarkable expansion the

More information

Abbreviations Conversions Standard Conditions Boyle s Law

Abbreviations Conversions Standard Conditions Boyle s Law Gas Law Problems Abbreviations Conversions atm - atmosphere K = C + 273 mmhg - millimeters of mercury 1 cm 3 (cubic centimeter) = 1 ml (milliliter) torr - another name for mmhg 1 dm 3 (cubic decimeter)

More information

Carbon Dioxide and an Argon + Nitrogen Mixture. Measurement of C p /C v for Argon, Nitrogen, Stephen Lucas 05/11/10

Carbon Dioxide and an Argon + Nitrogen Mixture. Measurement of C p /C v for Argon, Nitrogen, Stephen Lucas 05/11/10 Carbon Dioxide and an Argon + Nitrogen Mixture Measurement of C p /C v for Argon, Nitrogen, Stephen Lucas 05/11/10 Measurement of C p /C v for Argon, Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide and an Argon + Nitrogen Mixture

More information

Nano-pore structure characterization of shales using gas adsorption and mercury intrusion techniques

Nano-pore structure characterization of shales using gas adsorption and mercury intrusion techniques Available online www.jocpr.com Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(4):850-857 Research Article ISSN : 0975-7384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 Nano-pore structure characterization of shales using

More information

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790. CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

More information

Characterization of Porous Glasses by Adsorption: Models, Simulations and Data Inversion

Characterization of Porous Glasses by Adsorption: Models, Simulations and Data Inversion Characterization of Porous Glasses by Adsorption: Models, Simulations and Data Inversion Lev D. Gelb and K. E. Gubbins North Carolina State University Department of Chemical Engineering Raleigh, NC 27695-7905,

More information

Figure 10.3 A mercury manometer. This device is sometimes employed in the laboratory to measure gas pressures near atmospheric pressure.

Figure 10.3 A mercury manometer. This device is sometimes employed in the laboratory to measure gas pressures near atmospheric pressure. Characteristics of Gases Practice Problems A. Section 10.2 Pressure Pressure Conversions: 1 ATM = 101.3 kpa = 760 mm Hg (torr) SAMPLE EXERCISE 10.1 Converting Units of Pressure (a) Convert 0.357 atm to

More information

FINESORB-3020. Surface Area. as or more than 0.1-2000m 2 /g. Distribution of Pore 0.35-500nm. Degas & Analysis Up to 12 Degas & 6 Analysis Station

FINESORB-3020. Surface Area. as or more than 0.1-2000m 2 /g. Distribution of Pore 0.35-500nm. Degas & Analysis Up to 12 Degas & 6 Analysis Station 1 FINESORB-3020 Surface Area and Porosimetry Analyzer Finesorb-3020 is Surface Area and Porosimetry Analyzer based on vacuum system from fintec instrument company.you could do the Surface Area analysis,aperture

More information

Surface Area and Pore Size Distribution

Surface Area and Pore Size Distribution ABC s of Electrochemistry series Materials Characterization techniques: Surface Area and Pore Size Distribution Ana María Valenzuela-Muñiz February 9, 2012 Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

More information

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 1. Figure 1 The graph represents the relationship between temperature and time as heat was added uniformly to a substance starting at a solid

More information

Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids

Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids 10.1 Intermolecular Forces A. Dipole-Dipole Forces 1. Attraction between molecules with dipole moments a. Maximizes (+) ----- ( - ) interactions b. Minimizes (+) ----- (

More information

A Study of Specific Surface Area for Matrix, Eheim Substrat Pro, and JBL MicroMec. George L. Batten Jr., Ph.D Gmerice K. Lafayette, M.P.H.

A Study of Specific Surface Area for Matrix, Eheim Substrat Pro, and JBL MicroMec. George L. Batten Jr., Ph.D Gmerice K. Lafayette, M.P.H. A Study of Specific Surface Area for Matrix, Eheim Substrat Pro, and JBL MicroMec Abstract George L. Batten Jr., Ph.D Gmerice K. Lafayette, M.P.H. Seachem Laboratories 1000 Seachem Drive Madison, GA 30650

More information

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 Gases A Gas Has neither a definite volume nor shape. Uniformly fills any container.

More information

Introduction to X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Learning Activity

Introduction to X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Learning Activity Introduction to X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Learning Activity Basic Theory: Diffraction and Bragg s Law Take a look at the diagram below: X-rays Interacting with Material A Scatter Single Particle B Diffraction

More information

CHAPTER 12 GASES AND THEIR BEHAVIOR

CHAPTER 12 GASES AND THEIR BEHAVIOR Chapter 12 Gases and Their Behavior Page 1 CHAPTER 12 GASES AND THEIR BEHAVIOR 12-1. Which of the following represents the largest gas pressure? (a) 1.0 atm (b) 1.0 mm Hg (c) 1.0 Pa (d) 1.0 KPa 12-2. Nitrogen

More information

Chapter 1. Matter, Measurement and Problem Solving. Chapter 1. Helleur. Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 st Ed.

Chapter 1. Matter, Measurement and Problem Solving. Chapter 1. Helleur. Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 st Ed. Why Clickers? to refresh the students during the lecture to assess student understanding of a topic to increase student participation in class to encourage student interaction in large lectures peer teaching

More information

8. Pore analysis by adsorption

8. Pore analysis by adsorption 8. Pore analysis by adsorption 1 8.1. Kelvin equation Adsorption data pore size or pore size distribution θ P : equilibrium P in pores with a radius r. P 0 : equilibrium P 0 on planar surface. r : pore

More information

Experimental Study of Micropore Size Distribution in Coals

Experimental Study of Micropore Size Distribution in Coals 2012 International Conference on Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics Technologies (FDTT 2012) IPCSIT vol.33(2012) (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore Experimental Study of Micropore Size Distribution in Coals

More information

Simple vs. True. Simple vs. True. Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Simple vs. True. Simple vs. True. Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas Formula writing is a key component for success in chemistry. How do scientists really know what the true formula for a compound might be? In this lesson we

More information

Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C

Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C Practice Test 1) Increase the pressure in a container of oxygen gas while keeping the temperature constant and you increase the A) molecular speed. B) molecular kinetic energy. C) Choice A and choice B

More information

Basics in X-ray Diffraction and Special Application

Basics in X-ray Diffraction and Special Application Basics in X-ray Diffraction and Special Application Introduction: X-ray Diffraction (XRD) helps one to reach the science at atomic scale in the analysis of crystal structure, chemical composition, and

More information

Catalyst Characterization Using Thermal Conductivity Detector

Catalyst Characterization Using Thermal Conductivity Detector OpenStax-CNX module: m43579 1 Catalyst Characterization Using Thermal Conductivity Detector Juan Velazquez Andrew R. Barron This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons

More information

Chem. 1A Final Exam Review Problems From ch. 11, 12 & 13

Chem. 1A Final Exam Review Problems From ch. 11, 12 & 13 Chem. A Final Exam Review Problems From ch., 2 & 3 f Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.. Place the following cations in order from lowest to

More information

Introduction to the Ideal Gas Law

Introduction to the Ideal Gas Law Course PHYSICS260 Assignment 5 Consider ten grams of nitrogen gas at an initial pressure of 6.0 atm and at room temperature. It undergoes an isobaric expansion resulting in a quadrupling of its volume.

More information

Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases

Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases Significant Figure Convention At least one extra significant figure is displayed in all intermediate calculations. The final answer is expressed with the correct number

More information

Surface-related phenomena

Surface-related phenomena Surface-related phenomena Lectures in Physical Chemistry 7 Tamás Turányi Institute of Chemistry, ELTE Surface tension In a liquid those molecules have the lowest energy, which are surrounded by other molecules

More information

IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES

IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES 2/2016 ideal gas 1/8 IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES PURPOSE: To measure how the pressure of a low-density gas varies with temperature, to determine the absolute zero of temperature by making a linear fit to

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

The PMI Advanced. BET SORPTOMETER BET-201-AELC-2OS Not just products...solutions!

The PMI Advanced. BET SORPTOMETER BET-201-AELC-2OS Not just products...solutions! The PMI Advanced BET SORPTOMETER BET-201-AELC-2OS Not just products...solutions! DESCRIPTION The Fully automated equipment is intended for measurement of adsorption characteristics of various gases on

More information

Thermodynamics of Adsorption

Thermodynamics of Adsorption CTI_CHAPTER_21.qxd 6/7/24 3:31 PM Page 243 CHAPTER 21 Thermodynamics of Adsorption ALAN L. MYERS 1 Introduction The attachment of molecules to the surface of a solid by adsorption is a broad subject. This

More information

7. Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

7. Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter 7. Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter is a concept that basically states that matter is composed

More information

Molecular Sieve Applications

Molecular Sieve Applications Molecular Sieve Applications PRESENTER: CHARLES D. NOLIDIN Cheah Phaik Sim Loo Yook Si Karl Kolmetz Outlines Introduction - Molecular Sieve Adsorbents Adsorption Principles Dynamic Adsorption Regeneration

More information

Preparation and Characterization of Activated Charcoal as an Adsorbent

Preparation and Characterization of Activated Charcoal as an Adsorbent 1 J. Surface Sci. Technol., Vol 22, No. 3-4, pp. 133-140, 2006 2006 Indian Society for Surface Science and Technology, India. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Charcoal as an Adsorbent M. A.

More information