# Numerical Methods in MATLAB

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1 Numerical Methods in MATLAB Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Consulting Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of Maryland, Baltimore County Winter 2008

2 Mission and Goals: The Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Consulting (CIRC) is a consulting service on mathematics and statistics provided by the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at UMBC. Established in 2003, CIRC is dedicated to support interdisciplinary research for the UMBC campus community and the public at large. We provide a full range of consulting services from free initial consulting to long term support for research programs. CIRC offers mathematical and statistical expertise in broad areas of applications, including biological sciences, engineering, and the social sciences. On the mathematics side, particular strengths include techniques of parallel computing and assistance with software packages such as MATLAB and COMSOL Multiphysics (formerly known as FEMLAB). On the statistics side, areas of particular strength include Toxicology, Industrial Hygiene, Bioequivalence, Biomechanical Engineering, Environmental Science, Finance, Information Theory, and packages such as SAS, SPSS, and S-Plus. Copyright c by the Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Consulting, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County. All Rights Reserved. This tutorial is provided as a service of CIRC to the community for personal uses only. Any use beyond this is only acceptable with prior permission from CIRC. This document is under constant development and will periodically be updated. Standard disclaimers apply. Acknowledgements: We gratefully acknowledge the efforts of the CIRC research assistants and students in Math/Stat 750 Introduction to Interdisciplinary Consulting in developing this tutorial series. MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc.,

3 1 Numerical ODEs 3 In this section we discuss numerical ordinary differential equations in Matlab. Matlab provides a number of ODE solvers; we will focus our attention to ode45 which uses a four stage Runge-kutta method to solve a give ordinary differential equation. We will first see how ones an initial value problem of form We can solve such problems using [T Y]=ode45(f, tspan, y0) dy = f(t, y), dt y(t 0 ) = y 0. In the above syntax, the input argument f specifies the right hand side function of the differential equations, tspan is the time interval in which we want to solve the equation, and y0 is the initial value. The output argument Y gives the numerical solution over the discretized time interval T. Consider the following problem, dy dt = t y, y(0) = 1. One can solve this problem analytically to get the solution, y(t) = 2e t + t 1. To solve the problem numerically, we can use >> f y)(t - y) f y)(t - y) >> y0=1; >> [T Y] = ode45(f, [0 2], y0); The reader can see how good the numerical solution is by plotting both the numerical solution and the true solution in the same plot; better yet one can compute and plot the approximation error to get a better picture of how good the solution was. The following Matlab code can used to solve the above problem; it also plots the numerical solution, the true solution, and the approximation error (see Figure 1). function testode y0 = 1; [T Y] = [0 2], y0); y = ftrue(t); subplot(311); plot(t, Y);

4 4 1 NUMERICAL ODES title( Approximate Solution ); subplot(312); plot(t, y); title( True Solution ); subplot(313); plot(t, abs(y - y)); title( Approximation Error ); % subfunctions function f=frhs(t, y); f = t - y; function f=ftrue(t); f = 2*exp(-t)+t-1; Figure 1: Using ode45 to solve an ODE We can also solve systems of ODEs using ode45. To illustrate the idea we solve a classical predator-prey system. Let s consider the interaction of foxes and rabbits, where foxes are predators and rabbits are the prey. Denote, the rabbit population at any time by y 1 (t) and the fox population by y 2 (t). The system of differential equations

5 5 modeling the dynamics of this predator-prey system is given by the following dy 1 dt = gy 1 d 1 y 1 y 2 dy 2 dt = d 2y 2 + cy 1 y 2 In above equations the parameters g, d 1, d 2, and c denote: 1. g = natural growth rate of rabbit population in absence of foxes. 2. d 1 = the rate at which foxes die in the absence of rabbits. 3. d 2 = the death rate per each (deadly) encounter of rabbits due to foxes. 4. c = the contribution to fox population of each (food making) encounter of rabbits and foxes to fox population. In addition to specifying the model parameters, we also need to specify the initial population of foxes and rabbits at t = 0. Let s choose the model parameters as below: g = 0.04; d 1 = 0.001; d 2 = 0.1; c = 0.002; Also, we assume the initial populations start at y 1 (0) = 100 and y 2 (0) = 100. To solve the resulting initial value problem, we can use ode45; the Matlab function predatorprey provided below solves the problem using ode45 and plots the populations of foxes and rabbits on the same plot (Figure 2); moreover, the function creates a phase-plane diagram (Figure 2) which is a useful tool in analyzing such systems.

6 6 1 NUMERICAL ODES function predatorprey [T,Y] = 100],[ ]); subplot(2,1,1); plot(t,y(:,1), -, T,Y(:,2), -- ); title( Population Dynamics of Foxes and Rabbits ); legend( Rabbit Population, Fox Population ); xlabel( t ); ylabel( Population ); grid on; subplot(2,1,2); plot(y(:,1), Y(:,2)); title( Phase Plane Diagram for the fox-rabbit population ); xlabel( Rabbits ); ylabel( Foxes ); grid on; %rhs function function dy = yprime(t, y) g = 0.4; d1 = 0.001; d2 = 0.1; c = 0.002; dy = [g*y(1)-d1*y(1)*y(2); c*y(1)*y(2) - d2*y(2)];

7 7 Figure 2: Dynamics of a predator prey (fox/rabbit) system The reader can further experiment with the above Matlab code to see the outcome with different parameters and different initial populations.

8 8 1 NUMERICAL ODES Our discussion of Matlab s ODE solvers here focused on the example of the function ode45, which is Matlab s most popular ODE solver. Matlab has a suite of solvers, see doc ode45 for full documentation and recommendations for when to use which method in table form. We complement this table here by discussing the methods and providing some additional information. See this documentation also for the list of options used to control the method, such as relative and absolute tolerances on the error estimator, as well as for a list of references on the subject of ODE solvers and the methods in particular. All ODE solvers in Matlab use the same function interface, so it is easy to try several methods on the same problem and observe their behavior. Also, all methods compute an estimator for the error of the solution that is used to automatically select the size of the time step and also of the method order, if it is variable. ODE problems are roughly classified into stiff and nonstiff problems. General-purpose ODE solvers in Matlab that are appropriate for stiff problems are indicated by the letter s at the end of their names, namely ode15s and ode23s. The most important nonstiff solvers are 45 and ode113. The numbers in the names of the two methods ode15s and ode113 that are variable-order methods indicate the method order ranging from 1 to 5 and from 1 to 13, respectively. All other methods are fixed-order methods with the first number indicating the order of the method, such as 4 in ode45 and 2 in ode23s; the second number indicates the order of the second method used simultaneously in the error estimator. The technical definition of the term stiff is difficult, but their practical definition is readily stated: A problem is stiff, if the automatic step size control of the method chooses small steps even for large tolerances. This means that the step sizes are limited by the stability of the method and not the accuracy requested by the user. Note that all ODE solvers in Matlab use automatic step size control based on a sophisticated error estimator, hence the accuracy of their solution is ensured; but if it takes a longer time to compute the solution with nonstiff solvers such as ode45 or ode113 than with a stiff solver such as ode15s, the problem is considered stiff. In summary, for a particular problem, try ode45 or ode113 as potential nonstiff solvers and try also ode15s as potential stiff solvers. Then continue using whichever method performed most efficiently.

9 2 Matlab Toolboxes 9 In this section, we will discuss Matlab Toolboxes. In general, Matlab toolboxes extend the capabilities of Matlab by providing highly efficient routines which are specialized to handle specific situations. For example, if one is solving some problems in the area of neural networks, the Neural Network Toolbox provides powerful tools to handle problems of that type. As another example, Matlab s Statistics Toolbox provides a wide range of statistical routines. A good way to learn about a Matlab Toolbox is studying the associated Getting Started Guide; another good place to start is the user s guide for the associated Toolbox. For example, in Figure 3, we have displayed the help screen for Matlab s Statistics Toolbox (from Matlab s Help facility). We can see the various documentations provided for a toolbox. Figure 3: Matlab s Statistics Toolbox To give the readers an idea of the available Matlab toolboxes, a list of widely used Matlab Toolboxes is provided in Table 1. To find out which Toolboxes are available in your version of Matlab you can type

10 10 2 MATLAB TOOLBOXES Math and Optimization Optimization Toolbox Symbolic Math Toolbox Extended Symbolic Math Toolbox Partial Differential Equation Toolbox Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search Toolbox Statistics and Data Analysis Statistics Toolbox Neural Network Toolbox Curve Fitting Toolbox Spline Toolbox Model-Based Calibration Toolbox Control System Design and Analysis Control System Toolbox System Identification Toolbox Fuzzy Logic Toolbox Robust Control Toolbox Model Predictive Control Toolbox Aerospace Toolbox Signal Processing and Communications Signal Processing Toolbox Communications Toolbox Filter Design Toolbox Filter Design HDL Coder Wavelet Toolbox Fixed-Point Toolbox RF Toolbox Image Processing Image Processing Toolbox Image Acquisition Toolbox Mapping Toolbox Test and Measurement Data Acquisition Toolbox Instrument Control Toolbox Image Acquisition Toolbox SystemTest OPC Toolbox Computational Biology Bioinformatics Toolbox Financial Modeling and Analysis Financial Toolbox Financial Derivatives Toolbox GARCH Toolbox Datafeed Toolbox Fixed-Income Toolbox Table 1: A list of Matlab Toolboxes

11 ver in Matlab s command prompt. Issuing the ver command will provide something like the following: >> ver MATLAB Version (R2006b) MATLAB License Number: Operating System: Linux EL3SMPMath-iptables #1 SMP Thu Jun 2 21:02:32 EDT 2005 i686 Java VM Version: Java with Sun Microsystems Inc. Java HotSpot(TM) Client VM mixed mode, sharing MATLAB Version 7.3 (R2006b) Simulink Version 6.5 (R2006b) Communications Blockset Version 3.4 (R2006b) Communications Toolbox Version 3.4 (R2006b) Control System Toolbox Version 7.1 (R2006b) Image Processing Toolbox Version 5.3 (R2006b) Instrument Control Toolbox Version (R2006b) MATLAB Compiler Version 4.5 (R2006b) Mapping Toolbox Version 2.4 (R2006b) Neural Network Toolbox Version (R2006b) Optimization Toolbox Version 3.1 (R2006b) Partial Differential Equation Toolbox Version (R2006b) Real-Time Workshop Version 6.5 (R2006b) Robust Control Toolbox Version (R2006b) Signal Processing Blockset Version 6.4 (R2006b) Signal Processing Toolbox Version 6.6 (R2006b) Simulink Control Design Version (R2006b) Spline Toolbox Version (R2006b) Statistics Toolbox Version 5.3 (R2006b) Symbolic Math Toolbox Version (R2006b) System Identification Toolbox Version 6.2 (R2006b) Wavelet Toolbox Version 3.1 (R2006b) Trademarks MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, Handle Graphics, Real-Time Workshop, and xpc TargetBox are registered trademarks of The MathWorks, Inc. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. Of course, the results may vary depending on the system on which the command ver is issued. 11

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