1 Basic Design Considerations for Geothermal Heat Pump Systems 2005 Tri-Service Infrastructure Systems Conference and Exhibition Gary Phetteplace US Army Engineer Research and Development Center Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Hanover, NH
2 Outline for today Motivation for GSHP s Types of systems Major system types Summary of advantages and disadvantages Building heat loads and heat pump selection Design of ground-coupling Design software Other ground loop considerations Other system design issues Pumps and piping Ventilation air Cost control How to stay out of trouble References
3 Why Use the Ground As a Heat Source/Sink? 35.0 Ft. Polk, LA Test well Temperatures TEMP (ÞC) FT 6-FT 31-FT 181-FT WEEK
4 Basic System Types
5 CLOSED LOOP Vertical Ground Coupled Advantages low land area requirement. stable deep soil temperature. adaptable to many sites. Disadvantages high cost. does not work well in some geological conditions. needs experienced vertical loop installer, not conventional well driller.
6 CLOSED LOOP Horizontal Ground Coupled Advantages lower first cost. less special skills. less uncertainty in site conditions, but soil conditions can vary seasonally. Disadvantages high land area requirement. limited potential for HX w/groundwater. wider seasonal temperature swings, lower efficiency.
7 CLOSED LOOP Slinky Ground Coupled Advantages those of horizontal GC. but less land area. adaptable to wide range of construction equipment. Disadvantages lots of pipe and pumping. widest seasonal temperature swings, lowest efficiency.
8 Surface Water Systems Advantages Low first cost Direct cooling may be possible Disadvantages Fishermen Wide seasonal temperature swings Commercial-scale systems require significant water bodies
9 OPEN LOOP Ground Water
10 Open loop ground water system Advantages Lowest first cost, especially for large loads Stable source temperature, high efficiency Some direct cooling possible Oldest, most commonplace Disadvantages Environmental requirements Site specific Poor water quality can cause difficulties Slide 7
11 Summary of Ground-Source vs Conventional Systems GSHP Advantages Ideal zone control Simple, highly reliable controls and equipment Low operating cost Low maintenance Less floor area requirements No on site fuel Green technology Heat recovery hot water heating possible GSHP Disadvantages Higher first costs compared to some systems Experienced designers and design guidance limited Installation infrastructure regionally inadequate
12 Building Loads and Heat Pump Selection
13 Building Loads and Heat Pump Selection A wide variety of heat pump configurations and sizes are available No more than one zone per heat pump is usually best Bigger equipment is normally not better Smaller units usually have higher efficiencies Larger units have little cost advantage. Often ducting costs will offset any advantage
14 Building Loads and Heat Pump Selection Three principal options for configuration of ground-coupling: Common circulating loop, best for compact floor plans Separate ground-coupling for each heat pump, best for some retrofit situations and spread-out buildings like schools Some combination of these two approaches
15 Central System Do not worry that flow in loops goes laminar at low flow. VSD may be justified even for small pumps.
16 Alternatives to central system
17 Alternatives to central system Each unit has its own pump A single pump comes on if any unit is on, or each unit is totally independent.
18 Building Loads and Heat Pump Selection The New Standard: ARI/ISO
19 Energy Star minimum performance System Type Closed Loop Open Loop Cooling EER Heating COP
20 Heat Pump Unit Types
21 Building Loads and Heat Pump Selection Final thoughts on heat pump selection: Recommended minimum Energy Star EERs/COPs Maximum head losses in the water coil of the heat pump should not exceed 45 kpa (15 ft of water) when the flow rate is at 0.19 L/s (3 gpm) ) per nominal ton of cooling capacity. Watch out for multispeed unit ratings Use high-efficiency units: less heat discharge in cooling mode much better at off-design conditions
22 Design of vertical ground-coupling
23 Design of the ground-coupling Sizing of the ground-coupling for a heat pump is different than sizing conventional equipment. The capacity of the ground to absorb or provide heat is a transient heat transfer problem. The thermal state of the ground is determined by prior heat addition/extractions rates and durations. While significant imbalance of heat extraction/heat rejection can n be tolerated, the long term impacts must be considered. The ground can not be assumed infinite and the interaction of adjacent borehole heat exchangers is very important for commercial scale systems. Bottom line is that we need to know the load duration information n as well as peak load and we need a design tool that appropriately considersc all these factors as well as accuracy models the heat transfer ini n the ground.
24 Design of the ground-coupling
25 Vertical Ground-Loop Design Design software essential for commercial- scale systems. Sources: GchpCalc Version 4.1, Energy Information Services, $300 GLHEPRO V.3.0, International Ground Source Heat Pump Association (IGSHPA), $525 GS2000 Version 2.0, Caneta Research Inc., to be distributed free in future by NRC Canada.
26 Vertical Ground-Loop Design Oak Ridge National Laboratory has compared the results of these (and other) design programs against detailed simulation models and field data from operating systems. The results have shown that GCHPCalc is accurate and in most cases out performs the other programs. The results of the Oak Ridge studies can be found at: Thornton, J. W., McDowell, T. P. and Hughes, P. J. (1997). Comparison of practical vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods to a Fort Polk data/model a/model benchmark. Proceeding of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and d Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 103(2), ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA. Shonder, J. A., Baxter, V., Thornton, J., and Hughes, P.. (1999a). A New comparison of vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods for residential applications. plications. Proceeding of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and d Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 105(2), ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA. Shonder, J. A., Baxter, V., Hughes, P., and Thornton, J. (2000a). A comparison of vertical ground heat exchanger design software for commercial applications. plications. Proceeding of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and d Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 106(1), ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA.
27 Other Ground-Loop Considerations Thermal tests Through site characterization, including test boring is advisable, especially where little is known about the geological conditions at the job site. For larger projects, say 100 tons or more, in-situ thermal properties tests will probably be justified. Recommendations for thermal properties testing requirements and methods can be Found in Chapter 32 of the 2003 ASHRAE HVAC Applications Handbook.
28 Other Other Ground-Loop Ground-Loop Considerations Considerations Thermal Thermal tests tests
29 Other Ground-Loop Considerations - Antifreeze Antifreeze is seldom necessary in vertical ground-coupled systems. When it is necessary, use the minimum amount for protection. A number of antifreeze compounds are available, each with desirable and undesirable properties. Propylene glycol is often the best all around choice, consult Chapter 32 of the 2003 ASHRAE HVAC Applications Handbook for a discussion of the various antifreeze compounds used and their individual attributes.
30 Other Ground-Loop Considerations -Grout Grout is often required by the regulatory authorities to protect ground water from surface contamination, or prevent cross contamination of aquifers. Unfortunately the thermal conductivity of the popular bentonite based grouts is very low when compared to most geologic formations. Hence, grouting of the borehole with conventional bentonite grout is analogous to insulating your heat exchanger. Thermally enhanced grouts have been developed to address this issue.
31 Other Ground-Loop Considerations -Grout A set of tests conducted by Spilker (1998) showed the dramatic effects that grout can have on the average circulating water temperature after just 48 hours of continuous heat rejection: Details of the tests can be found at : Spilker, E. H. (1998). Ground-coupled heat pump loop design using thermal conductivity testing and the effect of different backfill materials on vertical bore length. Proceedings of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), Atlanta, Georgia.
32 Other Ground-Loop Considerations -Grout The Three Rules of Grouting: I. Reduce borehole to minimum size necessary to reduce grout volume and preserve the geological formation. II. Grout only that portion of borehole required by regulation (use clean sand in remainder if allowed). III. If significant portions of the borehole (say more than 25%) will be grouted, use thermally enhanced grout, especially if the formation has high thermal conductivity.
33 Other Ground-Loop Considerations regulatory requirements Regulatory requirements vary widely by state. Studies have been completed of the various state requirement s, however they continue to evolve so check with the state and/or other local authorities before proceeding with design.
34 Piping and Pumps
35 Piping and Pumps General recommendations: Size piping based on accepted design guides (references given at end of presentation) Avoid use of antifreeze, use low concentration Variable-speed pumping w/ two-way way valves on HPs Use high-efficiency motor and operate pump near its sweet spot Select heat pumps and valves with low MP Pump no more water than necessary, 2.5 to 3 gpm per ton of peak block load for vertical ground-coupled systems.
36 Ventilation Air Various solutions are available depending on climate and type of installation: For classrooms and hotel-type type installations in moderate climates, console units may be best For larger units, preconditioned air can be ducted to each unit Sensible heat recovery is probably worthwhile in heating-dominated climates Water source heat pumps normally have high latent capacity, but preconditioning may still be advisable in humid climates
37 Cost Control Some possible cost control measures: Use hybrid systems in cooling dominated climates Avoid costly sophisticated control systems, GSHPs inherently provide excellent zone control Use accepted design guides and consult experienced designers Encourage bids from contractors outside local area if inadequate local infrastructure exists
38 Disclaimers and warnings I can t cover all the details in a one hour presentation so if youy plan to design a GSHP systems here are some steps that will help you successfully do so: Take a short-course on design of these systems, sources I can recommend are: ASHRAE Short courses (not comprehensive, a starting point only, offered intermittently at ASHRAE meetings) University of Wisconsin (next offered on September 2005) GchpCalc courses (offered occasionally via Energy Information Services) Obtain a copy of one of the recommended design software programs and training on how to use it.. Do not size ground-coupling based on rules-of of-thumb, manufacturers recommendations, etc. Obtain copies of the accepted design guides and use them,, see list at end of presentation. If you have questions consult an experienced designer. Do not make the systems overly complicated by adding unnecessary backup, redundancy, controls, etc.
39 References Recommended design references: 2003 ASHRAE Handbook, HVAC applications.. Chapter 32 Geothermal Energy. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), Atlanta, GA. ASHRAE. (1997). Ground source heat pumps design of geothermal systems for commercial and institutional buildings.. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), Atlanta, GA. Recommended survey article: Phetteplace, Gary (2002) Ground-source heat pumps. In: Renewable energy: trends and prospects.. (S.K. Majumdar, E.W. Miller, and A.I. Panah,, Eds.). Pennsylvania Academy of Science, Chapter 14, p ISBN
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